In computer science, control flow is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated. The emphasis on explicit control flow distinguishes an imperative programming language from a declarative programming language. Within an imperative programming language, a control flow statement is a statement, the execution of which results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths to follow. For non-strict functional languages and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are not termed control flow statements. A set of statements is in turn structured as a block, which in addition to grouping defines a lexical scope. Interrupts and signals are low-level mechanisms that can alter the flow of control in a way similar to a subroutine, but occur as a response to some external stimulus or event, rather than execution of an in-line control flow statement. At the level of machine language or assembly language, control flow instructions work by altering the program counter.
For some central processing units, the only control flow instructions available are conditional or unconditional branch instructions termed jumps. The kinds of control flow statements supported by different languages vary, but can be categorized by their effect: Continuation at a different statement Executing a set of statements only if some condition is met Executing a set of statements zero or more times, until some condition is met Executing a set of distant statements, after which the flow of control returns Stopping the program, preventing any further execution A label is an explicit name or number assigned to a fixed position within the source code, which may be referenced by control flow statements appearing elsewhere in the source code. A label marks a position within source code, has no other effect. Line numbers are an alternative to a named label, that are whole numbers placed at the start of each line of text in the source code. Languages which use these impose the constraint that the line numbers must increase in value in each following line, but may not require that they be consecutive.
For example, in BASIC: In other languages such as C and Ada, a label is an identifier appearing at the start of a line and followed by a colon. For example, in C: The language ALGOL 60 allowed both whole numbers and identifiers as labels, but few if any other ALGOL variants allowed whole numbers. Early Fortran compilers only allowed whole numbers as labels. Beginning with Fortran-90, alphanumeric labels have been allowed; the goto statement is the most basic form of unconditional transfer of control. Although the keyword may either be in upper or lower case depending on the language, it is written as: goto label The effect of a goto statement is to cause the next statement to be executed to be the statement appearing at the indicated label. Goto statements have been considered harmful by many computer scientists, notably Dijkstra; the terminology for subroutines varies. In the 1950s, computer memories were small by current standards so subroutines were used to reduce program size. A piece of code was written once and used many times from various other places in a program.
Today, subroutines are more used to help make a program more structured, e.g. by isolating some algorithm or hiding some data access method. If many programmers are working on one program, subroutines are one kind of modularity that can help divide the work. In structured programming, the ordered sequencing of successive commands is considered one of the basic control structures, used as a building block for programs alongside iteration and choice. In May 1966, Böhm and Jacopini published an article in Communications of the ACM which showed that any program with gotos could be transformed into a goto-free form involving only choice and loops with duplicated code and/or the addition of Boolean variables. Authors showed that choice can be replaced by loops; that such minimalism is possible does not mean that it is desirable. What Böhm and Jacopini's article showed was that all programs could be goto-free. Other research showed that control structures with one entry and one exit were much easier to understand than any other form because they could be used anywhere as a statement without disrupting the control flow.
In other words, they were composable. Some academics took a purist approach to the Böhm-Jacopini result and argued that instructions like break and return from the middle of loops are bad practice as they are not needed in the Böhm-Jacopini proof, th
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Valhalla: Before the War
Valhalla: Before the War is an adventure game developed and published by Vulcan Software for the Amiga in 1995. It is the Lord of Infinity; the game is known for the in game speech and is the second Amiga speech adventure. Vulcan Software has reproduced the games with updated graphics and audio, available for free download in episodic format for the PC Windows. Progressing in the game involved solving a series of puzzles, with a selling point claiming there to be "thousands of logical puzzles"; the Interface was a top down view of the character within rooms inside the castle Valhalla. When the fire button is pressed the player can access icons that have certain actions, these are: Map: Represented by an icon of a compass; this function will display a map of the current level Look: Represented by an icon of an eye. This function will tell the player character Infinity to inspect the contents of the square directly in front of him and report on it. Take: Represented by an icon of an open hand; this function will cause Infinity to take the object in the square in front of him.
