In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Regis Francis Xavier Philbin is an American media personality and singer, known for hosting talk and game shows since the 1960s. After graduating from the University of Notre Dame he served in the Navy, got his television start serving as a page for the Tonight Show in the 1950s. Philbin gained his first network TV exposure in 1967 as Joey Bishop's sidekick on The Joey Bishop Show. Sometimes called "the hardest working man in show business", Philbin holds the Guinness World Record for the most time spent in front of a television camera, his trademarks include his excited manner, his New York accent, his wit, his irreverent ad-libs. Philbin is most known as the host of the New York City-based nationally syndicated talk show Live! with Regis and Kathie Lee starting in 1988, which became Live! with Regis and Kelly starting in 2001, continued on with former football player Michael Strahan after Philbin's departure in 2011. Philbin debuted and hosted Who Wants to Be a Millionaire, Million Dollar Password, the first season of America's Got Talent.
Philbin was born on August 1931 in the Bronx, New York City. His father, Francis "Frank" Philbin, a U. S. Marine who served in the Pacific, was of Irish heritage, his mother, Filomena "Florence", was from an Italian immigrant family of Arbëreshë descent from Greci, Campania. They lived in the Van Nest section of the Bronx. Philbin had a Roman Catholic upbringing, he was named "Regis" because his father wanted him to attend the prestigious Regis High School. It was long believed that Philbin was an only child, but on the February 1, 2007 broadcast of Live with Regis and Kelly, Philbin announced that he did have a brother, Frank M. Philbin, who had died from non-Hodgkin lymphoma several days earlier. Philbin said his brother, 20 years younger than him, had asked not to be mentioned on television or in the press. Philbin attended Our Lady of Solace grammar school in the Bronx, graduated from Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx in 1949 before attending the University of Notre Dame, from which he graduated in 1953 with a sociology degree.
He served in the United States Navy as a supply officer went through a few behind-the-scenes jobs in television and radio before moving into the broadcasting arena. In his earliest show business work, Philbin was a page at The Tonight Show in the 1950s, he wrote for Los Angeles-based talk show host Tom Duggan and nervously filled in one night when the hard-drinking Duggan didn't show up. He was an announcer on The Tonight Show in 1962. In 1957, Regis left his job as assistant news editor to Baxter Ward at KCOP, Los Angeles to make his fortune in New York, his replacement at KCOP was George Van Valkenburg. His first talk show was The Regis Philbin Show on KOGO-TV in San Diego. For financial reasons, he had no writing staff, so he began each show with what has become his hallmark, the "host chat" segment, where he engaged his audience in discussions about his life and the day's events. In 1964, Westinghouse Broadcasting picked up Philbin's talk show for national syndication in the late night time slot.
The show failed to attract many stations and Westinghouse replaced Philbin with Merv Griffin. Philbin gained his first network TV exposure in 1967 as Joey Bishop's sidekick on The Joey Bishop Show on television. In a Johnny Carson-Ed McMahon vein, Bishop would playfully tease Philbin and he would take the barbs in stride, but his feelings were hurt when he learned from the network grapevine that ABC executives were dissatisfied with his work and his thick accent, so during the opening of one 1968 program, he launched an unplanned diatribe about "not being wanted and letting down" the program and abruptly quit on air. A few nights assured by Bishop that all was well and the barbs were not personal, Philbin returned; as revealed in his book, How I Got This Way, this was all a ruse planned by Bishop and Regis to steal the spotlight and attract some of Johnny Carson's viewers. When The Joey Bishop Show was canceled, Bishop returned the favor and walked off the show on the air unannounced, leaving Philbin to carry the night on his own.
In 1964, Philbin took over the show that replaced The Steve Allen Show when Steve Allen left the show. The audience did not accept Philbin as a replacement for Allen's zany antics and the appearance lasted only a little over four months because of dismal ratings. Johnny Carson was too strong in the ratings for the same time slot. According to Philbin, Carson was his inspiration. From 1975 to 1981, he co-hosted A. M. Los Angeles, a local morning talk show on KABC-TV, first with Sarah Purcell with Cyndy Garvey. Philbin's presence brought the show from the bottom of the local ratings to No. 1. During the early 1970s, Philbin commuted each weekend to St. Louis, where he filmed Regis Philbin's Saturday Night in St. Louis on KMOX-TV. A 1978 book called The Great 1960s Quiz, authored by Dan Carlinsky, asked, "Who was Regis Philbin?" The answer was "Joey Bishop's sidekick on his late night show." Philbin's trivial national media presence would soon be revived. In 1981, Philbin and Mary Hart co-hosted a national morning variety series for NBC.
