The Raytheon Company is a major U. S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles. Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959; as of 2017 the company had around 64,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of US$25.35 billion. More than 90% of Raytheon's revenues were obtained from military contracts and, as of 2012, it was the fifth-largest military contractor in the world; as of 2015, it is the third largest defense contractor in the United States by defense revenue. In 2003, Raytheon's headquarters moved from Massachusetts, to Waltham, Massachusetts; the company had been headquartered in Cambridge, from 1922 to 1928, Massachusetts, from 1928 to 1941, Waltham from 1941 to 1961 and Lexington from 1961 to 2003. In 1922, two former Tufts University School of Engineering roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Its focus, on new refrigeration technology, soon shifted to electronics. The company's first product was a gaseous rectifier, based on Charles Smith's earlier astronomical research of the star Zeta Puppis; the electron tube was christened with the name Raytheon and was used in a battery eliminator, a type of radio-receiver power supply that plugged into the power grid in place of large batteries. This made it possible to convert household alternating current to direct current for radios and thus eliminate the need for expensive, short-lived batteries. In 1925, the company changed its name to Raytheon Manufacturing Company and began marketing its rectifier, under the Raytheon brand name, with commercial success. In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q. R. S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor of the same name, Raytheon Manufacturing Company. By the 1930s, it had grown to become one of the world's largest vacuum tube manufacturing companies. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, electronic auto parts.
Early in World War II, physicists in the United Kingdom invented the magnetron, a specialized microwave-generating electron tube that markedly improved the capability of radar to detect enemy aircraft. American companies were sought by the US government to perfect and mass-produce the magnetron for ground-based and shipborne radar systems, with support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory, Raytheon received a contract to build the devices. Within a few months of being awarded the contract, Raytheon had begun to mass manufacture magnetron tubes for use in radar sets and complete radar systems. At war's end in 1945 the company was responsible for about 80 percent of all magnetrons manufactured. During the war Raytheon pioneered the production of shipboard radar systems for submarine detection. Raytheon ranked 71st among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Raytheon's research on the magnetron tube revealed the potential of microwaves to cook food.
In 1945, Raytheon's Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven by discovering that the magnetron could heat food. In 1947, the company demonstrated the Radarange microwave oven for commercial use. In 1945, the company expanded its electronics capability through acquisitions that included the Submarine Signal Company, a leading manufacturer of maritime safety equipment. With its broadened capabilities, Raytheon developed the first guidance system for a missile that could intercept a flying target. In 1948, Raytheon began to manufacture guided missiles. In 1950, its Lark missile became the first such weapon to destroy a target aircraft in flight. Raytheon received military contracts to develop the air-to-air Sparrow and ground-to-air Hawk missiles—projects that received impetus from the Korean War. In decades, it remained a major producer of missiles, among them the Patriot antimissile missile and the air-to-air Phoenix missile. In 1959, Raytheon acquired the marine electronics company Apelco Applied Electronics, which increased its strength in commercial marine navigation and radio gear, as well as less-expensive Japanese suppliers of products such as marine/weather band radios and direction-finding gear.
In the same year, it changed its name to Raytheon Company. During the post-war years, Raytheon made low- to medium-powered radio and television transmitters and related equipment for the commercial market, but the high-powered market was solidly in the hands of larger, better financed competitors such as Continental Electronics, General Electric and Radio Corporation of America. In the 1950s, Raytheon began manufacturing transistors, including the CK722, priced and marketed to hobbyists. In 1961, the British electronics company A. C. Cossor merged with Raytheon; the new Company's name was Raytheon Cossor. The Cossor side of the organisation is still current in the Raytheon group As of 2010. In 1965, it acquired Amana Inc. a manufacturer of refrigerators and air conditioners. Using the Amana brand name and its distribution channels, Raytheon began selling the first countertop household microwave oven in 1967 and became a dominant manufacturer in the microwave oven business. In 1966, the company entered the educational publ
AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite
The AN/SLQ-32 is a shipboard electronic warfare suite built by the Raytheon Company of Goleta and The Hughes Aircraft Company. It is the primary electronic warfare system in use by U. S. Navy ships. Referred to by its operators as the "slick-32"; the SLQ-32 was conceived in the 1970s to augment the AN/WLR-1, in service since the early 1960s. It was determined to save costs to replace the various WLR-1 series suites with the SLQ-32 as a stand-alone system; as designed, the SLQ-32 was produced in three variants, the 1, 2 and 3. In its service life, two additional versions were built, the 4 and 5; the Air Transport Rack sized processors were supplied by ROLM Mil-Spec Computers in San Jose, CA. SLQ-321 – A simple threat warning receiver, it was capable of receiving high-band radar signals of the type carried on missiles and aircraft; the 1 was installed on small combatants such as frigates. This variant of the system is being phased out as current ships equipped become decommissioned. SLQ-322 – Initially the most common variant, the 2 added the ability to receive surveillance and targeting radars.
This provided a passive targeting capability for Harpoon missile-equipped ships. The 2 was installed on frigates, 270-foot Coast Guard Cutters. SLQ-323 – Expanding on the 2's capabilities, the 3 added active radar-jamming capability; the 3 was installed on various combatants such as cruisers, large amphibious ships and high-value replenishment vessels. SLQ-324 – Designed for installation on aircraft carriers, the 4 consisted of two 3 systems, one for each side of the ship, tied to a common computer and display console. Additional line replaceable units and software were added to support the wide separation of the two antenna/electronics enclosures. SLQ-325 – The 5 was built as a response to the Stark incident in 1987; the 5 incorporated a compact version of the 3 system intended to give active jamming capability to the Perry class FFG's, which were too small to carry a full 3. All versions of the SLQ-32, with the exception of the 4, are interfaced with the MK36 Decoy Launching System, able to launch chaff and infrared decoys under the control of the SLQ-32.
The number and arrangement of MK36 launchers installed depends on the size of the ship, ranging from two launchers on a small combatant to as many as ten on an aircraft carrier. A growing number of systems are being upgraded to incorporate the multi-national MK-53 Nulka system; the original modular design was intended to allow upgrades of the system from one variant to the next by installing additional equipment as required. Starting in the early 1990s, a program was begun to upgrade all SLQ-32s in the U. S. fleet. Most 1 systems were upgraded to 2, most 2 systems were upgraded to 3; this was carried out during a major ship overhaul. The initial procurement process was built around a “design to price” concept in which the final delivery cost per system was fixed in the contract; the SLQ-32 was designed to support the protection of ships against anti-ship missiles in an open sea environment. After initial deployment of the system, naval roles began to change requiring ships to operate much closer to shore in denser signal environments.
This change in roles required changes to the SLQ-32 systems. With experience gained working with the SLQ-32, coupled with improvements to the hardware and software and operators overcame the initial problems; the SLQ-32 is now the mainstay of surface electronic warfare in the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard's WMEC 270-foot Class Ships. In 1996, a program called the Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System was begun to develop a replacement for the SLQ-32. Designated the AN/SLY-2, AIEWS reached the prototype stage by 1999, but funding was withdrawn in April 2002 due to ballooning costs and constant delays in the projects development, it has since been replaced with Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program, which will replace the existing SLQ-32 hardware and technology in an evolutionary fashion. As of September 2013 SEWIP Block 2 upgrades were first installed on Burke-class destroyers in 2014, with full-rate production scheduled for mid-2015. Block 2 improved detection capabilities. SEWIP Block 2 was tested on USS Freedom in December 2014.
Electronic Warfare ELINT U. S. Navy Raytheon Federation of American Scientists: AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare system Raytheon Product Description for the AN/SLQ-32 AN/SLQ-32 in the Warfighters Encyclopedia AN/SLQ-325 Data Sheet EXHIBIT R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program
The AGM-88 HARM is a tactical, air-to-surface anti-radiation missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions coming from surface-to-air radar systems. It was developed by Texas Instruments as a replacement for the AGM-45 Shrike and AGM-78 Standard ARM system. Production was taken over by Raytheon Corporation when it purchased the defense production business of Texas Instruments; the AGM-88 can detect and destroy a radar antenna or transmitter with minimal aircrew input. The proportional guidance system that homes in on enemy radar emissions has a fixed antenna and seeker head in the missile's nose. A smokeless, solid-propellant, booster-sustainer rocket motor propels the missile at speeds over Mach 2.0. The HARM missile was a program led by the U. S. Navy, it was first carried by the A-6E, A-7, F/A-18A/B aircraft, it equipped the EA-6B aircraft. RDT&E for use on the F-14 aircraft was begun, but not completed; the U. S. Air Force put the HARM onto the F-4G Wild Weasel aircraft, on specialized F-16s equipped with the HARM Targeting System.
