Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work. It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field, peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic papers suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is common in decisions related to faculty advancement, a prototype professional peer-review process was recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī. He stated that a physician had to make duplicate notes of a patients condition on every visit.
Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process, law, engineering and even forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives and this may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Peer review is generally considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scientific journals, the European Union has been using peer review in the Open Method of Co-ordination of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999.
In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion and these usually meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation. The meeting is preceded by the compilation of a report on which participating peer countries submit comments. The results are published on the web, the State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity, particularly as a database search term
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
A textbook or coursebook is a manual of instruction in any branch of study. Textbooks are produced according to the demands of educational institutions, schoolbooks are textbooks and other books used in schools. Although most textbooks arent only published in printed format, many are now available as online electronic books, the ancient Greeks wrote texts intended for education. The modern textbook has its roots in the standardization made possible by the printing press, Johannes Gutenberg himself may have printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar by Aelius Donatus. Early textbooks were used by tutors and teachers, who used the books as instructional aids, the Greek philosopher Plato lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission were changing. Before the invention of the Greek alphabet 2,500 years ago and stories were recited aloud, the new technology of writing meant stories no longer needed to be memorized, a development Socrates feared would weaken the Greeks mental capacities for memorizing and retelling.
The next revolution for books came with the 15th-century invention of printing with changeable type, the invention is attributed to German metalsmith Johannes Gutenberg, who cast type in molds using a melted metal alloy and constructed a wooden-screw printing press to transfer the image onto paper. Gutenbergs invention made mass production of texts possible for the first time, compulsory education and the subsequent growth of schooling in Europe led to the printing of many standardized texts for children. Textbooks have become the primary teaching instrument for most children since the 19th century, two textbooks of historical significance in United States schooling were the 18th century New England Primer and the 19th century McGuffey Readers. Technological advances change the way people interact with textbooks and digital materials are making it increasingly easy for students to access materials other than the traditional print textbook. Students now have access to electronic and PDF books, online tutoring systems, an example of an electronically published book, or e-book, is Principles of Biology from Nature Publishing.
Most notably, a number of authors are foregoing commercial publishers. The textbook market does not operate in the manner as most consumer markets. First, the end consumers do not select the product, price is removed from the purchasing decision, giving the producer disproportionate market power to set prices high. This fundamental difference in the market is often cited as the reason that prices are out of control. The term broken market first appeared in the economist James Kochs analysis of the commissioned by the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance. This situation is exacerbated by the lack of competition in the textbook market, consolidation in the past few decades has reduced the number of major textbook companies from around 30 to just a handful. Consequently, there is less competition than there used to be, Students seek relief from rising prices through the purchase of used copies of textbooks, which tend to be less expensive
For documents that are XHTML1.0 and have made compatible in this way. When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, HTML4 defined three different versions of the language, Strict and Frameset. The Transitional and Frameset versions allow for presentational markup, which is omitted in the Strict version, cascading style sheets are encouraged to improve the presentation of HTML documents. Because XHTML1 only defines an XML syntax for the language defined by HTML4, as this list demonstrates, the loose versions of the specification are maintained for legacy support. However, contrary to popular misconceptions, the move to XHTML does not imply a removal of this legacy support, rather the X in XML stands for extensible and the W3C is modularizing the entire specification and opening it up to independent extensions. The primary achievement in the move from XHTML1.0 to XHTML1.1 is the modularization of the entire specification, the strict version of HTML is deployed in XHTML1.1 through a set of modular extensions to the base XHTML1.1 specification.
Likewise, someone looking for the loose or frameset specifications will find similar extended XHTML1.1 support, the modularization allows for separate features to develop on their own timetable. So for example, XHTML1.1 will allow quicker migration to emerging XML standards such as MathML, in summary, the HTML4 specification primarily reined in all the various HTML implementations into a single clearly written specification based on SGML. XHTML1.0, ported this specification, as is, next, XHTML1.1 takes advantage of the extensible nature of XML and modularizes the whole specification. XHTML2.0 was intended to be the first step in adding new features to the specification in a standards-body-based approach. The WHATWG considers their work as living standard HTML for what constitutes the state of the art in major browser implementations by Apple, Mozilla, Opera, hTML5 is specified by the HTML Working Group of the W3C following the W3C process. HTML lacks some of the found in earlier hypertext systems, such as source tracking, fat links
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and they are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, the term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields, this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Upon receipt of an article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by scholars of the editors choosing who typically remain anonymous. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, even accepted articles are often subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print.
The peer review can take several weeks to several months. Review articles, called reviews of progress, are checks on the published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms, some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a subject, others are selective. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field, some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions and they are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field. Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the books published by scholars, unlike articles.
Journals typically have a book review editor determining which new books to review. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editors request for a book review, publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook, an academic journals prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality
A book is a set of written, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are sold in some department stores and newspaper vendors. Books can be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published.
In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation.
Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
Charles Darwin University
Charles Darwin University is an Australian public university with about 22,083 students as of 2011. It is a member of the group of 7 Innovative Research Universities in Australia. CDU has campuses in the Darwin suburb of Casuarina, the city of Palmerston, a new Waterfront Campus opened in 2015 in the Darwin CBD which contains the Business School. The University offers a range of Higher Education degrees and Vocational Education and Training courses with flexible study options, including part-time, external. Charles Darwin University has evolved over the years through the merging of several education institutions. Darwin Community College, founded in 1974 and renamed Darwin Institute of Technology in 1984, was a combined College of Advanced Education and it was situated on what is now the Casuarina Campus, although it used other buildings at various times in Darwin. By the time of the formation of the Northern Territory University, it gave degrees in Arts, Business, the Menzies School of Health Research was established in 1985 as a body corporate of the Northern Territory Government under the Menzies Act 1985.
