2C-B-FLY is a psychedelic phenethylamine of the 2C family. It was first synthesized in 1996 by Aaron P. Monte. 2C-B-FLY is 8-bromo-2,3,6,7-benzo-dihydro-difuran-ethylamine. The full name of the chemical is 2-ethanamine, it has been subject to little formal study, but its appearance as a designer drug has led the DEA to release analytical results for 2C-B-FLY and several related compounds. In theory, dihydrodifuran analogues of any of the 2Cx / DOx family of drugs could be made, would be expected to show similar activity to the parent compound. So in the same way that 2C-B-FLY is the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-B, the 8-iodo equivalent 2C-I-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-I, the 8-methyl equivalent 2C-D-FLY would be the dihydrodifuran analogue of 2C-D. Other related compounds can be produced, where the alpha carbon of the ethylamine chain is methylated, the amphetamine derivative DOB-FLY can be made, this compound being the dihydrodifuran analogue of DOB, or conversely can be viewed as the saturated derivative of Bromo-DragonFLY.
Where only one methoxy group of a 2Cx drug is cyclised into a dihydrofuran ring, the resulting compound is known as a "hemifly", when an unsaturated furan ring is used, the compound is known as a "hemi-dragonfly". The larger saturated hexahydrobenzodipyran ring derivatives have been referred to as "butterfly" compounds; the 8-bromo group can be replaced by other groups to give compounds such as TFMFly. A large number of symmetrical and unsymmetrical derivatives can be produced by using different combinations of ring systems; because the 2- and 5- positions are not equivalent, all unsymmetrical combinations have two possible positional isomers, with different potencies at the various 5-HT2 subtypes. Isomeric "Ψ"-derivatives with the oxygens positioned at the 2,6- positions, mescaline analogues with the oxygens at 3,5- have been made, but both are less potent than the corresponding 2,5- isomers; the symmetrical aromatic benzodifuran derivatives tend to have the highest binding affinity at 5-HT2A, but the saturated benzodifuran derivatives have higher efficacy, while the saturated benzodipyran derivatives are more selective for 5-HT2C.
A large number of possible combinations have been synthesised and tested for activity, but these represent only a fraction of the many variations that could be produced. Alexander Shulgin lists a dosage of 2C-B-FLY at 10 mg orally; the toxicity of 2C-B-FLY in humans is unknown. Two deaths occurred in October 2009, in Denmark and the United States, after ingestion of a substance, sold as 2C-B-FLY a small-time RC shop, but in fact consisted of Bromo-DragonFLY contaminated with a small amount of unidentified impurities; as of October 31, 2016. Http://gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2016/2016-05-04/html/sor-dors72-eng.php 2C-B-FLY is unscheduled and uncontrolled in the United States. However, it may fall under the scope of the Federal Analog Act if it is intended for human consumption given its similarity to 2C-B; the hallucinogenic effect of 2C-B-FLY is mediated by its partial agonistic activity at the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor, but has a high binding affinity for the 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptors.
2C-B-FLY Entry at Erowid 2C-B-FLY Entry at Isomerdesign
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, other substantial subjective changes in thoughts and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. A debate persists on criteria which would differentiate a substance which is'psychedelic' from one'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind"; the term'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, or "mind-revealing".'A hallucinogen' and'a psychedelic' may refer to the same substance.'Hallucinations' and'psychedelia' may both refer to the same aspects of subjective experience in a given instance.
The term psychedelia carries an added reference to psychedelic substance culture, and'psychedelics' are considered by many to be the'traditional' or'classical hallucinogens' including DMT, Psilocybin, LSD.'A hallucinogen' in this sense broadly refers to any substance which causes changes in perception or hallucinations, while psychedelics carry a positive connotation of general perceptual enhancement. In contrast to Hollister's original criteria, adverse effects may predominate with some hallucinogens with this application of the term; the word psychedelic was coined to express the idea of a drug that makes manifest a hidden but real aspect of the mind. It is applied to any drug with perception-altering effects such as LSD and other ergotamine derivatives, DMT and other tryptamines including the alkaloids of Psilocybe spp. mescaline and other phenethylamines. The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogen", The classical hallucinogens are considered to be the representative psychedelics and LSD is considered the prototypical psychedelic.
In order to refer to the LSD-like psychedelics, scientific authors have used the term "classical hallucinogen" in the sense defined by Glennon: "The classical hallucinogens are agents that meet Hollister's original definition, but are agents that: bind at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors, are recognized by animals trained to discriminate 1--2-aminopropane from vehicle. Otherwise, when the term "psychedelic" is used to refer only to the LSD-like psychedelics, authors explicitly point that they intend "psychedelic" to be understood according to this more restrictive interpretation. One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception. In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions and thoughts from reaching the conscious mind; this effect has been described as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding, for the drug "expands" the realm of experience available to conscious awareness.
While possessing a unique mechanism of action, cannabis or marijuana has been regarded alongside the classic psychedelics. A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance, designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug while at the same time avoid being classified as illegal and/or avoid detection in standard drug tests. Many designer drugs and research chemicals are hallucinogenic in nature, such as those in the 2C and 25-NB families. Dissociatives produce analgesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses, they produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment, hence "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient seems disassociated from his environment." Dissociative symptoms include the disruption or compartmentalization of "...the integrated functions of consciousness, identity or perception."p. 523 Dissociation of sensory input can cause derealization, the perception of the outside world as being dream-like or unreal.
Other dissociative experiences include depersonalization, which includes feeling detached from one's body. Simeon offered "...common descriptions of depersonalisation experiences: watching oneself from a distance. However, dissociation is remarkably administered by salvinorin A's potent κ-opioid receptor agonism, though sometimes described as an atypical psychedelic; some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (w
AL-LAD known as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, is a psychedelic drug and an analog of lysergic acid diethylamide. It is described by Alexander Shulgin in the book TiHKAL, it is synthesized using allyl bromide as a reactant. While AL-LAD has subtly different effects than LSD, appears to be shorter lasting, their potencies are similar. AL-LAD has a known but short and uncommon history of recreational human use, which originated in Ireland and the UK, but spread internationally. AL-LAD does not cause a color change with the Marquis, Mecke or Mandelin reagents, but does cause the Ehrlich's reagent to turn purple because of the presence of the indole moiety in its structure. AL-LAD is not scheduled by the United Nations' Convention on Psychotropic Substances. AL-LAD is illegal in Denmark. AL-LAD is illegal in Latvia. Although it isn't scheduled, it may be controlled as an LSD structural analog due to an amendment made on June 1, 2015. Romania AL-LAD is illegal in Romania, it is not included directly in the list of controlled substances, but it is included in an analogue act The Riksdag added AL-LAD to Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act under swedish schedule I as of January 26, 2016, published by Medical Products Agency in regulation HSLF-FS 2015:35 listed as 6-allyl-6-nor-LSD, AL-LAD, 6-allyl-N,N-dietyl-9,10-didehydroergolin-8-karboxamid.
AL-LAD is illegal in Switzerland. AL-LAD is illegal in the UK. On June 10, 2014 the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs recommended that AL-LAD be named in the UK Misuse of Drugs Act as a class A drug despite not identifying any harm associated with its use; the UK Home office accepted this advice and announced a ban of the substance to be enacted on 6 January 2015 as part of The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 Order 2014. AL-LAD is not scheduled as a controlled substance at the federal level in the United States, but AL-LAD could be considered an analog of LSD, in which case, sales or possession with intent for human consumption could be prosecuted under the Federal Analogue Act. 1P-LSD ETH-LAD PRO-LAD LSZ Watts, V. J.. E.. "LSD and structural analogs: Pharmacological evaluation at D1 dopamine receptors". Psychopharmacology. 118: 401–9. Doi:10.1007/BF02245940. PMID 7568626. Niwaguchi, T. "Studies on lysergic acid diethylamide and related compounds. IV. Syntheses of various amide derivatives of norlysergic acid and related compounds".