The HTS pod, used by the USAF, allows F-16 to detect and automatically target radars with HARMs instead of relying on the missile's sensors alone. The HARM missile was approved for full production in March 1983, obtained initial operating capability on the A-7E Corsair II in late 1983 and deployed in late 1985 with VA-46 aboard the aircraft carrier USS America. In 1986, the first successful firing of the HARM from an EA-6B was performed by VAQ-131, it was soon used in combat—in March 1986 against a Libyan SA-5 site in the Gulf of Sidra, during Operation Eldorado Canyon in April. HARM was used extensively by the Navy, Marine Corps, the Air Force in Operation Desert Storm during the Persian Gulf War of 1991. During the Gulf War, the HARM was involved in a friendly fire incident when the pilot of an F-4G Wild Weasel escorting a B-52 bomber mistook the latter's tail gun radar for an Iraqi AAA site; the F-4 pilot launched the missile and saw that the target was the B-52, hit. It survived with shrapnel damage to no casualties.
The B-52 was subsequently renamed In HARM's Way."Magnum" is spoken over the radio to announce the launch of an AGM-88. During the Gulf War, if an aircraft was illuminated by enemy radar a bogus "Magnum" call on the radio was enough to convince the operators to power down; this technique would be employed in Serbia during air operations in 1999. In 2013 President Obama offered the AGM-88 to Israel for the first time; the newest upgrade, the AGM-88E Advanced Antiradiation Guided Missile, features the latest software, enhanced capabilities intended to counter enemy radar shutdown, passive radar using an additional active millimeter-wave seeker. It was released in November 2010, it is a joint venture by the US Department of Defense and the Italian Ministry of Defense, produced by Orbital ATK. In November 2005, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the U. S. Department of Defense signed a Memorandum of Agreement on the joint development of the AGM-88E AARGM missile. Italy was providing $20 million of developmental funding as well as several million dollars worth of material and related services.
The Italian Air Force was expected to buy up to 250 missiles for its Tornado ECR aircraft. A flight test program was set to integrate the AARGM onto Tornado ECR's weapon system; the U. S. Navy demonstrated the AARGM's capability during Initial Operational Test and Evaluation in spring 2012 with live firing of 12 missiles. Aircrew and maintenance training with live missiles was completed in June; the Navy authorized Full-Rate Production of the AARGM in August 2012, with 72 missiles for the Navy and nine for the Italian Air Force to be delivered in 2013. A U. S. Marine Corps F/A-18 Hornet squadron will be the first forward-deployed unit with the AGM-88E. In September 2013, ATK delivered the 100th AARGM to the U. S. Navy; the AGM-88E program is on schedule and on budget, with Full Operational Capability planned for September 2014. The AGM-88E was designed to improve the effectiveness of legacy HARM variants against fixed and relocatable radar and communications sites those that would shut down to throw off anti-radiation missiles, by attaching a new seeker to the existing Mach 2-capable rocket motor and warhead section, adding a passive anti-radiation homing receiver and inertial navigation system, a millimeter-wave radar for terminal guidance, the ability to beam up images of the target via a satellite link just seconds before impact.