Operate: Represented by the icon of a spanner. This function will cause Infinity to attempt to operate the object in the square in front of him. Joystick: Represented by an icon of a joystick; this function will return the game play to the walking mode. Disk Access: Represented by an icon of a floppy disk; this function will produce an options screen where the player can choose to restart the level, save the current position to disk and load a saved position. Mouth: Represented by an icon of a mouth; this function controls, with two modes. The player can access a rucksack that contains items that can be picked up during the game. Using the rucksack is similar to how the main menu operates and has the icons Look, Insert and Joystick to return the player to walking mode. Potions can be drank during certain points in the game. Infinity's health is measured in a Stamina indicator. If the indicator reaches the bottom Infinity will die, stamina top-ups can be found during the levels. Set 10 years prior to the events of Valhalla and the Lord of Infinity as the player takes control of the character of Infinity from the first game's mentor.
The game is set in a castle named Valhalla. Infinity is jealous of his brother, the Good King Garamond as he has taken, in Infinity's opinion Infinity's place as king. Infinity's rage brings him to the decision to destroy his brother so that he will take the place as King; the game received poor review ratings in addition to 90% from CU Amiga. Valhalla: Before the War was successful enough to warrant another sequel and the Fortress of Eve. List of Amiga games Valhalla Classics
Ultimate Domain, called "Genesia" in Europe, is a computer game developed by Microïds and published on the Commodore Amiga in 1993 and by Software Toolworks in 1993 for the IBM PC. The original Amiga version is known to be one of the few commercial games developed in AMOS Basic. In 2011, an iPad version was released. A follow-up to Ultimate Domain named Genesia Legacy was scheduled to be released in 2015. Ultimate Domain starts in the 17th century in the colonies of the new world, where the player has four settlers and a few raw materials; the settlers take jobs such as woodcutter and specialist. The settlers may search for "The Seven Jewels of Genesia". Computer Gaming World rated Ultimate Domain one star out of five. Describing it as a lackluster combination of Populous and Civilization, the magazine reported that it was possible to win the game without expanding from the starting position, concluding that "If that doesn't sound a death knell for a game of empire building, I don't know what does".
The game was reviewed in 1995 in Dragon #213 by Jay & Dee in the "Eye of the Monitor" column. Both reviewers gave the game 2 out of 5 stars. Ultimate Domain at GameSpot Ultimate Domain at MobyGames Ultimate Domain at GameFAQs
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the
Flight of the Amazon Queen
Flight of the Amazon Queen is a graphical point-and-click adventure game by Interactive Binary Illusions released in 1995 for Amiga and MS-DOS, re-released as freeware in 2004 for use with ScummVM. Its gameplay is similar in style to many of LucasArts' popular point-and-click adventures of the 1990s, was inspired by Monkey Island and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade: The Graphic Adventure. In 1949, Joe King, pilot for hire and owner of the Amazon Queen airplane which he uses for his work, arrives at a hotel in Rio de Janeiro to transport his next customer, famous film actress Faye Russel, only to be ambushed by his Dutch rival Anderson. Locked in a hotel room and trapped by Anderson's goons, Joe gains assistance from Lola, a showgirl at the hotel and a former love interest, escapes, making it back to the airport with his mechanic Sparky, just in time to stop his rival taking Faye. Wasting no time, Joe pilots the Amazon Queen towards the location of Faye's shoot, only for a storm to cause him to crash-land in the Amazon jungle.
After getting Faye and Sparky to safety, Joe begins searching for help, soon encountering a parrot named Wedgewood with a message for help. Seeking out the person the message was for, Joe meets with Trader Bob, a merchant who lives amongst an indigenous tribe in the jungle, who soon asks for his help in rescuing a princess named Azura from Floda, a lederhosen company that Bob suspects is a cover for something much more sinister. Joe begins searching for the jungle, encountering an entire tribe of Amazon women who capture him and took in Faye when she decided to seek help herself. Released by the tribe, Joe agrees to help them rescue Azura as well. Finding the princess within a hidden base beneath Floda, Joe frees her and returns to her tribe, only to find himself coming face-to-face with Floda's leader - Dr. Frank Ironstein, a mad scientist who seeks to conquer the world by turning Amazon women into dinosaur warriors through the use of his DinoRay invention. Seeing that Joe was smart to get around his security, Ironstein coerces him into helping him find an artifact from a temple that he requires known as the Crystal Skull, threatening to harm Azura if he doesn't.
Left with no choice, Joe agrees, heads for the temple, navigating traps and puzzles and finding what he needs. Returning it to Ironstein, Joe finds himself betrayed and trapped in Floda's base, but soon escapes and goes after Ironstein with the help of Anderson, his rival having been hired by the scientist to assist but deciding to turn against him. Heading into the valley, Joe assists in trying to find Ironstein and manages to stop him, saving the day, before taking the scientist's Zeppelin and flying into the sunset with Azura. Prior to release, the game was sent by the publisher to Future Publishing's Amiga Power magazine, to be reviewed by Jonathan Nash in issue 51. Whilst playing he found an error, he informed the publisher which resulted in the game release being delayed for several months as, at the time, the game had been sent to the disk duplication factory ready for reproduction. As it was too late to change the magazine content and layout, the issue went to press with an apology that they had unintentionally reviewed an "unfinished" game, against one of their policies.
The screenshots for the issue came from the PC version against their policy. The front cover of this issue featured an artist's impression of the'escape from Rio' car chase scene; the Amiga version had no voices, whereas the DOS CD version was a talkie featuring full voice-acting. The voice of the Temple Guardian was provided by British actress Penelope Keith. Actor William Hootkins, who played Red Six in Star Wars voiced a number of characters; the DOS CD version contained a Mini-Game of sorts. The file Queen.1 is found in the INTERVIE folder in the CD-ROM's Root. The Mini-Game is a playable adventure game, where the main character tries to get an interview from the game's development team; the game features MIDI music and full text, but no talkie version was released. The Mini-Game features familiar locations and game spoilers; the Mini-Game goes unnoticed as it is not bootable or playable from within the main game. The Mini-Game is supported by the recent ScummVM release. In March 2004, the game was released as free software and support for it was added to ScummVM, allowing it to be played on Linux, Mac OS X, many other operating systems and consoles.
The datafiles for both the floppy disk and CD-ROM version are available from the ScummVM website. The Fedora RPM software repository has an installer for the game alongside ScummVM; this game is directly included in the Debian software repository. In 2009, iPhSoft modified it; this modification has been commercially sold on iTunes and discontinued Mid-2015, due to lack of iOS 8 and up support. In 2013 released at GOG.com as a digital download ready to play on modern PCs. In March 2016, MojoTouch, working with John Passfield, the designer of the original game, released the 20th Anniversary Edition on the App Store, Google Play and Amazon Appstore; this version includes improved graphics rendering, full voice acting, new touch interface, auto-save, multi-language support, high definition menus and the following bonus material: Making of Flight of the Amazon Queen booklet, a play through of the interactive interview mini-game with audio commentary by John Passfield, the original Game Manuals and the Official Playing Guide.
Flight of the Amazon Qu
Microïds is a French software brand belonging to Anuman that publishes and develops video games. In recent years the company's collection of brands and game licenses has grown since being a part of MC2 France. In late 2007 the Microïds brand was relaunched and since the beginning of 2010 Microïds has been a part of Anuman. Microïds was founded in 1985 by Elliot Grassiano. For the first 10 years, Microïds was a development house, but in 1995 they expanded into publishing and distribution as well. Microïds France at this time was located in France; the company then expanded worldwide with a publisher in Milan, distributor in Milton Keynes, United Kingdom and a developer in Montréal, Canada. In 2003, Emmanuel Olivier created a new company called MC2 France which subsequently merged with Microïds. In September 2003 MC2-Microïds acquired Wanadoo Edition as part of a deal with the French government for Microïds to emerge from bankruptcy protection; as part of the deal, Wanadoo became a 12% shareholder of Microïds.