The show lasted 18 weeks. After Garvey left Los Angeles in 1982 and moved to New York City, Philbin rejoined her on The Morning Show, on WABC-TV. At the time, the 9 am time slot for WABC suffered from low Nielsen ratings because of competition from WNBC-TV's Donahue and WCBS-TV's game show block feat
Oprah Winfrey is an American media executive, talk show host, television producer and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media", she was the richest African American of the 20th century and North America's first black multi-billionaire, has been ranked the greatest black philanthropist in American history, she has been sometimes ranked as the most influential woman in the world. Winfrey was born into poverty in rural Mississippi to a teenage single mother and raised in inner-city Milwaukee, she has stated that she was molested during her childhood and early teens and became pregnant at 14. Winfrey was sent to live with the man she calls her father, Vernon Winfrey, a barber in Tennessee, landed a job in radio while still in high school. By 19, she was a co-anchor for the local evening news. Winfrey's emotional, extemporaneous delivery led to her transfer to the daytime talk show arena, after boosting a third-rated local Chicago talk show to first place, she launched her own production company and became internationally syndicated.
Credited with creating a more intimate confessional form of media communication, Winfrey popularized and revolutionized the tabloid talk show genre pioneered by Phil Donahue. Through this medium, Winfrey broke 20th-century taboos and allowed LGBT people to enter the mainstream through television appearances. In 1994, she was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame. By the mid-1990s, Winfrey had reinvented her show with a focus on literature, self-improvement and spirituality. Though she was criticized for unleashing a confession culture, promoting controversial self-help ideas, having an emotion-centered approach, she has been praised for overcoming adversity to become a benefactor to others. Winfrey had emerged as a political force in the 2008 presidential race, delivering about one million votes to Barack Obama in the razor close 2008 Democratic primary. In 2013, Winfrey was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama and honorary doctorate degrees from Duke and Harvard.
In 2008, she formed Oprah Winfrey Network. Winfrey's first name was spelled "Orpah" on her birth certificate after the biblical figure in the Book of Ruth, but people mispronounced it and "Oprah" stuck, she was born in Mississippi, to an unmarried teenage mother. She said that her conception was due to a single sexual encounter and the couple broke up not long after, her mother, Vernita Lee, was a housemaid. Winfrey's biological father is noted as Vernon Winfrey, a coal miner turned barber turned city councilman, in the Armed Forces when she was born. However, Mississippi farmer and World War II veteran Noah Robinson Sr. has claimed to be her biological father. A genetic test in 2006 determined that her matrilineal line originated among the Kpelle ethnic group, in the area that today is Liberia, her genetic makeup was determined to be 89% Sub-Saharan African, 8% Native American, 3% East Asian. However, the East Asian markers may, given the imprecision of genetic testing be Native American. After Winfrey's birth, her mother traveled north, Winfrey spent her first six years living in rural poverty with her maternal grandmother, Hattie Mae Lee, so poor that Winfrey wore dresses made of potato sacks, for which the local children made fun of her.
Her grandmother taught her to read before the age of three and took her to the local church, where she was nicknamed "The Preacher" for her ability to recite Bible verses. When Winfrey was a child, her grandmother would hit her with a stick when she did not do chores or if she misbehaved in any way. At age six, Winfrey moved to an inner-city neighborhood in Milwaukee, with her mother, less supportive and encouraging than her grandmother had been as a result of the long hours she worked as a maid. Around this time, Lee had given birth to another daughter, Winfrey's younger half-sister, Patricia who died of causes related to cocaine addiction. By 1962, Lee was having difficulty raising both daughters so Winfrey was temporarily sent to live with Vernon in Nashville, Tennessee. While Winfrey was in Nashville, Lee gave birth to a third daughter, put up for adoption and was also named Patricia. Winfrey did not learn she had a second half-sister until 2010. By the time Winfrey moved back with her mother, Lee had given birth to a boy named Jeffrey, Winfrey's half-brother, who died of AIDS-related causes in 1989.
Winfrey has stated she was molested by her cousin, a family friend, starting when she was nine years old, something she first announced to her viewers on a 1986 episode of her TV show regarding sexual abuse. When Winfrey discussed the alleged abuse with family members at age 24, they refused to believe her account. Winfrey once commented that she had chosen not to be a mother because she had not been mothered well. At 13, after suffering what she described as years of abuse, Winfrey ran away from home; when she was 14, she became pregnant but her son was born prematurely and he died shortly after birth. Winfrey stated she felt betrayed by the family member who had sold the story of her son to the National Enquirer in 1990, she began attending Lincoln High School in Milwaukee, but after early success i
Ralph Story was an American television and radio personality. He was best known as the host of The $64,000 Challenge from 1956 to 1958, as the writer and host of Ralph Story's Los Angeles from 1964 to 1970. Story was born Ralph Bernard Snyder in Michigan, he started his broadcasting career in the late 1940s, after serving as a United States Army Air Forces flight instructor and P-51 fighter pilot during World War II. Story had his big break in broadcasting in 1948, when he was hired to host and direct an early morning show on KNX radio in Los Angeles. At the suggestion of the station's managers, he changed his name to Ralph Story. Story's casual style and witty observations about life in Los Angeles made him a popular host and won him national recognition. Story moved into network television, where, in 1956, he began hosting the hugely popular game show, The $64,000 Challenge; the CBS show was canceled in 1958 while several networks were embroiled in allegations that popular contestants were supplied with answers in advance.
Story, not implicated in the scandal, returned to local broadcasting in 1960. He returned to KNX, this time anchoring a news program and joined The Big News, one of the nation's first hour-long local TV newscasts, on KNXT-TV, his regular feature, "Human Predicament," about people caught in unusual events and situations, became a popular segment. It developed into a local news magazine program about the people and places of Los Angeles called Ralph Story's Los Angeles, it aired for six years. Ralph Story's Los Angeles aired from 1964 to 1970 on KNXT. Created by producer/director Dan Gingold, it featured the work of two exceptional writers, Jere Witter and Nate Kaplan. Wittily hosted by Story, the show examined interesting features and sites documenting the history and culture of Los Angeles. Generations of Angelenos developed a passion for their city as a result of this documentary-style show. Select episodes of Ralph Story's Los Angeles are housed at the UCLA Film & Television Archive and are available for public viewing by advance appointment via the Archive Research and Study Center located in Powell Library, room 46 on the UCLA campus.
Story joined KABC-TV in February 1971, co-hosting AM Los Angeles, a morning news show with Stephanie Edwards and newsman Bob Banfield that became the precursor to Good Morning America. In one episode, they explored the way that a new Baskin-Robbins ice cream flavor was developed by creating the Apricot Marmalade flavor; when the program evolved into GMA and moved to New York City, Story stayed in Los Angeles, where he continued working as a writer and reporter for several TV stations. After a brief stint on KNBC, he returned to KNXT in 1978 as an evening anchor. In 1985, Story retired and moved to Santa Barbara County's wine region, where he and his second wife, operated an art gallery in Los Olivos. In 1989, Ralph appeared in the television film, "Ernest Goes to Splash Mountain", shot in Disneyland, he volunteered for numerous civic groups, serving as a fundraiser for public television stations, narrator for the Hollywood Bowl and judge of the Rose Parade. He died on September 26, 2006 in Santa Ynez, California from complications due to emphysema, was survived by his wife and one son from his first marriage.