This Act was amended in 2004 to formalise the relationship with Charles Darwin University, Menzies is now a major partner of CDU and constitutes a school within the University on campus at CDU Casuarina offering post-graduate degrees and higher degrees by research. On several occasions the Government of the Northern Territory requested the Australian Commonwealth Government to finance a university in the Territory, the response was always that the population was too small. In 1985, it took the step of financing the University College of the Northern Territory itself for a five-year period from 1987 to 1991. The college was governed by a Council, chaired by Austin Asche and led by a Warden, Professor Jim Thomson, an arrangement was made with the University of Queensland that the College would awards degrees from that institution. Staff were recruited in 1986 and housed in the old Darwin Primary School buildings, just prior to taking the first students in February 1987, the College moved to converted building of the former Darwin Hospital at Myilly Point in Darwin.
The former Nurses Hostel became a student residence, named International House, the College had two Faculties, of Arts and Science. It awarded, through the University of Queensland link, the first Doctor of Philosophy degrees in the Northern Territory, Centralian College was founded in 1993 from the merger of Sadadeen Senior Secondary College and the Alice Springs College of TAFE. During its life, the college delivered senior secondary, TAFE and Higher Education through its campus in Alice Springs. Centralian College is a senior secondary school, for students from Year 10 to Year 12. Centralian College shares its campus with the Charles Darwin University campus of Alice Springs, Centralian College uses the universitys facilities and students attending Centralian College can participate in VET courses offered by CDU. The Northern Territory University was founded in January 1989 by a merger of the Darwin Institute of Technology, the merger was controversial, but forced by the so-called Dawkins Revolution under Federal Minister of Education John Dawkins
Australian National University
The Australian National University is a national research university located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. Its main campus in Acton encompasses seven teaching and research colleges, founded in 1946, it is the only university to have been created by the Parliament of Australia. ANU enrolls 10,052 undergraduate and 10,840 postgraduate students, the universitys endowment stood at A$1.13 billion in 2012. ANU is ranked 22nd in the world by the 2016/17 QS World University Rankings, ANU was named the worlds 7th most international university in a 2017 study by Times Higher Education. In the 2016 Times Higher Education Global Employability University Ranking, a ranking of university graduates employability. ANU is ranked 100th in the CWTS Leiden ranking, ANU counts six Nobel laureates and 49 Rhodes scholars among its faculty and alumni. The university has educated two prime ministers,30 current Australian ambassadors and more than a dozen current heads of Government departments of Australia, calls for the establishment of a national university in Australia began as early as 1900.
After the location of the capital, was determined in 1908. A group of eminent Australian scholars returned from overseas to join the university, including Sir Howard Florey, Sir Mark Oliphant, Sir Keith Hancock, economist Sir Douglas Copland was appointed as ANUs first Vice-Chancellor and former Prime Minister Stanley Bruce served as the first Chancellor. ANU was originally organised into four centres—the Research Schools of Physical Sciences, Social Sciences and Pacific Studies, the first residents’ hall, University House, was opened in 1954 for faculty members and postgraduate students. Mount Stromlo Observatory, established by the government in 1924. The first locations of the ANU Library, the Menzies and Chifley buildings, the Australian Forestry School, located in Canberra since 1927, was amalgamated by ANU in 1965. Canberra University College was the first institution of education in the national capital, having been established in 1929. Its founding was led by Sir Robert Garran, one of the drafters of the Australian Constitution, CUC was affiliated with the University of Melbourne and its degrees were granted by that university.
Academic leaders at CUC included historian Manning Clark, political scientist Finlay Crisp, in 1960, CUC was integrated into ANU as the School of General Studies, initially with faculties in arts, economics and science. Faculties in Oriental studies and engineering were introduced later, Bruce Hall, the first residential college for undergraduates, opened in 1961. The Canberra School of Music and the Canberra School of Art were amalgamated by ANU in 1992, ANU established its Medical School in 2002, after obtaining federal government approval in 2000. On 18 January 2003, the Canberra bushfires largely destroyed the Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU astronomers now conduct research from the Siding Spring Observatory, which contains 10 telescopes including the Anglo-Australian Telescope
Open access refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access and free of many restrictions on use. These additional usage rights are granted through the use of various specific Creative Commons licenses. There are multiple ways authors can provide access to their work. One way is to publish it and self-archive it in a repository where it can be accessed for free, such as their institutional repository and this is known as green open access. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when an output in a repository may be made open access. Several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus, SciELO and Redalyc. A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in such a way that makes their research output immediately available from the publisher. This is known as open access, and within the sciences this often takes the form of publishing an article in either an open access journal.
Pure open access journals do not charge fees, and may have one of a variety of business models. Many, however, do charge an article processing fee, widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, and prompted both the green open access way and the creation of open access journals. Conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, some non-open access journals provide open access after an embargo period of 6–12 months or longer. The Budapest statement defined open access as follows, There are many degrees, despite these statements emerging in the 2000s, the idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term open access was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s, the Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994. Gratis OA refers to online access, and libre OA refers to free online access plus some additional re-use rights.
The Budapest and Berlin definitions had corresponded only to libre OA, the re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses, these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors. Open access itself began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet, the momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or free to build upon. The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers, Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe to