ANAVEX2-73

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

ANAVEX2-73 is derived from aminotetrahydrofuran.[1] This drug is in Phase II trials for Alzheimer's disease, phase I trials for epilepsy, and in preclinical trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Rett syndrome, stroke.[2] ANAVEX2-73 acts as a muscarinic receptor and a moderate sigma1 receptor agonist.[1] ANAVEX2-73 may function as a pro-drug for ANAVEX19-144 as well as a drug itself. ANAVEX19-144 is the active metabolite of ANAVEX 1-41, which is similar to ANAVEX2-73 but it is not as selective for sigma receptor.[2]

Properties and uses[edit]

ANAVEX2-73 has an inhibitory constant (ki) lower than 500 nM for all M1–M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, demonstrating that it acts as a powerful antimuscarinic compound.[2] ANAVEX2-73 was originally tested in mice against the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, which induces learning impairment.[1] M1 receptor agonists are known to reverse the amnesia caused by scopolamine.[3] Scopolamine is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and motion sickness by reducing the secretions of the stomach and intestines and can also decreases nerve signals to the stomach,[3] this is via competitive inhibition of muscarinic receptors.[3] Muscarinic receptors are involved in the formation of both short term and long term memories.[1] Experiments in mice have found that M1 and M3 receptor agonists inhibit the formation of amyloid-beta and target GSK-3B.[clarification needed] Furthermore, stimulation of the M1 receptor activates AF267B, which in turn blocks B-secretase, which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce the amyloid-beta peptide. These amyloid-beta peptides aggregate together to form plaques, this enzyme[clarification needed] is involved in the formation of Tau plaques, which are common in Alzheimer's disease.[clarification needed][4] Therefore. M1 receptor activation appears to decreases tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-beta accumulation.[4]

Sigma1 activation appears to be only involved in long-term memory processes. This partly explains why ANAVEX2-73 seems to be more effective in reversing scopolamine-induced long-term memory problems compared to short-term memory deficits,[1] the sigma-1 receptor is located on mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes and modulates the ER stress response and local calcium exchanges with the mitochondria. ANAVEX2-73 prevented Aβ25-35-induced increases in lipid peroxidation levels, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which are indicative of elevated toxicity.[clarification needed] ANAVEX2-73 inhibits mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and therefore prevents against oxidative stress and apoptosis, this drug prevented the appearance of oxidative stress. ANAVEX2-73 also exhibits anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity, this is due in part because sigma-1 agonists stimulate the anti-apoptoic factor Bcl-2 due to reactive oxygen species dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear factor kB.[5] Results from Marice (2016) demonstrate that sigma1 compounds offer a protective potential, both alone and possibly with other agents like donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or the memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials of the mixed muscarinic receptor/sigma" (PDF). Journal of Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-05-25. 
  2. ^ a b c "ANAVEX 2-73 - AdisInsight". Adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 2016-05-25. 
  3. ^ a b c Malviya, M; Kumar, YC; Asha, D; Chandra, JN; Subhash, MN; Rangappa, KS (2008). "Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer's presenile dementia models". Bioorg Med Chem. 16: 7095–7101. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.053. 
  4. ^ a b Leal, NS; Schreiner, B; Pinho, CM; Filadi, R; Wiehager, B; Karlström, H; Pizzo, P; Ankarcrona, M (2016). "Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production". J Cell Mol Med. 20: 1686–1695. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12863. PMID 27203684. 
  5. ^ Lahmy, V; Long, R; Morin, D; Villard, V; Maurice, T (2015-09-28). "Mitochondrial protection by the mixed muscarinic/σ1 ligand ANAVEX2-73, a tetrahydrofuran derivative, in Aβ25-35 peptide-injected mice, a nontransgenic Alzheimer's disease model". Front Cell Neurosci. 8: 463. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00463. PMC 4299448Freely accessible. PMID 25653589. 
  6. ^ Maurice, T (2015-09-28). "Protection by sigma-1 receptor agonists is synergic with donepezil, but not with memantine, in a mouse model of amyloid-induced memory impairments". Behav. Brain Res. 296: 270–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.020. PMID 26386305.