Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Alfa Romeo RL
The Alfa Romeo RL was produced between 1922-1927. It was Alfa's first sport model after World War I; the car was designed in 1921 by Giuseppe Merosi. It had a straight-6 engine with overhead valves. Three different versions were made: Normale and Sport. RL total production was 2640; the RLTF was the race version of RL - it weighed half of normal versions, the engine had seven main bearings instead of four and double carburetors. In 1923 Alfa's race team had drivers like Ugo Sivocci, Antonio Ascari, Giulio Masetti and Enzo Ferrari. Sivocci's car had green cloverleaf symbol on white background and when he won Targa Florio 1923, that symbol was to become the Alfa team's good luck token. In 1927, 2 different RLSS were entered in the first Mille Miglia, but both dropped out after leading the race. A 1925 RLSS version with rare, original bodywork by Thornton Engineering Company in Bradford, UK, is on permanent display in the Brooklands exhibit at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA.
It is one of only 9 RLSS still in existence
ALFA 40/60 HP
The ALFA 40/60 HP is a road car and race car made by Italian car manufacturer ALFA. This model was made between 1913 and 1922 and was designed by Giuseppe Merosi, as were all other Alfas at that time; the 40/60 HP has a 6082 cc straight-4 engine with overhead valves, which produced 70 bhp and its top speed was 125 km/h. The race model 40-60 HP Corsa had 73 bhp and a top speed of 137 km/h, it won its own category in the Parma-Berceto race. In 1914 the milanese count Marco Ricotti commissioned to Carrozzeria Castagna the ALFA 40/60 HP Aerodinamica, a prototype model which could reach 139 km/h top speed. A replica of that car was created in the 1970s, now it is shown in the Alfa Romeo Historical Museum.40/60 HP production and development was interrupted by the First World War, but resumed afterwards. 40-60 HP Corsa had now a top speed of around 150 km/h. Giuseppe Campari won the 1921 races at Mugello with this car; the 40-60 HP was based on a ladder chassis of C-shaped stamped steel rails. Its engine was a 6,082 cc or 371 cu in overhead valve inline-four cylinder, fed by a single vertical carburettor.
The en bloc cylinder block and cylinder head were split in two groups of two cylinders, made of cast iron. The two in-block camshafts were driven by a gear train located at the front of the engine; the driveline comprised a dry multi-plate clutch, a four-speed gearbox and a one-piece propeller shaft, spinning inside a tube attached to the rear differential housing. At its open end, towards the gearbox, this tube forked out into two ends which, linked to the chassis, located the rear axle; the gearbox was positioned towards the middle of the chassis underneath the driver, rather than in block with the engine—to which it was connected by a short prop shaft. Front and rear solid axles were sprung on longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs. Brakes were drums on the rear wheels, with both hand controls; the wheels were 5.5 x19". The tipo corsa sat on a shortened wheelbase of 2,950 mm, instead of the road car's 3,200 mm. Kerb weight was 1,100 kg versus 1,250 kg; the racing-prepared engine had a 5.50:1 compression ratio.
It produced 73 bhp at 2,000 rpm. Top speed was 150 km/h; the final drive ratio was 18/49 instead of the standard 17/49. The Sankey steel wheels were replaced by 6.0x20" knock-off wire wheels. Fuel tank capacity was expanded from the standard 70 l to 120 l. ALFA 40-60 HP Castagna Siluro Aerodinamica 1914 on autoconcept-reviews.com
Darracq and Company London
A Darracq and Company Limited owned a French manufacturer of motor vehicles and aero engines in Suresnes, near Paris. The French enterprise, known at first as A. Darracq et Cie, was founded in 1896 by Alexandre Darracq after he sold his Gladiator Bicycle business. In 1902, it took effect in 1903, he sold his new business to a held English company named A Darracq and Company Limited, taking a substantial shareholding and a directorship himself. Alexandre Darracq continued to run the business from Paris but was obliged to retire to the Côte d'Azur in 1913 following years of difficulties that brought Darracq & Co into hazardous financial circumstances, he had introduced an unproven unorthodox engine in 1911 which proved a complete failure yet he neglected Suresnes' popular conventional products. France entered the first World War, he died in 1931 but long before that, in 1920, the name of A Darracq & Co 1905 was changed to S T D Motors Limited. In 1922 Darracq's name was dropped from all products, the Suresnes business was renamed Automobiles Talbot and the Suresnes products were branded just Talbot.
His Suresnes business was to continue, still under British control, under the name Talbot until 1935 when it was acquired by investors led by the Suresnes factory's managing director, Antonio Lago. S T D Motors Limited known until 1920 as A Darracq and Company Limited became insolvent and was liquidated during 1935 and 1936. Alexandre Darracq, using part of the substantial profit he had made from selling his Gladiator bicycle factory to Adolpe Clément, set up a plant in 1897 in the Paris suburb of Suresnes; the company to own the business was formed in 1897 and named A Darracq et Cie. Production began with a Millet motorcycle powered by a five-cylinder rotary engine, it was supplemented shortly after by an electric brougham. In 1898 Darracq et Cie made a Léon Bollée-designed voiturette tricar; the voiturette proved a débâcle: the steering was problematic, the five-speed belt drive "a masterpiece of bad design", the hot tube ignition crude, proving the £10,000 Darracq et Cie had paid for the design a mistake.
Darracq et Cie produced its first vehicle with an internal combustion engine in 1900. Designed by Ribeyrolles this was a 6.5 hp voiture legére powered by a single-cylinder engine of 785 cc and it featured shaft drive and three speed column gear change. While not as successful as hoped, one hundred were sold. In 1902 Darracq & Co signed a contract with Adam Opel to jointly produce, under licence, vehicles in the German Empire with the brand name "Opel Darracq". Opel soon moved on to building their own vehicles. A Darracq et Cie was sold as of 30 September 1902 to an English company, A Darracq and Company Limited; the attraction for the British venture capitalists was that French automobile technology and industry experience led the world. It was incorporated in England because French law made the necessary flotation processes more difficult than English law; the perception from across the Atlantic in USA was that French industry was "offloading" on British investors. The English financial group was headed by W B Avery of W & T Avery Limited, a Birmingham scales manufacturer, J S Smith-Winby a London lawyer and a retired army officer, Colonel A Rawlinson.
They bought A Darracq et Cie and sold it again to other investors for five times their purchase price. Darracq received less than 50 percent of the shares in the new company. There was no public offering, eight other investors took up the rest of the shares. Further capital was raised and large sums were spent on factory expansion; the Suresnes site was expanded to some four acres in extent, in England extensive premises were bought. The Darracq & Co automobile company prospered, such that, by 1903, four models were offered: a 1.1-litre single, a 1.3 l and 1.9 l twin, a 3.8 l four. The 1904 models abandoned flitch-plated wood chassis for pressed steel, the new Flying Fifteen, powered by a 3-litre four, had its chassis made from a single sheet of steel; this car was Alexandre Darracq's chef d'oeuvre. There was nothing outstanding in its design but "every part was in such perfect balance and harmony" it became an outstanding model, its exceptional quality helped the company capture a ten percent share of the French auto market.
In late 1904 the chairman reported sales were up by 20 per cent though increased costs meant the profit had risen more slowly. But what was more important was they had many more orders than they could fill and the only solution was to enlarge the factory by as much as 50 per cent. 75 per cent of 1904 output was exported. At the following Annual meeting, twelve months the chairman was able to tell shareholders all the six speed records of the automobile world were held by Darracq cars and they had all been held more than twelve months and yet another had been added by K Lee Guinness, he reported that during 1905 a large property had been bought in Lambeth for examining adjusting and stocking new cars ready for the peak sales period. An announcement followed two days of a scheme of reconstitution of the company to raise more capital for further expansion; the reconstituted company was named Company Limited. Paris resident Alexander Darracq remained managing director, Rawlinson was appointed managing director of the London branch.
The "reconstitution" was to circumvent some holders of the company's shares who were unwilling to share the prosperity and blocked proposed new issues. So the company was sold, they were obliged to buy new shares like anyone else. J S Smith-Winby continued as chairman. After this "reconstitution" over 80 per cent of the shares were held in England. Meanwhile th
Alfa Romeo 4C
The Alfa Romeo 4C is a mid-engined, rear-wheel drive sports car. Available in coupé and spider body style, it uses a carbon fiber tub and rear crash box, hybrid rear subframe out of aluminum to keep weight at 895 kg and 1,050 kg in the United States; the 4C is Alfa Romeo's first mass-produced vehicle of the 21st century to re-enter the North American automotive market. Alfa Romeo 4C Concept is a two-seater, rear-wheel drive coupé with technology and materials derived from the Alfa Romeo 8C Competizione, with 1750 turbo petrol engine with direct injection, the "Alfa TCT" twin dry clutch transmission, the Alfa DNA dynamic control selector; the 4C concept version unveiled in the 81st Geneva Motor Show in March 2011, followed by Mille Miglia 2011 parade, Goodwood Festival of Speed 2011, 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show. It was displayed for the first time outside in Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este in 2012. Compared to the production version, it is similar, with the biggest differences being front lights, side vents and mirrors.