This model of the HARM will be integrated onto the F/A-18C/D, F/A-18E/F, EA-18G, Tornado ECR aircraft, on the F-35. In September 2015, the AGM-88E hit a mobile ship target in a live-fire test, demonstrating the missile's ability to use antiradiation homing and millimeter-wave radar to detect, identify and engage moving targets; the Navy's FY 2016 budget included funding for an extended range AARGM-ER that utilizes the existing guidance system and warhead of the AGM-88E with a solid integrated rocket-ramjet for double the range. Development funding will last to 2020. In September 2016, Orbital ATK unveiled its extended-range AARGM-ER, which incorporates a redesigned control section and 11.5 in -diameter rocket motor for twice the range and internal carriage on the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II. The U. S. Navy awarded Orbital ATK an contract for AARGM-ER development in January 2018; the AARGM-ER would serve. Although the U. S. chose the Orbital ATK-produced AGM-88E, Raytheon created
The AN/AWG-9 and AN/APG-71 radars are all-weather, multi-mode X band pulse-Doppler radar systems used in the F-14 Tomcat, tested on TA-3B. It is a long-range air-to-air system with the capability of guiding several AIM-54 Phoenix or AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles at the same time using its track while scan mode; the primary difference between the AWG-9 and APG-71 is the replacement of the former's analog computer with all-digital computer. Both the AWG-9 and APG-71 were manufactured by Hughes Aircraft; the AWG-9 was developed for the failed naval F-111B program. The AN/AWG-9 offers a variety of air-to-air modes including long-range continuous-wave radar velocity search, range-while-search at shorter ranges, the first use of an airborne track-while-scan mode with the ability to track up to 24 airborne targets, display 18 of them on the cockpit displays, launch against 6 of them at the same time; this function was designed to allow the Tomcat to shoot down formations of bombers at long range. The AWG-9 was the result of a series of United States Navy programs to build what was known as a "fleet-defense fighter": an aircraft armed with long-range radars and missiles that would be able to engage formations of enemy aircraft well-away from aircraft carriers.
Their first attempt was the F6D Missileer, which combined Westinghouse's AN/APQ-81 pulse doppler radar with the Bendix AAM-N-10 Eagle missile. The Missileer was a simple aircraft, when planners expressed doubts about its ability to survive after firing its missiles, the Missileer was canceled and the Navy started looking for higher-performance alternatives. At the same time, the U. S. Air Force had been working on a similar long-range interceptor project of their own, the XF-108 Rapier; the Rapier had much better performance than the Missileer, although its AIM-47 Falcon and AN/ASG-18 radar, both from Hughes, were somewhat less advanced than their Navy counterparts. The entire system was very expensive, the Rapier was canceled, replaced by the less-expensive Lockheed YF-12 adapted from the Lockheed A-12 spy plane; this project was canceled as the strategic threat moved from bombers to ICBMs. The same was not true for the Navy, where the threat remained manned aircraft and early anti-ship missiles.
Hughes suggested that the AN/ASG-18 and AIM-47 could be adapted for the Navy in modified form, adding additional tracking capability while reducing the size of the radar antenna to a size more suitable for carrier aircraft. The result was Phoenix missile. All, needed was a suitable airframe, which led to the Navy's involvement in the F-111B program. Although the radar and missile systems started to mature the F-111B proved to be overweight and had marginal performance in engine-out situations. At the same time, real-world combat over Vietnam was proving that the idea of the all-missile fighter was not viable, any fighter design would have to be able to dogfight with guns, which the F-111 was not suited to; this should not be surprising given the F-111's genesis as interdictor. After many years in development and arguing with Congress, the Navy started development of a new aircraft tailored to their needs; the new aircraft emerged as the F-14, armed with the same AWG-9/AIM-54 outfit intended for the F-111B.
On the F-14, the AWG-9 is capable, its doppler system allows it to have look-down, shoot-down capabilities. Track-while-scan capability is provided by an Intel 8080 8-bit microprocessor. Hughes delivered enough AWG-9 systems and spares to equip 600 F-14A/B aircraft for the Navy, an additional 80 aircraft for the Iranian Air Force. All of the Navy systems have been retired; the APG-71 was a 1980s upgrade of the AWG-9 for use on the F-14D. It incorporates technology and common modules developed for the APG-70 radar used in the F-15E Strike Eagle, providing significant improvements in processing speed, mode flexibility, clutter rejection, detection range; the system features a low-sidelobe antenna, a sidelobe-blanking guard channel, monopulse angle tracking. The system itself is capable of a 460-mile range, but the antenna design limits this to only 230 miles. Use of datalinked data allows two or more F-14Ds to operate the system at its maximum range. Hughes delivered enough APG-71 radars and spares to equip 55 F-14Ds before the program was scaled back as a cost-cutting measure and canceled.
