The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la
Atlas II was a member of the Atlas family of launch vehicles, which evolved from the successful Atlas missile program of the 1950s. It was designed to launch payloads into low earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. Sixty-three launches of the Atlas II, IIA and IIAS models were carried out between 1991 and 2004; the Atlas line was continued by the Atlas III, used between 2000 and 2005, the Atlas V, still in use. Atlas II provided higher performance than the earlier Atlas I by using engines with greater thrust and longer fuel tanks for both stages. LR-89 and LR-105 were replaced by the RS-56, derived from the RS-27; the total thrust capability of the Atlas II of 490,000 pounds force enabled the booster to lift payloads of 6,100 pounds into geosynchronous transfer orbit of 22,000 miles or more. Atlas II was the last Atlas to use a three engine, "stage-and-a-half" design: two of its three engines were jettisoned during ascent, but its fuel tanks and other structural elements were retained.
The two booster engines, RS-56-OBAs, were integrated into a single unit called the MA-5A and shared a common gas generator. They burned for 164 seconds before being jettisoned; the central sustainer engine, an RS-56-OSA, would burn for an additional 125 seconds. The Vernier engines on the first stage of the Atlas I were replaced by a hydrazine fueled roll control system; this series used an improved Centaur upper stage, the world’s first cryogenic propellant stage, to increase its payload capability. Atlas II had lower-cost electronics, an improved flight computer and longer propellant tanks than its predecessor, Atlas I; the original Atlas II was based on its predecessors. This version flew between 1991 and 1998. Atlas IIA was a derivative designed to service the commercial launch market; the main improvement was the switch from the RL10A-3-3A to RL10A-4 engine on the Centaur upper stage. The IIA version flew between 1992 and 2002. Atlas IIAS was identical to IIA, but added four Castor 4A solid rocket boosters to increase performance.
These boosters were ignited in pairs, with one pair igniting on the ground, the second igniting in the air shortly after the first pair separated. The half-stage booster section would drop off as usual. IIAS was used between 1993 and 2004, concurrently with IIA. In May 1988, the Air Force chose General Dynamics to develop the Atlas II vehicle to launch Defense Satellite Communications System payloads and for commercial users as a result of Atlas I launch failures in the late 1980s. Led by lead engineer Samuel Wagner, the Atlas II was crucial to the continued development of the United States' space program. Atlas IIs were launched from Fla. by the 45th Space Wing. The final West Coast Atlas II launch was accomplished December 2003 by the 30th Space Wing, Vandenberg AFB, California. General CharacteristicsPrimary function: Launch vehicle Primary contractor: Lockheed Martin - airframe, avionics and systems integration Principal subcontractors: Rocketdyne.
SES-14 is a geostationary communications satellite operated by SES and designed and manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space. The satellite launched on 25 January 2018 along with the GOLD instrument from NASA, it has a design life of at least 15 years. SES S. A. List of SES satellites
SES-9 is a geostationary communications satellite operated by SES S. A, it was launched from Cape Canaveral SLC-40 by a Falcon 9 Full Thrust rocket on 4 March 2016. SES-9 is a large communications satellite operating in geostationary orbit at the 108.2° East orbital slot, providing communications services to northeast Asia, South Asia and Indonesia, maritime communications for vessels in the Indian Ocean, mobility beams for "seamless in-flight connectivity" for domestic Asian airlines of Indonesia and the Philippines. The satellite was built by Boeing. SES-9 had a mass of 5,271 kilograms at launch, the largest Falcon 9 payload yet to a highly-energetic geosynchronous transfer orbit. SES S. A. used the spacecraft's own propulsion capabilities to circularize the trajectory to a geostationary orbit. SES-9 has 57 high-power Ku-band transponders, equivalent to 81 transponders of 36 MHz bandwidth and, co-located at 108.2°E alongside SES-7, it will provide additional and replacement capacity for DTH broadcasting and data in North east Asia, South Asia and Indonesia, maritime communications for the Indian Ocean.
Broadcasts are on six Ku-band coverage beams: South Asia Beam. Centred on India with a 55dBW signal and taking in Pakistan, Sri Lanka and parts of Myanmar. North East Asia Beam. Centred on the Philippines with a 55dBW signal and taking in the eastern seaboard of China and parts of Indonesia. South East Asia Beam. Centred on Indonesia with a 54dBW signal and taking in Malaysia and parts of Papua New Guinea. West Indian Ocean Beam. Centred on the Gulf of Oman with a 53dBW signal and taking in the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, the western coast of India and Pakistan. East Indian Ocean Beam. Centred on the Bay of Bengal with a 54dBW signal and taking in southern and eastern India, Sri Lanka, parts of Bangladesh, Myanmar and Malaysia. Australia Beam. Centred on Adelaide in Australia with a 55dBW signal and taking in South Australia and parts of Western Australia, Northern Territory, New South Wales and Victoria. In addition to the earlier SES-8 mission ordered in 2011 and launched in 2013, SES contracted SpaceX for three additional launches starting with SES-9 planned for 2015.