The Alfa Romeo 4C Concept was voted the'Most Beautiful Concept Car of the Year' award by the readers of German magazine Auto Bild, won the Auto Bild Design Award 2011. It was awarded the "Design Award for Concept Cars & Prototypes" by referendum of the public in Villa d'Este; the production car was unveiled at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show, followed by 2013 Essen'Techno Classica', Goodwood Festival of Speed 2013, Moscow Raceway, 2013 Frankfurt Motor Show. The bare'4C000' chassis was shown at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show. Ordering of European models began in October 2013 at Alfa Romeo dealerships in Europe; as part of Alfa Romeo 4C launch, Alfa Romeo Style Centre and Compagnia Ducale designed a 4C IFD Bicycle, inspired by the Alfa Romeo 4C coupé. The vehicle went on sale in December 2013 and marketed in Europe and America. Production of 4C began May 2013 at Maserati's plant in Modena, with an expected production of up to 2500 units per year, it will be the first mass-produced Alfa Romeo car for re-entry into the US market.
Production of Alfa Romeo 4C was estimated to be over 1000 units per year, with an upper limit of 3500 units per year, depending on the quantity of carbon fiber chassis that can be built by the supplier Adler Plastic. Within the 3,500-unit quota, 1,000 units of which are earmarked for Europe. Delivery of European Alfa Romeo 4C Launch Edition took place at Balocco Test Centre, with vehicles delivered to Pierluigi De Silvestro, Philippe Walch, Carlos Diniz, Aldo Mariani and Stefano Zanotti; the car was developed by Alfa Romeo. The chassis is composed with aluminium subframes front and rear; the carbon fiber tub is produced by TTA in Airola, as a joint venture between Adler Plastic and Lavorazione Materiali Compositi. The carbon fiber components that make up the chassis are cut using CNC technology; the entire carbon-fiber monocoque chassis of the car weighs a mere 143 lb. Front and rear aluminum subrames combine with the tub, roof reinforcements and engine mounting to comprise the 4C chassis giving the vehicle a total chassis weight of 236 lb and a total vehicle curb weight of just 2,465 lb.
The 4C has a single carbon fiber body, similar to the body of many supercars. The outer body is made of a composite material, 20% lighter than steel; the stability is better than aluminium. The 4C employs double wishbone suspensions at MacPherson struts at the rear; the resultant weight distribution is 62 % on the rear axle. Wheels and tyres have different diameters and widths front and rear: 205/45 R17 front and 235/40 R18 back as standard, with optional 205/40 R18 and 235/35 R19. Both wheel options come equipped with Pirelli P Zero tires; the 4C uses vented disc brakes on all wheels. The car can stop from 100 km/h in 36 meters. To save weight and increase steering feel, the 4C has no power steering, its center of gravity height at just 40 centimetres off the ground is 7 centimetres lower than the Lotus Elise. The 4C uses a new all-aluminium 1.75 L inline 4 cylinder turbocharged engine producing 240 horsepower at 6000 rpm. The engine has been designed for minimum weight; the engine's combined fuel consumption 6.8 L/100 km.
0–62 miles per hour acceleration is achieved in 4.5 seconds and the top speed is 258 km/h, the power-to-weight-ratio being just 0.267 hp/kg. A journalist from Quattroruote car magazine demonstrated how the 4C accelerates from 0–100 kilometres per hour faster than 4.5 seconds. In race mode, with left foot on the brake pedal, if you pull the right shift paddle the engine will rev to 3500 rpm, but if you pull the left paddle the engine will rev to 6000 rpm and 0–100 kilometres per hour time will go down to 4.2 seconds. Italian car magazine Quattroruote published the lap time of 4C around Nurburgring, it lapped the ring in 8:04. The 4C is equipped with a six speed Alfa TCT Dual Dry Clutch Transmission, can be operated via gearshift paddles on the steering wheel, it has an Alfa'DNA' dynamic control selector which controls the behavior of engine, throttle response and gearbox. In addition to the modes seen in Giulietta, the 4C has a new "Race" mode; the 4C Launch Edition was a limited and numbered edition, unveiled at the vehicle's launch at the 2013 Geneva Motor Show.