His interment was at Oak Hill Cemetery in California. In 1984, the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences honored him with its highest honor, the Governor's Award. After Story's death, Hollywood columnist Rona Barrett said that "no one told a story on television better than Ralph." Former colleague Warren Olney described Ralph Story as "a master of the craft." Ralph Story on IMDb
WABC-TV, channel 7, is the flagship station of the ABC television network, licensed to New York City. WABC-TV is owned by the ABC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company; the station's studios and offices are located on Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, adjacent to ABC's corporate headquarters. WABC-TV is best known in broadcasting circles for its version of the Eyewitness News format and for its morning show, syndicated nationally by corporate cousin Disney–ABC Domestic Television. In the few areas of the eastern United States where an ABC station isn't receivable over-the-air, WABC is available on satellite via DirecTV; the station signed on August 10, 1948, as WJZ-TV, the first of three television stations signed on by ABC during that same year, with WENR-TV in Chicago and WXYZ-TV in Detroit being the other two. Channel 7's call letters came from its then-sister radio station, WJZ. In its early years, WJZ-TV was programmed much like an independent station, as the ABC television network was still, for the most part, in its early stages of development.
The station's original transmitter site was located at The Pierre Hotel at 2 East 61st Street, before moving to the Empire State Building a few years later. The station's original studios were located at 77 West 66th Street, with additional studios at 7 West 66th Street. An underground tunnel linked ABC studios at 7 West 66th Street to the lobby of the Hotel des Artistes, a block north on West 67th Street. Another studio inside the Hotel des Artistes was used for Eyewitness News Conference; the station's call letters were changed to WABC-TV on March 1, 1953 after ABC merged its operations with United Paramount Theatres, a firm, broken off from former parent company Paramount Pictures by decree of the U. S. government. The WJZ-TV callsign was reassigned to Westinghouse Broadcasting as an historical nod in 1957 for their newly acquired television station in Baltimore – a station that was, by coincidence, an ABC affiliate until 1995; as part of ABC's expansion program, initiated in 1977, ABC built 7 Lincoln Square on the southeast corner of West 67th Street and Columbus Avenue, on the site of an abandoned moving and storage warehouse.
At about the same time, construction was started at 30 West 67th Street on the site of a former parking lot. Both buildings were completed in June 1979 and WABC-TV moved its offices from 77 West 66th Street to 7 Lincoln Square. On September 11, 2001, the transmitter facilities of WABC-TV, as well as eight other local television stations and several radio stations, were destroyed when two hijacked airplanes crashed into and destroyed the north and south towers of the World Trade Center. WABC-TV's transmitter maintenance engineer Donald DiFranco died in the attack. In the immediate aftermath, the station fed its signal to WNYE-TV and WHSE-TV, before establishing temporary facilities at the Armstrong Tower in Alpine, New Jersey; the station established transmission facilities at the Empire State Building. On May 27, 2007, WABC-TV's studios suffered major damage as the result of a fire that knocked the station off the air shortly before the start of the 11:00 p.m. Newscast. According to preliminary reports, the fire may have been ignited by a spotlight coming into contact with a curtain inside the news studio.
The station's building was evacuated and the fire was brought under control, though the studio was said to be "badly damaged", having suffered smoke and water damage. WABC-TV resumed broadcasting at around 1:00 a.m. on May 28, 2007. Due to the fire, the station broadcast Eyewitness News from the newsroom, while Live! with Regis and Kelly, whose set was affected, moved to the set of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. Starting with the 5:00 p.m. Newscast on June 20, 2007, the station resumed the Eyewitness News and Live... broadcasts from its main studios at Columbus Avenue and 66th Street. WABC-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 7, at 12:30 p.m. on June 12, 2009, as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television. The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 45 to VHF channel 7. WABC's digital signal was difficult to receive over-the-air in New York City; the station was requested by Federal Communications Commission to broadcast at a lower power.