Yakugaku Zasshi. 96: 673–8. Doi:10.1248/yakushi1947.96.5_673. PMID 987200. Robert C. Pfaff, Xuemei Huang, Danuta Marona-Lewicka, Robert Oberlender and David E. Nichols: Lysergamides Revisited. In: NIDA Research Monograph 146: Hallucinogens: An Update. P. 52, 1994, United States Department of Health and Human Services. AL-LAD entry in TiHKAL AL-LAD entry in TiHKAL • info AL-LAD Thread at UKChemicalResearch.org
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, altered state of consciousness. Major psychedelic drugs include mescaline, LSD, DMT. Studies show that psychedelics do not lead to addiction. Studies conducted using psilocybin in a psychotheraputic setting reveal that psychedelic drugs may assist with treating alcohol and nicotine addiction. Differing with other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, psychedelics tend to qualitatively alter ordinary conscious experience. Whereas stimulants cause energized feelings and opioids produce a relaxed euphoric state, the psychedelic experience is compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, yoga, religious ecstasy and near-death experiences. Most psychedelic drugs fall into one of the three families of chemical compounds: tryptamines, phenethylamines, or lysergamides. Although lysergamides are their own group they are a tryptamine.
Many psychedelic drugs are illegal worldwide under the UN conventions excepting use in a religious or research context. Despite these controls, recreational use of psychedelics is common; the term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή and δηλείν, hence "soul-manifesting", the implication being that psychedelics can access the soul and develop unused potentials of the human mind. The word was coined in 1956 by British psychiatrist, Humphry Osmond, the spelling loathed by American ethnobotanist, Richard Schultes, but championed by the American psychologist, Timothy Leary. Aldous Huxley had suggested to Humphry Osmond in 1956 his own coinage phanerothyme; the term entheogenic has come into use to denote the use of psychedelic drugs in a religious/spiritual/mystical context. Psychedelics have a long history of traditional use in medicine and religion, for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are known as entheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti have reported success against alcoholism, Mazatec practitioners use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing.
Ayahuasca, which contains the potent psychedelic DMT, is used in Peru and other parts of South America for spiritual and physical healing as well as in religious festivals. Classical or serotonergic psychedelics include LSD, mescaline, DMT; this class of psychedelics includes the classical hallucinogens, including the lysergamides like LSD and LSA, tryptamines like psilocybin and DMT, phenethylamines like mescaline and 2C-B. Many of these psychedelics cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, many users report that the three families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. At lower doses, these include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, color variations. Users report intense colors that they have not experienced, repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions.
Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have tight "dose curves", meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be slight. There can be substantial differences between the drugs, however. For instance, 5-MeO-DMT produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics and ibogaine is an NMDA receptor antagonist and κ-opioid receptor agonist in addition to being an agonist for the 5-HT2A receptors, resulting in dissociative effects as well. Research published in journal Cell Reports states that psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies; the empathogen-entactogens are phenethylamines of the MDxx class such as MDMA, MDEA, MDA. Their effects are characterized by feelings of openness, empathy, heightened self-awareness, by mild audio and visual distortions, their adoption by the rave subculture is due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. MDA is atypical to this experience causing hallucinations and psychedelic effects in equal profundity to the chemicals in the 5-HT2A agonist category, but with less mental involvement, is both a serotonin releaser and 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
Certain dissociative drugs acting via NMDA antagonism are known to produce what some might consider psychedelic effects. The main differences between dissociative psychedelics and serotonergic hallucinogens are that the dissociatives cause more intense derealization and depersonalization. For example, ketamine produces sensations of being disconnected from one's body and that the surrounding environment is unreal, as well as perceptual alterations seen with other psychedelics. Salvia divinorum is a dissociative, sometimes classified as an atypical psychedelic; the active molecule in the plant, salvinorin A, is a kappa opioid receptor agonist, working on a part of the brain that de
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.
In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.
These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.
A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.
All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.
Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. Tonometry is the method eye. IOP is an important aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk of glaucoma. Most tonometers are calibrated to measure pressure in millimeters of mercury. Intraocular pressure is determined by the production and drainage of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and its drainage via the trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral outflow; the reason for this is because the vitreous humour in the posterior segment has a fixed volume and thus does not affect intraocular pressure regulation. An important quantitative relationship is provided below: Po=/C+PvWhere: Po is the IOP in millimeters of mercury F the rate of aqueous humour formation in microliters per minute U the resorption of aqueous humour through the uveoscleral route C is the facility of outflow in microliters per minute per millimeter of mercury Pv the episcleral venous pressure in millimeters of mercury; the above factors are those that drive IOP. Intraocular pressure is measured with a tonometer as part of a comprehensive eye examination.
Measured values of intraocular pressure are influenced by corneal rigidity. As a result, some forms of refractive surgery can cause traditional intraocular pressure measurements to appear normal when in fact the pressure may be abnormally high. A newer transpalpebral and transscleral tonometry method is not influenced by corneal biomechanics and does not need to be adjusted for corneal irregularities as measurement is done over upper eyelid and sclera. Current consensus among ophthalmologists and optometrists define normal intraocular pressure as that between 10 mmHg and 20 mmHg; the average value of intraocular pressure is 15.5 mmHg with fluctuations of about 2.75 mmHg. Ocular hypertension is defined by intraocular pressure being higher than normal, in the absence of optic nerve damage or visual field loss. Ocular hypotension, Hypotony, or ocular hypotony, is defined as intraocular pressure equal to or less than 5 mmHg; such low intraocular pressure could indicate fluid deflation of the eyeball.
Intraocular pressure varies throughout the day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3 and 6 mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. During the night, intraocular pressure may not decrease despite the slower production of aqueous humour. In the general population, IOP ranges between 21 mm Hg with a mean of about 15 or 16 mm Hg. In glaucoma patients, their 24-hour IOP profiles may be different from healthy individuals. There is some inconclusive research that indicates that exercise could affect IOP. Playing some musical wind instruments has been linked to increases in intraocular pressure. One 2011 study focused on brass and woodwind instruments observed "temporary and sometimes dramatic elevations and fluctuations in IOP". Another study found that the magnitude of increase in intraocular pressure correlates with the intraoral resistance associated with the instrument, linked intermittent elevation of intraocular pressure from playing high-resistance wind instruments to incidence of visual field loss.
The range of intraoral pressure involved in various classes of ethnic wind instruments, such as Native American flutes, has been shown to be lower than Western classical wind instruments. Intraocular pressure varies with a number of other factors such as heart rate, fluid intake, systemic medication and topical drugs. Alcohol and marijuana consumption leads to a transient decrease in intraocular pressure and caffeine may increase intraocular pressure. Taken orally, glycerol can cause a temporary decrease in intraocular pressure; this can be a useful initial emergency treatment of elevated pressure. The depolarising muscle relaxant succinylcholine, used in anaesthesia, transiently increases IOP by around 10mmHg for a few minutes; this is significant for example if the patient requires anaesthesia for a trauma and has sustained an eye perforation. The mechanism is not clear but it is thought to involve contraction of tonic myofibrils and transient dilation of choroidal blood vessels. Ketamine increases IOP.
Ocular hypertension is the most important risk factor for glaucoma. Intraocular pressure has been measured as a secondary outcome in a systematic review comparing the effect of neuroprotective agents in slowing the progression of open angle glaucoma. Differences in pressure between the two eyes are clinically significant, associated with certain types of glaucoma, as well as iritis or retinal detachment. Intraocular pressure may become elevated due to anatomical problems, inflammation of the eye, genetic factors, or as a side-effect from medication. Intraocular pressure laws follow fundamentally from physics. Any kinds of intraocular surgery should be done by considering the intraocular pressure fluctuation. Sudden increase of intraocular pressure can lead to intraocular micro barotrauma and cause ischemic effects and mechanical stress to retinal nerve fiber layer. Sudden intraocular pressure drop can lead to intraocular decompression that generates micro bubbles that cause multiple micro emboli and leading to hypoxia and retinal micro structure damage.
Www.allaboutvision.com What To Expect During a Comprehensive Eye Exam www.emedicinehealth.com Ocular Hypertension www.tonometerdiaton.com Transpalpebral Transscleral Tonometry