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APG II system

The APG II system of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy, published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system. APG II was published as: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436; each of the APG systems represents the broad consensus of a number of systematic botanists, united in the APG, working at several institutions worldwide. The APG II system recognized 45 orders, five more than the APG system; the new orders were Austrobaileyales, Gunnerales and Crossosomatales, all of which were families unplaced as to order, although contained in supra-ordinal clades, in the APG system. APG II recognized five fewer than the APG system. Thirty-nine of the APG II families were not placed in any order, but 36 of the 39 were placed in a supra-ordinal clade within the angiosperms.

Fifty-five of the families came to be known as "bracketed families". They were optional segregates of families; the APG II system was adopted in whole or in part in a number of references. It was superseded 6½ years by the APG III system, published in October 2009. Main groups in the system: angiosperms: magnoliids monocots commelinids eudicots core eudicots rosids eurosids I eurosids II asterids euasterids I euasterids IIShown below is the classification in full detail, except for the fifteen genera and three families that were unplaced in APG II; the unplaced taxa were listed at the end of the appendix in a section entitled "Taxa of Uncertain Position". Under some of the clades are listed the families that were placed incertae sedis in that clade. Thirty-six families were so placed; this means. Paraphyletic grade basal angiosperms family Amborellaceae family Chloranthaceae family Nymphaeaceae order Austrobaileyales order Ceratophyllales clade magnoliids order Canellales order Laurales order Magnoliales order Piperales clade monocots family Petrosaviaceae order Acorales order Alismatales order Asparagales order Dioscoreales order Liliales order Pandanales clade commelinids family Dasypogonaceae order Arecales order Commelinales order Poales order Zingiberales clade eudicots family Buxaceae family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae order Proteales order Ranunculales clade core eudicots family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae order Gunnerales order Caryophyllales order Santalales order Saxifragales clade rosids family Aphloiaceae family Geissolomataceae family Ixerbaceae family Picramniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Vitaceae order Crossosomatales order Geraniales order Myrtales clade eurosids I family Zygophyllaceae family Huaceae order Celastrales order Cucurbitales order Fabales order Fagales order Malpighiales order Oxalidales order Rosales clade eurosids II family Tapisciaceae order Brassicales order Malvales order Sapindales clade asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade euasterids I family Boraginaceae family Icacinaceae family Oncothecaceae family Vahliaceae order Garryales order Gentianales order Lamiales order Solanales clade euasterids II family Bruniaceae family Columelliaceae family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae order Apiales order Aquifoliales order Asterales order DipsacalesNote: "+..." = optionally separate family, that may be split off from the preceding family.

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, Dahlgren. Examples include the works of Scopoli and Grisebach

Boonton Gorge

The Boonton Gorge is a river gorge in Boonton, New Jersey where the Rockaway River drops over several waterfalls, travels for over a mile before emptying into the Jersey City Reservoir. The Rockaway River flows through flat plains of Boonton Township. At this point elevation is 480 feet above sea level; the Rockaway River spills over a man made dam, six feet high in the town of Boonton. This is the beginning of the Boonton Gorge; this location is the Grace Lord Park at this point. This is. During the late Triassic Period when the North American Plate separated from the African Plate, an aborted rift system was created between the Ramapo Fault and a fault west of Paterson. A half graben was filled with red bed sediment; the land between the Ramapo fault and the fault west of Paterson lowered, thus the Boonton Gorge was born. The river flows over rocks cascades over a thirty foot water fall into an oval shaped pool of water with a rock in the center; this pool is about fifty yards long and was a swimming hole until a local ordinance prohibited swimming in 1990.

The river drops over a small falls of about seven feet and flows under an arched stone walk-way bridge. This is called the arch bridge; the river flows fast and drops into the second pool of water, not as wide as the first pool above. The water moves at a medium pace through this oval shaped pool before it starts its non-stop descent to the Jersey City Reservoir. At the end of the second pool, the river narrows; the water starts its descent through iron ore rock. There are one behind the other; the river goes under a railroad bridge and slows a little for about a hundred yards, when it drops over a three foot concrete USGS gauging station weir. Soon the river flows under Route 287; the river follows the east side of Route 287. At this point the river drops forty feet in a quarter of a mile, when it empties into the Jersey City Reservoir; the final descent is through a boulder garden. Before the Jersey City Reservoir was built, a dam was built on the Rockaway River in the late 1920s; the rapids would have continued for another half mile.

