The Alco S-5 was a diesel-electric locomotive of the switcher type rated at 800 horsepower, that rode on two-axle trucks, having a B-B wheel arrangement. This was Alco's second attempt to build a replacement 251-engined switcher to replace the 539-engined S-3 and S-4. Only seven were sold; the demonstrator unit was ALCO specification DL421 and the six production units were ALCO specification DL421A. Alco fitted the 251A engine in the S-6 with power output raised by 100 horsepower. List of ALCO diesel locomotives List of MLW diesel locomotives Media related to ALCO S-5 locomotives at Wikimedia Commons Sarberenyi, Robert. Alco S5, S6, SSB9 Original Owners
A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices; the key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with a turbocharger. Turbochargers are used on truck, train and construction equipment engines, they are most used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885; the turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer, engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. The first use of turbocharging technology based on his design was for large marine engines, when the German Ministry of Transport commissioned the construction of the "Preussen" and "Hansestadt Danzig" passenger liners in 1923. Both ships featured twin ten-cylinder diesel engines with output boosted from 1750 to 2500 horsepower by turbochargers designed by Büchi and built under his supervision by Brown Boveri.
During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine; the engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were used in aviation, most used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers—which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use—include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt.
The technology was used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of experimental inline engine-powered Focke-Wulf Fw 190 prototype models, with some developments for their design coming from the DVL, a predecessor of today's DLR agency, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine, that were not available for production purposes during wartime, kept them out of widespread use. Turbochargers are used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power and higher torque. In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower, yet the benefits outweigh the costs. This is. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature. Roots superchargers impart more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers producing 15% to 30% more power based on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses; this is more ef
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
A road switcher is a type of railroad locomotive designed to both haul railcars in mainline service and shunt them in railroad yards. Both type and term are North American in origin. A road switcher must be able to operate and have good visibility in both directions; as a road engine, a road switcher must be able to operate at road speeds, with suitable power and cooling capacity. It has high-speed road trucks rather than low-speed switcher only trucks. Modern road trucks are always equipped with "frictionless" roller bearings, whereas switcher trucks were always equipped with "friction" plain bearings, until plain bearings were outlawed in interchange service on both railcars and locomotives. For the reasons given above, road switchers are hood units; the set-back cab of a hood unit provides more safety in the event of a collision at speed than most switcher designs, the rear visibility is much better than that of a cab unit. Due to their ability to both run at road speeds for long distances and to switch cars, road switchers, as their name implies, are used for road duties, in addition to their yard duties.
Since the 1960s, road switchers have displaced cab units in heavy-haul freight service. Some road switchers were provided with twin control stands, so that the units could operate conventionally in either "long hood forward" or "short hood forward" directions. However, twin control engineer positions have fallen into disuse as all operations are now run "short hood forward". For obvious reasons, the short hood is labeled "F". Alco's RS-1 was the first successful example of the type, all modern hood units are laid out in a similar fashion; the RS-1, being the first example of a road switcher, having been developed when plain bearings were still common were equipped with plain bearings. Subsequently, roller bearing conversions were implemented, new units were ordered with roller bearings; the RS-1 had a long manufacturing history, so most 1940s units might be ordered with plain bearings, but most 1960s units might be ordered with roller bearings. Fairbanks Morse entered the road switcher field in 1947 with the H-20-44.
EMD was the last to enter the field and failed to capture much of the market with their first road switcher the BL2. The RS-3 was the best known of the Alco RS road switchers and was produced in more numbers than the RS-1 and RS-2 designs combined. Although Alco produced the first known road switcher, EMD's GP7 was the most successful model from this early period road switchers. Few or no EMD GPs and no EMD SDs were ordered with plain bearings, any plain bearing-equipped GPs were updated to incorporate roller bearings. Although it is always controversial to generalize about "generations" of road switchers, these ubiquitous workhorses may be divided into: Generation 1, 1,999 hp or lower, net for traction. Although at one point 6,000 hp, net for traction, units were made, these fell into disuse, most have been scrapped by North American railroads; the most common new units made today are 4,300 hp to net for traction. Within the Americas, road switchers are always diesel-electric, with the "transmission" system being either direct current or alternating current.