Humber Limited was a British manufacturer of bicycles and motor vehicles incorporated and listed on the stock exchange in 1887. It took the name Humber & Co Limited because of the high reputation of the products of one of the constituent businesses that had belonged to Thomas Humber. A financial reconstruction in 1899 transferred its business to Humber Limited. From an interest in motor vehicles beginning in 1896, the motor division became much more important than the cycle division and the cycle trade marks were sold to Raleigh in 1932; the motorcycles were withdrawn from sale during the depression of the 1930s. Humber is now a dormant marque for automobiles as well as cycles. Following their involvement in Humber through Hillman in 1928 the Rootes brothers acquired 60 per cent of Humber's ordinary capital, sufficient for a controlling interest; the two Rootes brothers joined the Humber board in 1932 and began to make Humber the holding company for vehicle manufacturing members of what became their Rootes Group.
By 1960 annual production was around 200,000 vehicles. Previous insistence on Rootes family control, may have led to under-capitalisation of the business. Building a brand new car, the Hillman Imp, proved beyond Humber and Rootes Group resources and their businesses were bought by the Chrysler Corporation in 1967. Private investors from incorporation and first listing in 1887 Amalgamation with Hillman 1928, Hillman newly controlled by Rootes brothers Rootes Securities acquires 60 per cent of Humber, Hillman is made a Humber subsidiary 1932 Chrysler Corporation acquires control of Rootes Motors 1967Wholly owned operating subsidiariesCommercial Cars 1925 Hillman Thrupp & Maberly 1926 — ex Rootes Securities 1932 Clément-Talbot 1935 renamed Sunbeam-Talbot Sunbeam Motor Car Company 1935 trolleybuses only Karrier Motors 1934 British Light Steel Pressings 1937 Tilling-Stevens 1950 Singer Motors 1956 Cycle industry The cycle industry was consolidating in the late1880s and partners Thomas Humber and fledgling company promoter T Harrison Lambert sold their Humber Cycles business to investors who added a number of other substantial cycle manufacturers and floated the new combine on the stock exchange.
Such was the public's recognition of Humber products and their high quality and reliability the whole new organisation was named Humber & Co Limited though Humber's was not the largest component. Thomas Humber agreed to manage the whole enterprise with its works in Coventry and Wolverhampton as well as Beeston, he retired in 1892 at the end of his 5-year contract. Humber expanded into Europe and in 1896 their subsidiary, joined with La Société des Vélocipedes Clément and La Société des Cycles Gladiator obtaining stock exchange listings in order to form "one of the largest Cycle monopolies in Europe" and with the intention of improving the position of Humber; the directors expressed the greatest interest in the new industry of motor carriages and cycles for which extensive works were to be erected by the monopoly at Levallois Perret. At the time of the flotation prospective investors were told that agencies were established in all principal towns in France, the cities: St Petersburg, Milan, Brussels, Amsterdam, Buenos Ayres, Constantinople, Sfax, Alexandria, Hong Kong, Port Said and throughout the whole of South America.
The chairman of the new monopoly was chairman of Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co and another director was the manager of Dunlop. Negotiations between the parties were completed by Ernest Terah Hooley; the ambitious new monopoly was not successful, disputes between the partners dragged through the English courts until the turn of the century. A severe economic recession in 1899 brought about a financial reconstruction and the incorporation of a new company, Humber Limited, to continue the existing business. First series production carsIn 1896 Humber built a prototype and nine production motorcars in their new Coventry premises. In November 1896 a car was exhibited at the Stanley Cycle Show in London, they are claimed to be the first series production cars made in England. At Humber & Company's next general meeting in 1897 the managing director said they had received many letters asking if they would produce a motorised vehicle, that they had in fact been working on this project for 2 years, but had delayed production until they found a suitably reliable engine.
Having now found an engine they were gearing up for production. The first Humber car was produced in 1898 was a three-wheeled tricar, their first conventional four-wheeled car appeared in 1901. Cars went into production in Beeston near Nottingham as well as Stoke, Coventry but to separate designs. Just as with bicycles Beeston Humber products retained their high quality image; the Beeston works closed in 1908 on the opening of the new works at Stoke. Humber's profit went from £16,500 in 1905 to £106,500 the next year and £154,400 in 1907. On 12 March 1908 the new works was opened at Stoke just outside the city of Coventry. New buildings allowed for the employment of 5,000 hands; the new works was designed to be capable of producing 1,500 cycles per week. Another financial reconstruction was made in 1909. In 1911 they took over the Centaur Cycle Company. By this time a wide range of cars was produced from the 600 cc Humberette to several six-cylinder 6-litre models. In 1913 Humber was second only to Wolseley as the largest manufacturer of cars in the United Kingdom.
Revived by the war Humber produced motorcycles and bicycles for the War Office as well as cars. There were postwar slumps in the earl