ALGOL 68 is an imperative computer programming language, conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics. The contributions of ALGOL 68 to the field of computer science have been deep, wide ranging and enduring, although many of these contributions were only publicly identified when they had reappeared in subsequently developed programming languages. ALGOL 68 features include expression-based syntax, user-declared types and structures/tagged-unions, a reference model of variables and reference parameters, string and matrix slicing, concurrency. ALGOL 68 was designed by the IFIP Working Group 2.1. On December 20, 1968, the language was formally adopted by Working Group 2.1 and subsequently approved for publication by the General Assembly of IFIP. ALGOL 68 was defined using a two-level grammar formalism invented by Adriaan van Wijngaarden. Van Wijngaarden grammars use a context-free grammar to generate an infinite set of productions that will recognize a particular ALGOL 68 program.
ALGOL 68 has been criticized, most prominently by some members of its design committee such as C. A. R. Hoare and Edsger Dijkstra, for abandoning the simplicity of ALGOL 60, becoming a vehicle for complex or overly general ideas, doing little to make the compiler writer's task easier, in contrast to deliberately simple contemporaries such as C, S-algol and Pascal. In 1970, ALGOL 68-R became the first working compiler for ALGOL 68. In the 1973 revision, certain features – such as proceduring and formal bounds – were omitted. C.f. The language of the unrevised report.r0 Though European defence agencies promoted the use of ALGOL 68 for its expected security advantages, the American side of the NATO alliance decided to develop a different project, the Ada programming language, making its use obligatory for US defense contracts. Algol 68 had a notable influence within the Soviet Union, details of which can be found in Andrey Ershov's 2014 paper: "ALGOL 68 and Its Impact on the USSR and Russian Programming" and "Алгол 68 и его влияние на программирование в СССР и России" - pages: 336 & 342.
Steve Bourne, on the Algol 68 revision committee, took some of its ideas to his Bourne shell and to C. The complete history of the project can be found in C. H. Lindsey's A History of ALGOL 68. For a full-length treatment of the language, see Programming Algol 68 Made Easy by Dr. Sian Mountbatten, or Learning Algol 68 Genie by Dr. Marcel van der Veer which includes the Revised Report. "A Shorter History of Algol 68" ALGOL 68 - 3rd generation ALGOL Mar. 1968: Draft Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 68 - Edited by: A. van Wijngaarden, B. J. Mailloux, J. E. L. Peck and C. H. A. Koster. Oct. 1968: Penultimate Draft Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 68 – Chapters 1-9 Chapters 10-12 – Edited by: A. van Wijngaarden, B. J. Mailloux, J. E. L. Peck and C. H. A. Koster. Dec. 1968: Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL 68 – Offprint from Numerische Mathematik, 14, 79-218. – Edited by: A. van Wijngaarden, B. J. Mailloux, J. E. L. Peck and C. H. A. Koster. WG 2.1 members active in the original design of ALGOL 68: Friedrich L. Bauer • Hans Bekic • Edsger Dijkstra※ • Fraser Duncan※ • Jan Garwick※ • Gerhard Goos • Tony Hoare※ • Peter Zilahy Ingerman • Kees Koster • Peter Landin • Charles Lindsey • Barry Mailloux • John McCarthy • Jack Merner • Peter Naur‡ • Manfred Paul • John Peck • Willem van der Poel • Brian Randell※ • Doug Ross • Klaus Samelson • Gerhard Seegmüller※ • Michel Sintzoff • Wlad Turski※ • Aad van Wijngaarden • Niklaus Wirth‡ • Mike Woodger※ • Nobuo Yoneda.
‡Resigned after. Sep. 1973: Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 68 - Springer-Verlag 1976 - Edited by: A. van Wijngaarden, B. J. Mailloux, J. E. L. Peck, C. H. A. Koster, M. Sintzoff, C. H. Lindsey, L. G. L. T. Meertens and R. G. Fisker. 1968: On December 20, 1968, the "Final Report" was adopted by the Working Group subsequently approved by the General Assembly of UNESCO's IFIP for publication. Translations of the standard were made for Russian, German and Bulgarian, later Japanese and Chinese; the standard was made available in Braille. 1984: TC97 considered Algol 68 for standardisation as "New Work Item" TC97/N1642. West Germany, Netherlands, USSR and Czechoslovakia willing to participate in preparing the standard but the USSR and Czechoslovakia "were not the right kinds of member of the right ISO committees" and Algol 68's ISO standardisation stalled. 1988: Subsequently ALGOL 68 became one of the GOST standards in Russia. GOST 27974-88 Programming language ALGOL 68 – Язык программирования АЛГОЛ 68 GOST 27975-88 Programming language ALGOL 68 extended – Язык программирования АЛГОЛ 68 расширенный There are about 60 such reserved words in the standard language: mode, op, proc, heap, long, short, bool, char, int, sema, void, file, struct, union, at "@", eitherr0, is ":=:", isnt is notr0 ":/=:" ":≠:", of "→"r0, false, nil "○", skip "~", co "¢", comment "¢", pr, case ~ in ~ ouse ~ in ~ out ~ esac "", for ~ from ~ to ~ by ~ while ~ do ~ o
Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare, is a British computer scientist. He developed the sorting algorithm quicksort in 1959/1960, he developed Hoare logic for verifying program correctness, the formal language communicating sequential processes to specify the interactions of concurrent processes and the inspiration for the occam programming language. Born in Colombo, Ceylon to British parents, Tony Hoare's father was a colonial civil servant and his mother was the daughter of a tea planter. Hoare was educated in England at the King's School in Canterbury, he studied Classics and Philosophy at Merton College, Oxford. On graduating in 1956 he did 18 months National Service in the Royal Navy, he returned to the University of Oxford in 1958 to study for a postgraduate certificate in Statistics, it was here that he began computer programming, having been taught Autocode on the Ferranti Mercury by Leslie Fox. He went to Moscow State University as a British Council exchange student, where he studied machine translation under Andrey Kolmogorov.
In 1960, Hoare left the Soviet Union and began working at Elliott Brothers Ltd, a small computer manufacturing firm located in London, where he implemented ALGOL 60 and began developing major algorithms. He became the Professor of Computing Science at the Queen's University of Belfast in 1968, in 1977 returned to Oxford as the Professor of Computing to lead the Programming Research Group in the Oxford University Computing Laboratory, following the death of Christopher Strachey, he is now an Emeritus Professor there, is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research in Cambridge, England. Hoare's most significant work has been in the following areas: his sorting and selection algorithm, Hoare logic, the formal language Communicating Sequential Processes used to specify the interactions between concurrent processes, structuring computer operating systems using the monitor concept, the axiomatic specification of programming languages. Speaking at a software conference called QCon London in 2009, he apologised for inventing the null reference: I call it my billion-dollar mistake.
It was the invention of the null reference in 1965. At that time, I was designing the first comprehensive type system for references in an object oriented language. My goal was to ensure that all use of references should be safe, with checking performed automatically by the compiler, but I couldn't resist the temptation to put in a null reference because it was so easy to implement. This has led to innumerable errors and system crashes, which have caused a billion dollars of pain and damage in the last forty years. For many years under his leadership his Oxford department worked on formal specification languages such as CSP and Z; these did not achieve the expected take-up by industry, in 1995 Hoare was led to reflect upon the original assumptions: Ten years ago, researchers into formal methods predicted that the programming world would embrace with gratitude every assistance promised by formalisation to solve the problems of reliability that arise when programs get large and more safety-critical.
Programs have now got large and critical – well beyond the scale which can be comfortably tackled by formal methods. There have been many problems and failures, but these have nearly always been attributable to inadequate analysis of requirements or inadequate management control, it has turned out that the world just does not suffer from the kind of problem that our research was intended to solve. O.-J. Dahl, E. W. Dijkstra and C. A. R. Hoare. Structured Programming. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-200550-3. OCLC 23937947. C. A. R. Hoare. Communicating Sequential Processes. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science. ISBN 978-0131532717 or ISBN 978-0131532892. C. A. R. Hoare and M. J. C. Gordon. Mechanised Reasoning and Hardware Design. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science. ISBN 978-0-13-572405-7. OCLC 25712842. C. A. R. Hoare and He Jifeng. Unifying Theories of Programming. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science. ISBN 978-0-13-458761-5. OCLC 38199961. In 1962, Hoare married a member of his research team.
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Niklaus Emil Wirth is a Swiss computer scientist. He has designed several programming languages, including Pascal, pioneered several classic topics in software engineering. In 1984 he won the Turing Award recognized as the highest distinction in computer science, for developing a sequence of innovative computer languages. Wirth was born in Winterthur, Switzerland, in 1934. In 1959 he earned a degree in Electronics Engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich. In 1960 he earned an M. Sc. from Université Laval, Canada. In 1963 he was awarded a Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of California, supervised by the computer designer pioneer Harry Huskey. From 1963 to 1967 he served as assistant professor of Computer Science at Stanford University and again at the University of Zurich. In 1968 he became Professor of Informatics at ETH Zürich, taking two one-year sabbaticals at Xerox PARC in California. Wirth retired in 1999. In 2004, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum "for seminal work in programming languages and algorithms, including Euler, Algol-W, Pascal and Oberon."
Wirth was the chief designer of the programming languages Euler, Algol W, Modula, Modula-2, Oberon-2, Oberon-07. He was a major part of the design and implementation team for the Lilith and Oberon operating systems, for the Lola digital hardware design and simulation system, he received the Association for Computing Machinery Turing Award for the development of these languages in 1984 and in 1994 he was inducted as a Fellow of the ACM. His book, written jointly with Kathleen Jensen, The Pascal User Manual and Report, served as the basis of many language implementation efforts in the 1970s and 1980s in the United States and across Europe, his article Program Development by Stepwise Refinement, about the teaching of programming, is considered to be a classic text in software engineering. In 1975 he wrote the book Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Major revisions of this book with the new title Algorithms + Data Structures were published in 1985 and 2004; the examples in the first edition were written in Pascal.
These were replaced in the editions with examples written in Modula-2 and Oberon respectively. His textbook, Systematic Programming: An Introduction, was considered a good source for students who wanted to do more than just coding. Regarded as a challenging text to work through, it was sought as imperative reading for those interested in numerical mathematics. In 1992 he published the full documentation of the Oberon OS.. A second book was intended as a programmer's guide. In 1995, he popularized the adage now known as Wirth's law, which states that software is getting slower more than hardware becomes faster. In his 1995 paper A Plea for Lean Software he attributes it to Martin Reiser. Asteroid 21655 Niklauswirth Extended Backus–Naur Form Wirth syntax notation Bucky bit Wirth–Weber precedence relationship List of pioneers in computer science Biography at ETH Zürich. Personal home page at ETH Zürich. Niklaus Wirth at DBLP Bibliography Server Niklaus E. Wirth at ACM. Wirth, Niklaus. "Program Development by Stepwise Refinement".
Communications of the ACM. 14: 221–7. Doi:10.1145/362575.362577. Wirth, N.. "On the Design of Programming Languages". Proc. IFIP Congress 74: 386–393. Turing Award Lecture, 1984 Pascal and its Successors paper by Niklaus Wirth – includes short biography. A Few Words with Niklaus Wirth The School of Niklaus Wirth: The Art of Simplicity, by László Böszörményi, Jürg Gutknecht, Gustav Pomberger. Dpunkt.verlag / Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2000. ISBN 3-932588-85-1 / ISBN 1-55860-723-4; the book Compiler Construction The book Algorithms and Data Structures The book Project Oberon – The Design of an Operating System and Compiler. The book about the Oberon language and Operating System is now available as a PDF file; the PDF file has an additional appendix Ten Years After: From Objects to Components. Project Oberon 2013
John Warner Backus was an American computer scientist. He directed the team that invented and implemented FORTRAN, the first used high-level programming language, was the inventor of the Backus–Naur form, a used notation to define formal language syntax, he did research into the function-level programming paradigm, presenting his findings in his influential 1977 Turing Award lecture "Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?" The IEEE awarded Backus the W. W. McDowell Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN, he received the National Medal of Science in 1975 and the 1977 ACM Turing Award "for profound and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, for publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages". He retired in 1991 and died at his home in Ashland, Oregon on March 17, 2007. Backus grew up in nearby Wilmington, Delaware, he studied at The Hill School in Pottstown and was not a diligent student.
After entering the University of Virginia to study chemistry, he quit and was conscripted into the U. S. Army, he began medical training at Haverford College and, during an internship at a hospital, he was diagnosed with a cranial bone tumor, removed. After moving to New York City he trained as a radio technician and became interested in mathematics, he graduated from Columbia University with a bachelor's degree in 1949 and a master's degree in 1950, both in mathematics, joined IBM in 1950. During his first three years, he worked on the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator. In 1953 Backus developed the language Speedcoding, the first high-level language created for an IBM computer, to aid in software development for the IBM 701 computer. Programming was difficult at this time, in 1954 Backus assembled a team to define and develop Fortran for the IBM 704 computer. Fortran was the first high-level programming language. Backus served on the international committees that developed ALGOL 58 and the influential ALGOL 60, which became the de facto worldwide standard for publishing algorithms.
Backus developed the Backus–Naur form, in the UNESCO report on ALGOL 58. It was a formal notation able to describe any context-free programming language, was important in the development of compilers. A few deviations from this approach were tried—notably in Lisp and APL—but by the 1970s, following the development of automated compiler generators such as yacc, Backus–Naur context-free specifications for computer languages had become quite standard; this contribution helped Backus win the Turing Award in 1977. Backus worked on a function-level programming language known as FP, described in his Turing Award lecture "Can Programming be Liberated from the von Neumann Style?". Sometimes viewed as Backus's apology for creating Fortran, this paper did less to garner interest in the FP language than to spark research into functional programming in general; when Backus publicized the function-level style of programming, his message was misunderstood as being the same as traditional functional programming style languages.
FP was inspired by Kenneth E. Iverson’s APL using a non-standard character set. An FP interpreter was distributed with the 4.2BSD Unix operating system, but there were few implementations of the language, most of which were used for educational purposes. Backus spent the latter part of his career developing FL, a successor to FP. FL was an internal IBM research project, development of the language stopped when the project was finished. Only a few papers documenting it remain, the source code of the compiler described in them was not made public. FL was at odds with functional programming languages being developed in the 1980s, most of which were based on the lambda calculus and static typing systems instead of, as in APL, the concatenation of primitive operations. Many of the language's ideas have now been implemented in versions of the J programming language, Iverson's successor to APL. Named an IBM Fellow Awarded W. W. McDowell Award Received National Medal of Science Awarded ACM Turing Award Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Awarded degree honoris causa from the Université Henri Poincaré Awarded Draper Prize Awarded Computer History Museum Fellow Award "for his development of FORTRAN, contributions to computer systems theory and software project management."
Asteroid 6830 Johnbackus named in his honor † List of pioneers in computer science Biography at School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland Biography at The History of Computing Project Can Programming Be Liberated From the von Neumann Style? 1977 Turing Award Lecture The FL project "Obituary for John W. Backus". New York Times. 20 March 2007. IBM Archives About BNF Hall of Martin. "Obituary: John Backus:Inventor of science's most widespread programming language, Fortran". Nature. 446: 998. Doi:10.1038/446998a. Memorial delivered at the 2007 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation
Burroughs large systems
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, entry-level business computer systems. Each division's product line grew from a different concept for how to optimize a computer's instruction set for particular programming languages; the Burroughs Large Systems Group designed large mainframes using stack machine instruction sets with dense syllables and 48-bit data words. The first such design is the B5000 in 1961, it is optimized for running ALGOL 60 well, using simple compilers. It evolved into the B5500. Subsequent major redesigns include the B6500/B6700 line and its successors, the separate B8500 line.'Burroughs Large Systems' referred to all of these product lines together, in contrast to the COBOL-optimized Medium Systems or the flexible-architecture Small Systems. Founded in the 1880s, Burroughs was the oldest continuously operating entity in computing, but by the late 1950s its computing equipment was still limited to electromechanical accounting machines such as the Sensimatic.
While in 1956 it branded as the B205 a machine produced by a company it bought, its first internally developed machine, the B5000, was designed in 1961 and Burroughs sought to address its late entry in the market with the strategy of a different design based on the most advanced computing ideas available at the time. While the B5000 architecture is dead, it inspired the B6500. Computers using that architecture are still in production as the Unisys ClearPath Libra servers which run an evolved but compatible version of the MCP operating system first introduced with the B6700; the third and largest line, the B8500, had no commercial success. In addition to a proprietary CMOS processor design, Unisys uses Intel Xeon processors and runs MCP, Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems on their Libra servers; the first member of the first series, the B5000, was designed beginning in 1961 by a team under the leadership of Robert Barton. It was a unique machine, well ahead of its time, it has been listed by the influential computing scientist John Mashey as one of the architectures that he admires the most.
"I always thought it was one of the most innovative examples of combined hardware/software design I've seen, far ahead of its time." The B5000 was succeeded by the B5500 and the B5700. While there was no successor to the B5700, the B5000 line influenced the design of the B6500, Burroughs ported the Master Control Program to that machine. All code automatically reentrant: programmers don't have to do anything more to have any code in any language spread across processors than to use just the two shown simple primitives; this is the canonical but no means the only benefit of these major distinguishing features of this architecture: Partially data-driven tagged and descriptor-based design Hardware was designed to support software requirements Hardware designed to support high-level programming languages No Assembly language or assembler. However, ESPOL had statements for each of the syllables in the architecture. Few programmer accessible registers Simplified instruction set Stack architecture Support for high-level operating system Support for asymmetric multiprocessing Support for other languages such as COBOL Powerful string manipulation An attempt at a secure architecture prohibiting unauthorized access of data or disruptions to operations Early error-detection supporting development and testing of software First commercial implementation of virtual memory Successors still exist in the Unisys ClearPath/MCP machines Influenced many of today's computing techniques The B5000 was revolutionary at the time in that the architecture and instruction set were designed with the needs of software taken into consideration.
This was a large departure from the computer system design of the time, where a processor and its instruction set would be designed and handed over to the software people, is still. That is, most other instruction sets, such as the IBM System/360 instruction set of that era, instruction set designs such as the x86, PPC, ARM instruction set architectures, are traditional instruction set based architectures rather than holistic designs like the original Burroughs systems; the B5000, B5500 and B5700 in Word Mode has two different addressing modes, depending on whether it is executing a main program or a subroutine. For a main program, the T field of an Operand Call or Descriptor Call syllable is relative to the Program Reference Table. For subroutines, the type of addressing is dependent on the high three bits of T and on the Mark Stack FlipFlop, as shown in B5x00 Relative Addressing; the B5000 was designed to support high-level languages. This was at a time when such languages were just coming to prominence with FORTRAN and COBOL.
FORTRAN and COBOL were considered weaker languages by some, when it comes to modern software techniques, so a newer untried language was adopted, ALGOL-60. The ALGOL dialect chosen for the B5000 was Elliott ALGOL, first designed and implemente
Unisys Corporation is an American global information technology company based in Blue Bell, that provides a portfolio of IT services and technology. It is the legacy proprietor of the Burroughs and UNIVAC line of computers, formed when the former bought the latter. Unisys was formed in 1986 through the merger of mainframe corporations Sperry and Burroughs, with Burroughs buying Sperry for $4.8 billion. The name was chosen from over 31,000 submissions in an internal competition when Christian L Machen submitted the word "Unisys", composed of parts of the words united and systems; the merger was the largest in the computer industry at the time and made Unisys the second largest computer company with annual revenue of $10.5 billion. At the time of the merger, Unisys had 120,000 employees. Michael Blumenthal became CEO and Chairman after the merger and resigned in 1990 after several years of losses. James Unruh became the new CEO and Chairman after Blumenthal's departure and continued in that role until 1997, when Larry Weinbach of Arthur Andersen became the new CEO.
By 1997, layoffs had reduced world-wide employee count to 30,000. In addition to hardware, both Burroughs and Sperry had a history of working on U. S. government contracts. Unisys continues to provide hardware and services to various government agencies. Soon after the merger, the market for proprietary mainframe-class systems—the mainstream product of Unisys and its competitors such as IBM—began a long-term decline that continues, at a lesser rate, today. In response, Unisys made the strategic decision to shift into high-end servers, as well as information technology services such as systems integration and related technical services, while holding onto the profitable revenue stream from maintaining its installed base of proprietary mainframe hardware and applications. Important events in the company's history include the development of the 2200 series in 1986, including the UNISYS 2200/500 CMOS mainframe, the Micro A in 1989, the first desktop mainframe, the UNISYS ES7000 servers in 2000, the Unisys blueprinting method of visualizing business rules and workflow in 2004.
In 1988 the company acquired Convergent Technologies, makers of CTOS. Joseph McGrath served as CEO and President from January 2005, until September, 2008. On October 7, 2008, J. Edward Coleman replaced J. McGrath as CEO and was named Chairman of the board as well. On November 10, 2008, the company was removed from the S&P 500 index as the market capitalization of the company had fallen below the S&P 500 minimum of $4 billion. On October 6, 2014, Unisys announced that Coleman would leave the company effective December 1, 2014. Unisys' share price fell when this news became public. On January 1, 2015, Unisys named Peter Altabef as its new president and CEO, replacing Edward Coleman. Paul Weaver, Lead Independent Director, was named Chairman. Unisys promotes itself as a global information technology company that solves complex IT challenges for some of the world’s largest companies and government organizations, including the CIA, FBI, INS, ICE, the U. S. military. The company offers outsourcing and managed services, systems integration and consulting services, high end server technology and cloud management software, maintenance and support services.
The company’s products and technology include: Application Services: Advisory Services, Implementation Services, Application Managed Services, Mobile Application Services Cloud Solutions: Cloud Advisory Services, Data Center Planning Design and Implementation, CloudBuild Services, Hybrid Cloud High End Servers: ClearPath Forward!, ClearPath Systems, Storage Products Managed Services and Outsourcing: End User and Data Center Services, Service Desk, Global Field Services, Windows Migration, Workspace Services, Infrastructure Services, Application Managed Services Mobility/ End User Services: advisory and implementation services Security solutions: Stealth software, managed services, advisory services and implementation services, biometric-enabled and multi-factor authentication solutions Service Management: Unisys VantagePoint, Edge Service Management, advisory and optimization services Social Business: Enterprise Social Business Transformation, Ensemble Unified CommunicationsIn line with larger trends in the information technology industry, an increasing amount of Unisys revenue comes from services rather than equipment sales.
The company maintains a portfolio of over 1,500 U. S. and non-U. S. Patents; the company's mainframe line, Clearpath, is capable of running not only mainframe software, but both the Java platform and the JBoss Java EE Application Server concurrently. The Clearpath system is available in either an MCP-based system. In 2014, Unisys phased out its CMOS processors, completing the migration of its ClearPath mainframes to Intel x86 chips. Clients are able to run the company’s long- established OS 2200 and MCP operating systems alongside more recent Windows and Linux workloads on Intel-based systems that support cloud and virtualization; the company announced its new ClearPath Dorado 8380 and 8390 systems in May, 2015, its most powerful Dorado systems ever. These new systems culminate the company’s decade-long initiative to transition its ClearPath server families from proprietary complementary metal oxide semiconductor processor technology to a software-based fabric architecture running on Intel processors.
As Windows Server 2003 neared end of support on July 14, 2015, Unisys and AppZero were collaborating with
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment. The company was founded in 1886 as the American Arithmometer Company, after the 1986 merger with Sperry UNIVAC was renamed Unisys; the company's history paralleled many of the major developments in computing. At its start, it produced mechanical adding machines, moved into programmable ledgers and computers, it was one of the largest producers of mainframe computers in the world producing related equipment including typewriters and printers. In 1886, the American Arithmometer Company was established in St. Louis, Missouri to produce and sell an adding machine invented by William Seward Burroughs. In 1904, six years after Burroughs' death, the company moved to Detroit and changed its name to the Burroughs Adding Machine Company, it was soon the biggest adding machine company in America. The adding machine range began with the basic, hand-cranked P100, only capable of adding; the design included some revolutionary features, foremost of, the dashpot.