The deal was announced on 12 September 2012. In early 2015, SES announced that it would be the launch customer of the next rocket evolution by SpaceX: Falcon 9 v1.1 Full Thrust. At the time, SES expected SES-9 to be launched by September 2015. Despite the failure of the CRS-7 mission in June 2015, SES re-confirmed in September 2015 their decision to provide the first payload for the new rocket variant. After considering all options, SpaceX announced a change on 16 October 2015: Orbcomm's 11 OG2 satellites would be the payload on the return-to-flight mission of the redesigned rocket instead of SES-9; the Orbcomm payload with its lower orbit would allow SpaceX to test relighting the second-stage engine, a capability required to put the heavier SES-9 on a geostationary orbit. The Orbcomm mission was subsequently delayed to mid-December, while SES-9 was scheduled to follow "within a few weeks". Falcon 9 Full Thrust performed its maiden launch on 22 December 2015, the final launch of the Falcon 9 v1.1 variant followed in January 2016, with SES-9 moving to February.
This was the second launch of the Full Thrust variant. A successful static fire test of the rocket was completed on 22 February 2016; the launch was scheduled for 24 February 2016 at 6:46pm local time, with a backup launch window the next day at the same time. Neither day produced a launch however as both attempts were scrubbed: on 24 February, prior to propellant loading "out of an abundance of caution, in order to get the rocket’s liquid oxygen propellant as cold as possible"; the first Sunday launch attempt was aborted less than two minutes before scheduled liftoff due to a tugboat entering the area of the offshore safety zone. A second attempt on 28 February was made about 35 minutes after the downrange zone had been cleared, the rocket shut-down a moment after ignition due to low thrust flag from one engine. Rising oxygen temperature due to the hold for the tugboat to clear and a suspected helium bubble were suggested by Elon Musk as the reasons for the alarm being triggered; the next launch attempt on March 1st was postponed to March 4th due to high winds.
The launch was attempted, succeeded, on 4 March 2016 at 23:35 UTC. The original apogee for the transfer orbit contracted by SpaceX was 26,000 km, a subsynchronous highly-elliptical orbit that SES would circularize and raise over several months before the satellite would be ready for operational service at 36,000 km. SES CTO Martin Halliwell indicated in February 2016 that SpaceX had agreed to add additional energy to the spacecraft with the launch vehicle and that a new apogee of 39,000 km was the objective, in order to assist SES in the satellite becoming operational many weeks earlier than otherwise possible, in part to help compensate for the schedule delays leading up to the launch; this was to be achieved by the second stage burning to depletion, instead of stopping at a target velocity. SpaceX said they were projecting an apogee of at le
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptic orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, greater than 1 is a hyperbola; the term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a Klemperer rosette orbit through the galaxy. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit; the eccentricity of this Kepler orbit is a non-negative number. The eccentricity may take the following values: circular orbit: e = 0 elliptic orbit: 0 < e < 1 parabolic trajectory: e = 1 hyperbolic trajectory: e > 1 The eccentricity e is given by e = 1 + 2 E L 2 m red α 2 where E is the total orbital energy, L is the angular momentum, mred is the reduced mass, α the coefficient of the inverse-square law central force such as gravity or electrostatics in classical physics: F = α r 2 or in the case of a gravitational force: e = 1 + 2 ε h 2 μ 2 where ε is the specific orbital energy, μ the standard gravitational parameter based on the total mass, h the specific relative angular momentum.
For values of e from 0 to 1 the orbit's shape is an elongated ellipse. The limit case between an ellipse and a hyperbola, when e equals 1, is parabola. Radial trajectories are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic based on the energy of the orbit, not the eccentricity. Radial orbits hence eccentricity equal to one. Keeping the energy constant and reducing the angular momentum, elliptic and hyperbolic orbits each tend to the corresponding type of radial trajectory while e tends to 1. For a repulsive force only the hyperbolic trajectory, including the radial version, is applicable. For elliptical orbits, a simple proof shows that arcsin yields the projection angle of a perfect circle to an ellipse of eccentricity e. For example, to view the eccentricity of the planet Mercury, one must calculate the inverse sine to find the projection angle of 11.86 degrees. Next, tilt any circular object by that angle and the apparent ellipse projected to your eye will be of that same eccentricity; the word "eccentricity" comes from Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ἔκκεντρος ekkentros "out of the center", from ἐκ- ek-, "out of" + κέντρον kentron "center".