For economic and performance reasons, 2,500 horsepower and lower units had a dc generator, producing 600 volts dc, whereas 3,000 horsepower and higher units had an ac alternator with integral rectifier, producing 1,200 volts dc, nominal. Units with ac final drive accepted the 1,200 volts dc from the alternator/rectifier and inverted this to 1,200 volts three-phase variable frequency ac; the term "road switcher" is not used in the UK. The nearest equivalent is the type 1 locomotive. None of these designs match the Road Switcher; the British Rail Class 14 and British Rail Class 17 have the low engine covers, but the cab is located centrally. Two other designs had the cab near one end like the road switcher, i.e. British Rail Class 15 and British Rail Class 16; however the engine covers reach the cab roof level. The most successful type 1 locomotive is the British Rail Class 20, which still has some members in service. In this case, the cab is at one end with high engine covers; the term "road switcher" is not used in Germany either, but there are some types of heavy shunters suited for those tasks and used for them, like the DB Class V 90 and the Voith Gravita.
Belgian state railways NMBS/SNCB operate 170 German built engines in their class 77, both for shunting and for mainline haulage. PKP class SM42 is a Polish 74-ton diesel locomotive used for shunting, light main railroad cargo haulage, passenger service. 1822 units were built, used by Polish carriers but some were exported abroad. The
The ALCO 300 was an early diesel-electric switcher locomotive built by the American Locomotive Company of Schenectady, New York between 1931 and 1938. Following purchase of the engine manufacturer McIntosh & Seymour in 1929, ALCO built a 300 horsepower box cab locomotive; this was the #300, an ALCO demonstrator. The engine used was the Model 330 and GE electrical transmission was used. Another demonstrator #300 was built as an end cab switcher in July 1931 using General Electric electrical equipment; this unit was sold to the Lehigh Valley Railroad as its #102. A subsequent 300 horsepower end cab switcher was sold to the Lehigh Valley as its #103 in December 1931. A McIntosh and Seymour Box cab Lehigh Valley #125 was rebuilt with an ALCO 330 engine in 1931 and renumbered Lehigh Valley #101. Three more end cab 300 horsepower switchers were built in 1932 for stock demonstrators, but they were not sold until 1935. An additional two 300 horsepower end cab switchers were built in 1935. All these stock units and the two new end cab switchers were sold to the US Navy in 1935.
The final two 300 horsepower end cab switchers were built in 1938 for the United Fruit Company's narrow gauge railroad in Panama. List of ALCO diesel locomotives List of MLW diesel locomotives Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Kalmbach Publishing Co. Milwaukee, WI. ISBN 0-89024-026-4. Steinbrenner, Richard The American Locomotive Company A Centennial Remembrance. Chapter VI subchapter "ALCO's First Production Diesels". Media related to ALCO 300 locomotives at Wikimedia Commons
The Utah Railway is a class III railroad operating in Utah and Colorado, owned by Genesee & Wyoming Inc. The Utah Railway Company was incorporated on January 24, 1912, with the name of Utah Coal Railway, shortened to Utah Railway in May of the same year, it was founded to haul coal from the company's mines to Provo, Utah, in reaction to company disappointment in the service and route of the existing Denver and Rio Grande Railroad nearby. It was known for owning the most modern equipment. In addition, the Utah Railway was the first to equip its air brakes with fourteen-pound tension springs instead of the standard seven-pound springs; the company was one of the earliest coal hauling railroads to employ diesel locomotives, was early to adopt automation technologies, including the use of flashing rear end devices instead of cabooses. The Utah Railway's freight car roster consisted of fifteen flatcars and about 2,000 drop-bottom gondolas jointly owned with the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad, painted with "Utah Coal Route" lettering and UCR reporting marks.
These gondolas were known to the railroad's employees as "Battleships". Parent company Mueller Industries, a manufacturer of copper products, sold the Utah Railway in 2002 to Genesee & Wyoming Inc. a railroad holding company. Today's Utah Railway operates over 423 miles of track between Grand Junction and Provo, Utah, of which 45 miles are owned, the remainder operated under agreements with BNSF Railway and Union Pacific; as of January, 2017, the company no longer hauls coal. The Utah Railway owns a subsidiary railroad, the Salt Lake City Southern Railroad, serving over 30 customers on over 25 miles of track between Salt Lake City and Draper, Utah. In addition, switching services are provided in elsewhere; the earliest logo was the words "Utah Railway Company", spelled out on the locomotives and cabooses, "Utah Coal Route" on the drop-bottom gondolas. On paper, the logo for many years was a black circle with a white background; the wording and image in these circular logos changed over the years.