The F-14 was retired from United States Navy service on September 22, 2006, with the last flight occurring October 4, 2006. Sweetman and Bonds, Ray; the Great Book of Modern Warplanes. New York, New York: Crown Publishers, 1987. ISBN 0-517-63367-1 Track-While-Scan Concepts
The AN/ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infrared is a multi-sensor, electro-optical targeting pod incorporating thermographic camera, low-light television camera, target laser rangefinder/laser designator, laser spot tracker developed and manufactured by Raytheon. It is used to provide navigation and targeting for military aircraft in adverse weather and using precision-guided munitions such as laser-guided bombs, it is intended to replace the earlier AN/AAS-38 Nite Hawk pod in US Navy service. ATFLIR is 72 in long, weighs 420 lb, has a slant range of 40 mi, said to be useful at altitude of up to 50,000 ft, it has fewer parts than many previous systems, intended to improve serviceability. Crews indicate that it offers much greater target resolution and image accuracy than previous systems. ATFLIR presently is used only by the US Navy on the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and the earlier F/A-18C/D and with Marine Corps F/A-18Cs when deployed onboard aircraft carriers, it is carried on one of the fuselage hardpoints otherwise used for AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles.
410 pods were delivered to the U. S. Navy. Pods have been delivered to Switzerland and Australia, six pods will be delivered to Malaysia. Raytheon ATFLIR web page
The AN/PAS-13B Thermal Weapon Sight is an infrared sight developed for the United States military by Raytheon. The sight is designed for use on small arms in the U. S. military's inventory, but it can be used as a standalone observation device. The AN/PAS -13 B uses thermal imaging so that it can be used night. Thermal imaging allows the sight to see through smoke or fog, things that may obscure other night vision devices; the AN/PAS-13 first became operationally capable with the U. S. Army in 1998 and has reached a total production of 33,400 units. Due to the use of thermal imaging, the AN/PAS-13B does not require low levels of light to operate, it will not shut off like most night vision if hit directly by light; the thermal imaging sensor within the sight requires a low temperature to operate, so a cool-down time of less than 2 minutes is required at startup. The AN/PAS-13B comes in two variants, the Medium AN/PAS-13B1 and the Heavy AN/PAS-13B2; the Medium has a smaller telescope attached. Both AN/PAS-13Bs have programmable reticles, allowing the user to match the reticle to the weapon system the sight will be mounted on.
Some reticles included in the sight include those designed for the M16 Rifle, M4 Carbine, M60 Machine Gun, M240 Machine Gun, M249, M2 Machine Gun, MK19, M24 Sniper Weapon System, the GAU-21. The sight has a multi-function I/O port, allowing for video to be recorded or viewed from a location other than the eyepiece; when using the eyepiece, the rubber cup surrounding the eyepiece must be depressed to engage the display and cooling mechanism. The image displayed for the user is white; the user has the ability to select whether white or black will represent hotter objects by selecting "black hot" or "white hot". AN/PAS -13 Bs are powered by standard military rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. In November 2006, three new versions of the AN/PAS-13 were ordered by the U. S. military. The Thermal Weapon Sights II include three new versions, a Light and Heavy. All three models weigh less than the originals, weighing 1.8 lbs, 2.8 lbs, 3.9 lbs respectively. This reduction in weight and size is due to improvements in the sensors, as well as the ability to now run the sights without being cooled.
The Medium and Heavy models maintain zooms of 5× and 10×, while the Light model has a zoom of 1.55× and a FOV of 15 degrees. All three models now run on lithium AA batteries, with the Light having a battery life of 5 hours, the Medium 6.5, the Heavy 6.5. The US Armed Forces designates version 2 as MTWS, version 3 as HTWS. A new variation, the AN/PAS-13G LWTS model, is much smaller and compact making it easier to use on the M16/M4 family of rifles, it is designed to be used with the ACOG, M68 Close Combat Optic
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co