The rapids would have stopped in Parsippany. At this point the elevation is two hundred twenty feet above sea level. Before the dam was built, the river dropped a total of two hundred sixty feet in a half. There is a huge boulder of about fifteen feet high, it is known locally as "Indian Rock" though it has been known as "Washington Rock" in the past. There is a huge metal ring at the top of the boulder. Boonton Gorge contains a small, but well developed trail system for fishing access as well as recreation. Trails provide views of waterfalls; the trails on either side of the river are connected over the stone arch bridge, built in the 19th century. Historical Markers at some points highlight remains of the local iron industry which operated there in the 19th century. At two points along the trails, near the falls, there are yellow "Riverphones" for calling emergency responders in the event of an accident; these were installed in 1997 as part of a Boy Scout Project and are now administered by the Boonton Fire Dept.

The New Jersey Fish and Game stock the river with Rainbow and Brown trout several times a year in the spring. Stockings are on Mondays from early April to late May; the water is swift and there are a lot of snags, which makes the fishing challenging. The fishing is good. Though local authorities have discouraged kayaking and canoeing in Boonton Gorge, there is no local ordinance or state law prohibiting these activities and it has been a popular class IV-V whitewater run for many years. Whitewater paddlers begin above the stone arch bridge and paddle down to the gauging station or the edge of the Jersey City Reservoir; this section of river drops at a rate of 120 feet per mile. The river can be paddled from 2.7 ft. up to 5 ft. on the gauge. At a gauge reading of 2.7-3.2 ft, the river is a shallow and rocky and is rated class 3+ on the International Scale of River Difficulty. From 3.2 to 4 feet it is rated class 4, from 4 to 5 feet on the gage it is rated class 5. At 5 feet on the gage the river is considered in flood flowing at two thousand cubic feet a second.

At higher levels this section of river should only be attempted by paddlers comfortable on class 5 whitewater. Some local residents view this river section as dangerous, there have been two reported drownings in recent decades, one a teenage male swimmer in 1990, the other a young boy who fell into the river at high water in 1996. There do not seem to be any verified reports of drownings involving canoeing, tubing or rafting in Boonton Gorge since enthusiasts began running it in the 1970s, it has been reported that in the early 1970s, 4 youths went down the gorge in tire tubes and 2 drowned as they were not wearing life vests. American Whitewater River Inventory:Rockaway River through Boonton Gorge

Duel in the Sun (book)

Duel in the Sun: Alberto Salazar, Dick Beardsley, America's Greatest Marathon is a 2006 book by freelance sportswriter John Brant. Expanded from an article featured in Runner's World magazine, the book tells the story of two American distance runners, Dick Beardsley and Alberto Salazar, how their lives changed after both men ran the 1982 Boston Marathon. Brant, a regular contributor to Runner's World since 1985 and a contributing editor at Outside, uses a writing style in the book that relies on flashbacks and foreshadowing; the result of this style is that the story of the marathon and the story of the two men's lives are told throughout the book. Although the book has a plot and reads like a work of fiction, it is in fact a non-fiction work, the events described in the book occurred in real life; the early part of the book describes the preparations that Beardsley and Salazar underwent before the marathon, along with many other aspects of the men's running backgrounds and personal lives. There are three concurrent story lines: Beardsley's life, Salazar's life, the marathon itself.