The P200 offered a subtraction capability and the P300 provided a means of keeping 2 separate totals. The P400 provided a moveable carriage, the P600 and top-of-the-range P612 offered some limited programmability based upon the position of the carriage; the range was further extended by the inclusion of the "J" series which provided a single finger calculation facility, the "c" series of both manual and electrical assisted comptometers. In the late 1960s, the Burroughs sponsored. Burroughs developed a range of adding machines with different capabilities increasing in their capabilities. A revolutionary adding machine was the Sensimatic, able to perform many business functions semi-automatically, it had a moving programmable carriage. It could store 9, 18 or 27 balances during the ledger posting operations and worked with a mechanical adder named a Crossfooter; the Sensimatic developed into the Sensitronic which could store balances on a magnetic stripe, part of the ledger card. This balance was read into the accumulator.
The Sensitronic was followed by the E1000, E2000, E3000, E4000, E6000 and the E8000, which were computer systems supporting card reader/punches and a line printer. Burroughs was selling more than adding machines, including typewriters, but the biggest shift in company history came in 1953: the Burroughs Adding Machine Company was renamed the Burroughs Corporation and began moving into computer products for banking institutions. This move began with Burroughs' purchase in June 1956, of the ElectroData Corporation in Pasadena, California, a spinoff of the Consolidated Engineering Corporation which had designed test instruments and had a cooperative relationship with Caltech in Pasadena. ElectroData had built the Datatron 205 and was working on the Datatron 220; the first major computer product that came from this marriage was the B205 tube computer. In the late 1960s the L and TC series range was produced which had a golf ball printer and in the beginning a 1K disk memory; these were popular as branch terminals to the B5500/6500/6700 systems, sold well in the banking sector, where they were connected to non-Burroughs mainframes.
In conjunction with these products, Burroughs manufactured an extensive range of cheque processing equipment attached as terminals to a larger system such as a B2700 or B1700. Burroughs was one of the nine major United States computer companies in the 1960s, with IBM the largest, Honeywell, NCR Corporation, Control Data Corporation, General Electric, Digital Equipment Corporation, RCA and Sperry Rand. In terms of sales, Burroughs was always a distant second to IBM. In fact, IBM's market share was so much larger than all of the others that this group was referred to as "IBM and the Seven Dwarfs." By 1972 when GE and RCA were no longer in the mainframe business, the remaining five companies behind IBM became known as the BUNCH, an acronym based on their initials. At the same time, Burroughs was much a competitor. Like IBM, Burroughs tried to supply a complete line of products for its customers, including Burroughs-designed printers, disk drives, tape drives, computer printing paper, typewriter ribbons.
In the 1950s, Burroughs worked with the Federal Reserve Bank on the development and computer processing of magnetic ink character recognition for the processing of bank cheques. Burroughs made special MICR/OCR sorter/readers which attached to their medium systems line of computers and this entrenched the company in the computer side of the banking industry; the Burroughs Corporation developed three innovative architectures, based on the design philosophy of "language-directed design". Their machine instruction sets favored one or many high level programming languages, such as ALGOL, COBOL or FORTRAN. All three architectures were considered mainframe class machines: The Burroughs large systems machines started with the B5000 in 1961; the B5500 came a few years when large rotating disks replaced drums as the main external memory media. These B5000 Series systems used the world's first virtual memory multi-programming operating system, they were followed by the B6500/B6700 in the 1960s, the B7700 in the mid 1970s, the A series in the 1980s.
The underlying architecture of these machines is similar and continues today as the Unisys ClearPath MCP line of computers: stack machines designed to be programmed in an extended Algol 60. Their operating systems, called MCP (Master Contr