On June 29, 2009, WABC filed an application with the FCC to increase power from 11.69 kW to 27 kW. On January 31, 2010, the FCC granted a special temporary authority for the station to increase power to 26.9 kW. In May 2013, WABC-TV and Philadelphia sister station WPVI-TV became the first two ABC-owned stations to offer live, web-based streaming of programming to authenticated subscribers of participating cable and satellite television providers as provided through the relaunched Watch ABC mobile apps. On March 7, 2010 at 12:02 a.m. WABC-TV's signal was removed from Cablevision's New York area systems after failing to reach terms on a new retransmission consent agreement. To avoid interruption of programmin
Captain Kangaroo is an American children's television series that aired weekday mornings on the American television network CBS from October 3, 1955, until December 8, 1984, making it the longest-running nationally broadcast children's television program of its day. In 1986, the American Program Service integrated some newly produced segments into reruns of past episodes, distributing the newer version of the series on PBS until 1993; the show was conceived and the title character was played by Bob Keeshan, who based the show on "the warm relationship between grandparents and children". Keeshan had portrayed the original Clarabell the Clown on The Howdy Doody Show when it aired on NBC. Captain Kangaroo had a loose structure, built around life in the "Treasure House" where the Captain would tell stories, meet guests, indulge in silly stunts with regular characters, both humans and puppets. Keeshan performed as the Captain more than 9,000 times over the nearly 30-year run of the show; the May 17, 1971, episode had two major changes on the show: The Treasure House was renovated and renamed "The Captain's Place" and the Captain replaced his navy blue coat with a red coat.
In September 1981, CBS shortened the hour-long show to a half-hour retitled it Wake Up with the Captain, moved it to an earlier time slot. Captain Kangaroo was cancelled by CBS at the end of 1984. Bob Keeshan as Captain Kangaroo, Mr. Pennywhistle, Mr. Doodle and the Town Clown Hugh "Lumpy" Brannum as Mr. Green Jeans, the New Old Folk Singer, Uncle Backwards, Mr. McGregor, Mr. Bainter the Painter Cosmo Allegretti appeared as Mr. Bunny Rabbit and Mr. Moose, Dennis the Apprentice, Miss Frog, Mr. Whispers, Dancing Bear, Grandfather Clock, Uncle Ralph; the opening sequence could change. The show began with the theme music starting up the Captain would unlock and open the doors of the Treasure House from the inside, viewers would catch their first glimpse of him, he would put the Treasure House keys on a nail, the music would stop. However, sometimes the Captain could not get the keys to stay on the nail, when they fell off, the theme music would begin playing again. One never knew what would happen from one episode to the next, although at certain times of the year, such as the Christmas season, paper cutout versions of such stories as The Littlest Snowman would be shown.
Several cartoon shorts were featured over the course of the series' run, including: A cartoon starring a funnel-capped shape-shifting boy named Tom Terrific was part of the show in the 1950s and 1960s. Tom had a sidekick named Mighty Manfred the Wonder Dog, a nemesis, Crabby Appleton. Other cartoons included Lariat Sam, whose nemesis was Badlands Meanie, developed by veteran game show announcer Gene Wood a show staffer; the British cartoon Simon in the Land of Chalk Drawings appeared in the 1970s, featuring a child with magic chalk who could create all sorts of short-lived creations in short adventures. Another British-produced cartoon, about a magical egg-shaped robot, was included around the same time as Simon; the cartoon's musical score consisted of selections from the works of Beethoven. Appearing in the 1970s was The Most Important Person, a series of five-minute segments on the importance of life, The Kingdom of Could Be You, a series of five-minute segments on the importance of careers and the work world.
The cartoon series called The Toothbrush Family was based on an extended family of hygiene utensils, as the name suggests. Episodes were a few minutes each and revolved around teaching children the importance of dental care. A silent cartoon in the 1970s named Crystal Tipps and Alistair featured the adventures of a young girl and her dog. Reruns were narrated by the voice of Mr. Moose. Another British favorite, The Wombles, was featured; the The Red and the Blue shorts from Italy were shown. The Undersea Adventures of Captain Nemo, featuring a family of sea explorers, was featured, as well. Beginning in 1974 and continuing throughout the rest of the 1970s and into the 1980s, the show opened with different people wishing the Captain "good morning". Many of the openings featured noncelebrities, but some fe
The Oprah Winfrey Show
The Oprah Winfrey Show referred to as Oprah, is an American syndicated talk show that aired nationally for 25 seasons from September 8, 1986, to May 25, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois. Produced and hosted by its namesake, Oprah Winfrey, it remains the highest-rated daytime talk show in American television history; the show was influential, many of its topics have penetrated into the American pop-cultural consciousness. Winfrey used the show as an educational platform, featuring book clubs, self-improvement segments, philanthropic forays into world events; the show did not attempt to profit off the products. Oprah had its roots in A. M. Chicago, a half-hour morning talk show airing on WLS-TV, an ABC owned-and-operated station in Chicago. Winfrey took over as host on January 2, 1984 and, within a month, took it from last place to first place in local Chicago ratings. Following Winfrey's success in—and Academy Award and Golden Globe nominations for-her performance as Sofia in the film The Color Purple, on September 8, 1986, the talk show was relaunched under its current title and picked up nationally.