It is revealed early on that Salazar, a renowned distance runner in the late 1970s and early'80's, was the favorite to win Boston. Beardsley, described as a small-town farmboy, is the underdog, but as the race progresses and the stories of the two men's lives are developed in greater detail, it becomes clear that both men will have a chance at winning the Boston Marathon, for Americans the most prestigious in the world. The story becomes an intense contest between Beardsley and Salazar as they leave the rest of the runners behind during the latter part of the marathon; the title comes from the two men's shadows cast by the hot sun onto the pavement as they run "in each other's pockets" during the final miles of the race, anticipation builds as to who will win the "duel." The shadow is featured prominently on the cover of the first edition as part of the title. After the race, the lives of both runners spiral downhill; the book describes in detail Salazar's depression and compromised immune system, Beardsley's industrial accident and drug addiction.

Salazar's father, Jose Salazar, was a Cuban expatriat who had fought alongside Fidel Castro to overthrow the government of Fulgencio Batista in the 1950s. Jose Salazar remained a Castro supporter until Castro aligned with the communists; this story and the influence it had on Alberto Salazar is told in some detail in one of the flashbacks during the early part of the book. The book has received positive reviews for its message, which some critics consider to be inspirational and uplifting. Other critics complain that the unique narrative style "creates distance instead of allowing readers into the runners' heads." Grandma's Marathon Greater Boston Track Club

Congo‚ÄďArab War

The Congo–Arab War took place in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo between the forces of Belgian King Leopold II's Congo Free State and various Zanzibari Arab slave traders led by Sefu bin Hamid, the son of Tippu Tip. Fighting occurred in the eastern Congo between 1892 and 1894, it was a proxy war, with most of the fighting being done by native Congolese, who aligned themselves with either side and sometimes switched sides. The causes of the war were economic based, since Leopold and the Arabs were contending to gain control of the wealth of the Congo; the war ended in January 1894 with a victory of Leopold's Force Publique. King Leopold II collaborated with the Arabs, but competition struck over the control of ivory and the topic of Leopold II's humanitarian pledges to the Berlin Conference to end slavery. Leopold II's stance turned confrontational against his once-allies; the war against the Swahili-Arab economic and political power was presented as a Christian anti-slavery crusade.

In 1886, while Tippu Tip was in Zanzibar, a dispute arose between a fort at Stanley Falls, led by Tippu Tip, a smaller, nearby Congo Free State fort led by Walter Deane and Lt Dubois. Tip's men at the Stanley Falls fort alleged that Deane had stolen a slave woman from an Arab officer there. Deane asserted that the girl had fled after being badly beaten by her master, that he had only offered her refuge. Tippu Tip's men attacked the fort — the Congo Free State fort was defended by the two officers, eighty Nigerian Hausas and sixty local militiamen — and after a four-day siege, the defenders ran out of ammunition and in the midst of abandoning the fort, fled; the Free State made no counterattack, Tippu Tip began to move more men into the Congo, including several Arab slaver captains and some Congolese leaders, such as Gongo Lutete. The authority of the Congo Free State was weak in the eastern regions of the Congo. In early 1887, Henry Morton Stanley arrived in Zanzibar and proposed that Tippu Tip —his real name was Hamad bin Muhammad bin Juma bin Rajab el Murjebi— be made governor of the Stanley Falls District in the Congo Free State.

Both Leopold II and Barghash bin Said agreed and on February 24, 1887, Tippu Tip accepted. Tippu Tip agreed to submit to Congo Free State authority and that he would allow a Congo Free State Resident by his side to help him govern this territory—inspired by the indirect rule governance system used by the British Empire and in the Dutch East Indies; the borders of his territories, were made up of the Lualaba River. Additionally Tippu Tip was to redirect his ivory trade through the Congo Free State, to the ports located at the Atlantic Ocean and he was to assist King Leopold II ‘s forces in their expeditions to the Upper Nile, to help further expand his territories. Soon after making this deal, it became apparent that Tippu Tip was not inclined to accept Congo Free State authority and considered himself more of a vassal than a state official, allowed to do as he pleased, within certain boundaries. Furthermore, Tippu Tip did not have absolute authority over the eastern Congo region, he was considered as a primus inter pares.