Emmanuel Olivier became CEO. In February 2004 the company had more than 150 employees including 95 in Montréal. In March 2005 Ubisoft announced their intention to acquire MC2-Microïds and to integrate it into Ubisoft's Montreal studios; this deal only included fifty of MC2-Microïds' technical equipment. The UK arm Microids Ltd was wound up between 2003 and 2005, Microïds Italy split off from the company in 2005, turning into the Italian publisher Blue Label Entertainment. On November 28, 2007 MC2 France relaunched the Microïds brand, with all of the company's future productions to be released either under the MICROÏDS Montreal or MICROÏDS Paris brands; the headquarters of the company are in Montrouge, a suburb of Paris and they have a development studio in Montreal, hence the two brands. In December 2007 they opened an online store, powered by Metaboli. On 20 October 2008 Microïds acquired the brands and intellectual property of Cryo Interactive, declared bankrupt in 2002. Microïds is publishing games of Kheops Studio.
On 23 November 2009 Anuman Interactive announced that they were acquiring the mark of and all the associated licences of Microïds. The Microïds deal between Anuman and MC2 was completed on 1 January 2010. On 8 April 2010 Microïds announced their strategy for 2010. In 2011 a new logo was unveiled for the company in addition to the new secondary brand of "Microïds Games For All", centred around the company's non-adventure games. On 26 November 2012 it was announced that Elliot Grassiano, the original founder of Microïds, will oversee new game development as Vice President of the Microïds unit. On 19 August 2013 it was announced that Anuman had purchased the licence to develop and publish games based upon the works of Agatha Christie. Microïds is known for the development of adventure games, including Syberia, Post Mortem and Still Life. Other notable games that Microïds has produced include Far Gate and the Nicky Boum series of action games for the Commodore Amiga. Through mergers and buyouts the parent company has acquired licences of many games from companies such as Index+, Wanadoo Edition and Cryo Interactive.
Acquired game licences which they intend to build upon include Dracula: Egypt. In 2007 Microïds announced that it was working on a number of games in collaboration with various development studios such as Elektrogames, Kheops Studio, Mzone Studio, TOTM Studio, GameCo Studios and White Birds Productions; as of 2010, the company is developing and adapting games for PC, Mac, iPad and iPhone, as well as looking into games for Web browsers, online gaming consoles and Web TV. In 2008 Microïds announced they had entered into a publishing agreement with Encore, where Encore would publish Microïds' entire catalogue in North America; this deal was extended in August where Legacy Interactive would distribute Microïds adventure video games as digital downloads in North America. A deal with cdv Software Entertainment to distribute games such as Still Life 2 in France was announced in April 2009. In September 2009 the company announced a long-term distribution deal with Iceberg Interactive for the United Kingdom and the Benelux countries.
Since the creation of Microïds in 1984 the company has had a number of different logos. During the mid-1980s the company used a logo with a yellow shape to the left. From around 1986 until 1995 they used a logo showing a curvy stylised letter M, which may look like a simple drawing of a bird. Fellow French video game developer with links to Microïds, White Birds used similar simple drawings of birds as their logo. In the mid-1990s the company changed their logo to contain the colours of the rainbow, but without a background; this logo remained until the merger with MC2 France. By the time of Still Life being released the company was using a logo containing a blocky stylised letter M and dot below it. In 2005 this had a smooth typeface and no dots above the letter i. By the relaunch of the brand in 2007 the previous design had a diaeresis placed above the letter i and a different typeface. After the Anuman buyout the logo shape was changed and included a