"Eccentric" first appeared in English in 1551, with the definition "a circle in which the earth, sun. Etc. deviates from its center". By five years in 1556, an adjectival form of the word had developed; the eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from the orbital state vectors as the magnitude of the eccentricity vector: e = | e | where: e is the eccentricity vector. For elliptical orbits it can be calculated from the periapsis and apoapsis since rp = a and ra = a, where a is the semimajor axis. E = r a − r p r a + r p = 1 − 2 r a r p + 1 where: ra is the radius at apoapsis. Rp is the radius at periapsis; the eccentricity of an elliptical orbit can be used to obtain the ratio of the periapsis to the apoapsis: r p r a = 1 − e 1 + e For Earth, orbital eccentricity ≈ 0.0167, apoapsis= aphelion and periapsis= perihelion relative to sun. For Earth's annual orbit path, ra/rp ratio = longest_radius / shortest_radius ≈ 1.034 relative to center point of path. The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is about 0.0167.
Electronic news-gathering is when reporters and editors make use of electronic video and audio technologies in order to gather and present news. ENG can involve anything from a single reporter with a single professional video camera, to an entire television crew taking a truck on location; this term was coined during the rise of videotape technology in the 1970s. This term was used in the television news in the 1980s and'90s, but is used less now, as the technology has become commonplace; the vehicle on which the electronic equipment is fitted it is called DSNG. The term ENG was created as television news departments moved from film-based news-gathering to electronic field production technology in the 1970s. Since film requires chemical processing before it can be viewed and edited, it took at least an hour from the time the film arrived back at the television station or network news department until it was ready to be broadcast. Film Editing was done by hand on what was known as "color reversal" film Kodak Ektachrome, meaning there were no negatives.
Color reversal film had replaced black-and-white film as television itself evolved from black-and-white to color broadcasting. Filmo cameras were most used for silent filming, while Auricon cameras were used for filming with synchronized sound. Since editing required cutting the film into segments and splicing them together, a common problem was film breaking during the newscast. News stories were transferred to bulky 2-inch videotape for distribution and playback, which made the content cumbersome to access. Film remained important in daily news operations until the late 1960s, when news outlets adopted portable professional video cameras, portable recorders, wireless microphones and joined those with various microwave- and satellite truck-linked delivery systems. By the mid-1980s, film had all but disappeared from use in television journalism; as one cameraman of the era tells it, One of the first examples of reliable, news-style video was revealed at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
I was a 16mm cameraman at that convention and turned in the street violence one day to eye the first portable "Portapak" video package from Sony in Japan. It was the first portable video package I had seen and it made quite an impression on me while carrying that back breaking film camera; the Sony Portapak was a two-piece, battery powered, self-contained video tape analog recording system that could be carried and operated by one person. Because earlier "portable" television cameras were so large and cumbersome, the Portapak made it possible for individuals to record video outside the studio; this portability contributed to the rise of electronic news gathering as it made portable news more accessible than before. Early portable video systems recorded at a lower quality than broadcast studio cameras, which made them less desirable than non portable video systems; when the Portapak video camera was introduced in 1967, it was a new method of video recording, forever shifting ENG. By the time videotape technology advanced, the capability for microwave transmission was well established.
But the convenience of videotape allowed crews to more use microwave links to send their footage back to the studio. It made live feeds more possible, as in the police shootout with the Symbionese Liberation Army in 1974. In 1974, KMOX, a station in St. Louis, Mo. was the first to abandon film and switch to ENG. Stations all over the country made the switch over the next decade. ENG reduces the delay between when the footage is captured and when it can be broadcast, thus enabling news gathering and reporting to become steady cycle with little time in between when story breaks and when a story can air.. Coupled with live microwave and/or satellite trucks, reporters were able to show live what was happening, bringing the audience into news events as they happened. CNN launched in June 1980; the technology was still in its developmental stages, had yet to be integrated with satellites and microwave relays, which caused some problems with the network's early transmissions. However, ENG proved to be a crucial development for all television news as news content recorded using videocassette recorders was easier to edit and distribute.