Other major slave traders like Rumaliza, the strongman of lake Tanganyika, considered his deal with the Congo Free State as treason. Rumaliza abolished the Congo Free State flag and swore loyalty to the red flag of the sultan of Zanzibar. Leopold II was criticized by the European public opinion, for his dealings with Tippu Tip. In Belgium, the Belgian Anti-Slavery Society was founded in 1888 by Roman Catholic intellectuals, led by count Hippolyte d'Ursel, aimed at abolishing the Arab slave trade. Around 1890-91, Tippu Tip returned to Zanzibar where he retired, Sefu bin Hamid represented his father in the eastern Congo region of Kasongo and carried on the war in his stead. In March and April 1892, Tippu Tip's son Sefu bin Hamid began to lead various attacks on Congo Free State personnel in the eastern Congo, including ivory trader Arthur Hodister—sent by the Syndicat Commercial du Katanga to'acquire' ivory—and Captain Guillaume Van Kerckhoven, confiscating ivory by force from several powerful Arab traders.

These expeditions played a huge role in uniting the slave and ivory traders in the region, in the fight against their common enemy, the Congo Free State. In 1892 The Times reported that, during further explorations in the Congo, Hodister was captured and killed, his head stuck on a pole. Relations were further strained when Rashid ben Mohammed, Tippu Tip's nephew and resident Arab leader in Stanley Falls, refused to assist in the investigation of Hodister's death. Gongo Lutete led actions in the east at this time; the Force Publique, under Francis Dhanis, was sent to Katanga to resupply the trading post of Lofoi, establish new outposts on his path. During this mission, the Force Publique crossed paths with the soldiers of Gongo Lutete— captured by Tippu Tip as a boy, after winning his freedom he became the leader of the Batetela and Bakusu tribes. Gongo Letete was heading to Kasaï in the west, to pick up weapon supplies from Angola, in an attempt to strengthen his position in the Lomani region.

After several skirmishes in April–May 1892 with the better equipped Free State forces of Dhanis and Michaux, Ngongo Lutete decided to make a deal with the Congo Free State. On the 19th of September he switched sides and joined the Force Publique - other native leaders like Pania Mutomba before him and Lupungu, chief of the Songe at Kabinda shortly thereafter had joined the Force Publique. By October 1892, Sefu was leading a force of 10,000 men, some 500 Zanzibari officers and the remain

Cherry production in Michigan

Cherry production in Michigan is a major part of the agriculture industry in the state. Harvesting over 90,000 tons of cherries each year, Michigan is the nation's leading producer of tart cherries; the Montmorency cherry is the variety of tart, or sour, cherry most grown in the state. A Hungarian sour cherry cultivar, has been commercially produced in Michigan since 1998. Michigan's cherry industry is vulnerable to a late spring frost, which can wipe out a season's harvest; this occurred most in 2012, when over 90% of the crop was lost. The Fruit Belt of western Michigan, and, in particular, the Grand Traverse Bay region, produce most of the state's cherries. In addition, Traverse City hosts the National Cherry Festival each July. Michigan wine

Microturbulence

Microturbulence is a form of turbulence that varies over small distance scales. Microturbulence is one of several mechanisms that can cause broadening of the absorption lines in the stellar spectrum. Stellar microturbulence varies with the surface gravity; the microturbulent velocity is defined as the microscale non-thermal component of the gas velocity in the region of spectral line formation. Convection is the mechanism believed to be responsible for the observed turbulent velocity field, both in low mass stars and massive stars; when examined by a spectroscope, the velocity of the convective gas along the line of sight produces Doppler shifts in the absorption bands. It is the distribution of these velocities along the line of sight that produces the microturbulence broadening of the absorption lines in low mass stars that have convective envelopes. In massive stars convection can be present only in small regions below the surface; the strength of the microturbulence can be determined by comparing the broadening of strong lines versus weak lines.

Microturbulence plays a critical role in energy transport during magnetic nuclear fusion experiments, such as the Tokamak. Landstreet, J. D.. "Observing Atmospheric Convection in Stars". Symposium no. 239 – Convection in Astrophysics. Prague, Czech Republic: International Astronomical Union. Bibcode:2006IAUS..239E...7L