The 1948 logo included the words "Utah Railway" surrounding a gondola with the initials "U. C. R.". The 1999 logo was an oval with an image of an SD diesel locomotive and the words "Utah Railway: Since 1912". In years the symbol of the Utah Railway Company was the beehive, the Utah state symbol. GWI alters the corporate logos of its acquisitions to match the parent company's logo, but in a nod to tradition, the beehive was retained within a logo similar to the parent company's design. Genesee & Wyoming corporate website Trainweb's Utah Railway UtahRails.net Utah Railway page
Chicago and North Western Transportation Company
The Chicago and North Western Transportation Company was a Class I railroad in the Midwestern United States. It was known as the North Western; the railroad operated more than 5,000 miles of track as of the turn of the 20th century, over 12,000 miles of track in seven states before retrenchment in the late 1970s. Until 1972, when the employees purchased the company, it was named the Chicago and North Western Railway; the C&NW became one of the longest railroads in the United States as a result of mergers with other railroads, such as the Chicago Great Western Railway, Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway and others. By 1995, track sales and abandonment had reduced the total mileage to about 5,000; the majority of the abandoned and sold lines were trafficked branches in Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Large line sales, such as those that resulted in the Dakota and Eastern Railroad, further helped reduce the railroad to a mainline core with several regional feeders and branches. Union Pacific integrated it with its own operation.
The Chicago and North Western Railway was chartered on June 7, 1859, five days after it purchased the assets of the bankrupt Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad. On February 15, 1865, it merged with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, chartered on January 16, 1836. Since the Galena & Chicago Union started operating in December 1848, the Fond du Lac railroad started in March 1855, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad is considered to be the origin of the North Western railroad system; the Winona and St. Peter Railroad was added to the network in 1867. After nine years in bankruptcy, the C. & N. W. was reorganized in 1944. It had turned to diesel power, established a huge diesel shop in Chicago, its Proviso Freight Yard, 12 miles west of the city center in suburban Cook County was constructed between 1926 and 1929 and remained the largest such in the world, with 224 miles of trackage and a capacity of more than 20,000 cars. Potatoes from the west were a main crop loading of the C. & N. W. and its potato sheds in Chicago were the nation's largest.
It carried western sugar beets and huge amounts of corn and wheat. This road, like other lines depending on crop movements, was adversely affected by government agricultural credit policies which sealed a lot of products on the farms where they were produced. Although it stood sixteenth in operating revenue in 1938, it was eighth in passenger revenue among American railroads, it served Chicago commuters. The North Western had owned a majority of the stock of the Chicago, St. Paul and Omaha Railway since 1882. On January 1, 1957, it leased the company, merged it into the North Western in 1972; the Omaha Road's main line extended from an interchange with the North Western at Elroy, Wisconsin, to the Twin Cities, south to Sioux City and finally to Omaha, Nebraska. The North Western acquired several important short railroads during its years, it finalized acquisition of the Litchfield and Madison Railway on January 1, 1958. The Litchfield and Madison railroad was a 44-mile bridge road from East St. Louis to Litchfield, Illinois.
On July 30, 1968, the North Western acquired two former interurbans — the 36-mile Des Moines and Central Iowa Railway, the 110-mile Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Southern Railway. The DM&CI gave access to the Firestone plant in Des Moines and the FDDM&S provided access to gypsum mills in Fort Dodge, Iowa. On November 1, 1960, the North Western acquired the rail properties of the 1,500-mile Minneapolis and St. Louis Railway. In spite of its name, it ran only from Minnesota, to Peoria, Illinois; this acquisition provided traffic and modern rolling stock, eliminated competition. On July 1, 1968, the 1,500 mi Chicago Great Western Railway merged with the North Western; this railroad extended between Oelwein, Iowa. From there lines went to the Twin Cities, Omaha and Kansas City, Missouri. A connection from Hayfield, Minnesota, to Clarion, provided a Twin Cities to Omaha main line; the Chicago Great Western duplicated the North Western's routes from Chicago to the Twin Cities and Omaha, but went the long way.
This merger further eliminated competition. After abandoning a plan to merge with the Milwaukee Road in 1970, Benjamin W. Heineman, who headed the CNW and parent Northwest Industries since 1956, arranged the sale of the railroad to its employees in 1972; the words "Employee Owned" were part of the company logo in the ensuing period. The railroad was renamed from Chicago and North Western Railway to Chicago and North Western Transportation Company; the railroad's reporting marks remained the same. After the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad ceased operating on March 31, 1980, the North Western won a bidding war with the Soo Line Railroad to purchase the 600-mile "Spine Line" between the Twin Cities and Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa; the Interstate Commerce Commission approved North Western's bid of $93 million on June 20, 1983. The line was well-engineered, but because of deferred maintenance on the part of the bankrupt Rock Island, it required a major rehabilitation in 1984; the company began to abandon the Oelwein to Kansas City section of its former Chicago