Over time, as editing technology has become simpler and more accessible, video production processes have passed from broadcast engineers to producers and writers, making the process quicker. However the ENG cameras and recorders were heavier and bulkier than their film equivalents; this restricted the ability of camera operators from escaping danger or hurrying toward a news event. Editing equipment was expensive and each scene had to be searched out on the master recording. Using technology such as multicast or RTP over UDP, these systems achieve similar performance to high end-microwave. Since the video stream is encoded for IP, the video can be used for traditional television broadcast or Internet distribution without modification; as mobile broadband has developed, broadcast devices using this technology have appeared. These devices are more compact than previous technology and can aggregate multiple mobile data lines to deliver a high definition-quality content live; the ongoing Technological evolution of broadcast video production equipment can be observed annually at the NAB Show in Las Vegas where equipment manufacturers gather to display their wares to people within the video production industry.
The trend is toward lighter-weight equipment that can deliver mor
General Electric Company is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston. As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, power, renewable energy, digital industry, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance and oil and gas. In 2018, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 18th-largest firm in the U. S. by gross revenue. In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company but has since severely underperformed the market as its profitability collapsed. Two employees of GE—Irving Langmuir and Ivar Giaever —have been awarded the Nobel Prize. During 1889, Thomas Edison had business interests in many electricity-related companies including Edison Lamp Company, a lamp manufacturer in East Newark, New Jersey. P. Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments. In 1889, Morgan & Co. a company founded by J. P. Morgan and Anthony J. Drexel, financed Edison's research and helped merge those companies under one corporation to form Edison General Electric Company, incorporated in New York on April 24, 1889.
The new company acquired Sprague Electric Railway & Motor Company in the same year. In 1880, Gerald Waldo Hart formed the American Electric Company of New Britain, which merged a few years with Thomson-Houston Electric Company, led by Charles Coffin. In 1887, Hart left to become superintendent of the Edison Electric Company of Missouri. General Electric was formed through the 1892 merger of Edison General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, Thomson-Houston Electric Company of Lynn, with the support of Drexel, Morgan & Co. Both plants continue to operate under the GE banner to this day; the company was incorporated in New York, with the Schenectady plant used as headquarters for many years thereafter. Around the same time, General Electric's Canadian counterpart, Canadian General Electric, was formed. In 1896, General Electric was one of the original 12 companies listed on the newly formed Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it remained a part of the index for 122 years, though not continuously.
In 1911, General Electric absorbed the National Electric Lamp Association into its lighting business. GE established its lighting division headquarters at Nela Park in Ohio; the lighting division has since remained in the same location. Owen D. Young, through GE, founded the Radio Corporation of America in 1919, after purchasing the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, he aimed to expand international radio communications. GE used RCA as its retail arm for radio sales. In 1926, RCA co-founded the National Broadcasting Company, which built two radio broadcasting networks. In 1930, General Electric was charged with antitrust violations and decided to divest itself of RCA. In 1927, Ernst Alexanderson of GE made the first demonstration of his television broadcasts at his General Electric Realty Plot home at 1132 Adams Rd, New York. On January 13, 1928, he made what was said to be the first broadcast to the public in the United States on GE's W2XAD: the pictures were picked up on 1.5 square inch screens in the homes of four GE executives.
The sound was broadcast on GE's WGY. Experimental television station W2XAD evolved into station WRGB which, along with WGY and WGFM, was owned and operated by General Electric until 1983. Led by Sanford Alexander Moss, GE moved into the new field of aircraft turbo superchargers. GE introduced the first set of superchargers during World War I, continued to develop them during the interwar period. Superchargers became indispensable in the years prior to World War II. GE supplied 300,000 turbo superchargers for use in bomber engines; this work led the U. S. Army Air Corps to select GE to develop the nation's first jet engine during the war; this experience, in turn, made GE a natural selection to develop the Whittle W.1 jet engine, demonstrated in the United States in 1941. GE was ranked ninth among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. Although, their early work with Whittle's designs was handed to Allison Engine Company. GE Aviation emerged as one of the world's largest engine manufacturers, bypassing the British company, Rolls-Royce plc.
Some consumers boycotted GE light bulbs and other products during the 1980s and 1990s. The purpose of the boycott was to protest against GE's role in nuclear weapons production. In 2002, GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings. Enron Wind was the only surviving U. S. manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2 billion in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009. In 2015, GE Power garnered press attention when a model 9FB gas turbine in Texas was shut down for two months due to the break of a turbine blade; this model uses similar blade technology to GE's newest and most efficient model, the 9HA. After the break, GE developed heat treatment methods. Gas turbines represent a significant portion of GE Power's revenue, represent a significant portion of the power generation fleet of several utility companies in the United States. Chubu Electric of Japan and Électricité de France had units that were impacted.