For the premiere, the show's producers tried rigorously to book Miami Vice's Don Johnson as the first guest trying to bribe him with Dom Pérignon and a pair of rhinestone sunglasses. All attempts to book Johnson failed and Winfrey decided to "do what we do best, and, a show about and with everyday people"; the topic for the premiere show was "How to Marry the Man or Woman of Your Choice". Oprah was one of the longest-running daytime television talk shows in history; the show received 47 Daytime Emmy Awards before Winfrey chose to stop submitting it for consideration in 2000. In 2002, TV Guide ranked it at #49 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, they ranked it as the 19th greatest TV show of all time. In November 2009, Winfrey announced that the show would conclude in 2011 following its 25th and final season; the series finale aired on May 25, 2011. Winfrey interviewed a plethora of public figures and everyday people during the show's 25-year history; when celebrities and newsmakers were ready to share their most intimate secrets their first stop was Winfrey's couch and when a serious story hit, the Oprah show focused on putting a human face on the headlines.
Winfrey claims her worst interviewing experience was with Elizabeth Taylor in the show's second season. Just before the interview, Taylor asked Winfrey not to ask any questions about her relationships. Winfrey found this to be a challenge considering. Taylor returned to the show in 1992, apologized to Winfrey and told her that she was in excruciating back and hip pain at the time. On February 10, 1993, Winfrey sat down in a prime-time special broadcast with Michael Jackson, who had performed nine days earlier in the Super Bowl XXVII halftime show, for what would become the most-watched interview in television history. Jackson, an intensely private entertainer, had not given an interview in 14 years; the event was broadcast live from Jackson's Neverland Ranch and was watched by 90 million people worldwide result his studio album Dangerous on the top-ten charts. Jackson discussed missing out on a normal childhood and his strained relationship with his father, Joe Jackson. During the interview, Jackson attempted to dispel many of the rumors surrounding him and told Winfrey he suffered from the skin-pigment disorder known as vitiligo when asked about the change in the color of his skin.
While admitting to getting a nose job, he denied all other plastic surgery rumors. In the interview, Jackson was joined by his close friend Elizabeth Taylor, her third appearance on the show. Winfrey's interview with Tom Cruise, broadcast on May 23, 2005 gained notoriety. Cruise "jumped around the set, hopped onto a couch, fell rapturously to one knee and professed his love for his then-girlfriend, Katie Holmes." This scene became part of American pop-cultural discourse and was parodied in media. Celine Dion appeared on the show 28 times, the most of any celebrity, besides Gayle King, Winfrey's best friend, who appeared 141 times. Winfrey interviewed Chicago's "Guardian Angels" and Raymond Lear in 1988. Winfrey interviewed Kathy Bray three weeks after her 10-year-old son, was accidentally killed by a friend who had found his father's gun. Viewers commented that the interview changed their feelings about having guns in their homes. In the 1989–90 season, Truddi Chase—a woman, diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder, having 92 distinct personalities—appeared on the show.
Chase had been violently and sexually abused beginning at the age of two and said her old self ceased to exist after that. After introducing Chase, there to promote her book When Rabbit Howls, Winfrey unexpectedly broke down in tears while reading the teleprompter, relating her own childhood molestation to that of the guest. Unable to control herself, Winfrey asked producers to stop filming. Erin Kramp, a mother dying of breast cancer, appeared on the show in 1998. After realizing that her six-year-old daughter, would have to grow up without her, Kramp began recording videotapes filled with motherly advice on everything from makeup tips to finding a husband, she wrote letters and bought gifts for Peyton to open every Christmas and birthday she was gone. Kramp lost her battle with cancer on October 31, 1998, she had recorded over a hundred audiotapes for her daughter. Jo Ann Compton's daughter Laurie Ann was stabbed to death in 1988—and a decade the mom was tangled in her grief. "I hope they're in the same hell