East Lansing, Michigan
East Lansing is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan directly east of Lansing, the state capital. Most of the city is with the rest in Clinton County; the population was 48,579 at the 2010 census, an increase from 46,420 in 2000. It is best known as the home of Michigan State University, it is part of the Lansing–East Lansing metropolitan area. East Lansing was an important junction of two major Native American groups: Fox. By 1850, the Lansing and Howell Plank Road Company was established to connect a toll road to the Detroit and Howell Plank Road, improving travel between Detroit and Lansing, which cut right through what is now East Lansing; the toll road was finished in 1853, included seven toll houses between Lansing and Howell. Michigan State University was founded in 1855 and established in what is now East Lansing in 1857. For the first four decades, the students and faculty lived entirely on the college campus. A few commuted from Lansing, that number increased when a streetcar line was built in the 1890s, but there were few places to live in the then-rural area surrounding the campus.
That started to change in 1887, when professors William J. Beal and Rolla C. Carpenter created Collegeville, along what is now Harrison Road and Center and Beal Streets, north of Michigan Avenue. Few faculty were attracted to the location, the first residents were "teamsters and laborers". In 1898, the College Delta subdivision had the support of the college itself, which provided utilities, several professors built homes there. Other subdivisions followed. At that time, the post office address was "Agricultural College, Michigan." A school district encompassing the nascent community was created in 1900. In 1907, incorporation as a city was proposed under the name "College Park"; the first seven mayors, starting with Clinton D. Smith in 1907 and Warren Babcock in 1908, were professors or employees of the college; the city charter in 1907 prohibited the possession, sale, or consumption of alcoholic beverages, East Lansing was a "dry" city until voters modified the charter provision in 1968. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.67 square miles, of which 13.59 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water.
Since 1998, East Lansing has expanded its borders through the use of 425 Agreements. The city is in three 425 Agreements with Bath Township, DeWitt Township, Meridian Township, has added thousands of acres of land to its border. East Lansing and DeWitt Township entered into two 425s in 1998 and 2001, which involved nearly 1,200 acres of land; the agreement stipulates that East Lansing gains full control of the land after 33 years. East Lansing and Bath Township entered into a 425 Agreement in June 2002 involving 1,056 acres of land; the agreement stipulates. East Lansing and Meridian Township entered into a 425 in November 2002 involving 101 acres of land; the agreement stipulates that the Meridian Township residents get to decide the fate of the land after 100 years. The city has made use of annexation of surrounding township lands in recent years, it annexed the 66.5 acres of the Four Winds Golf Course in Meridian Township in 2001, another 6 acres of the township in 2006. The city annexed from DeWitt Township the land, the East Lansing Soccer Complex.
The city's downtown area is centered around Grand River Avenue, a wide, tree-lined boulevard that evolved out of the 19th-century plank road that connected Lansing to Detroit. Grand River Avenue and Michigan Avenue serves as a dividing line between the Michigan State University campus and the rest of the city; the street is lined with many college-oriented businesses, such as bars, tanning salons, coffee shops, head shops and bookstores. North of downtown are predominantly student neighborhoods. Further north is the residential part of the city. In the northernmost tier of the city are several new housing subdivisions and student-oriented apartment complexes; these new developments are far from the university, but their lower property tax rates allow them to offer students more amenities. East Lansing has more than 25 neighborhoods, many of which have neighborhood associations that sponsor social events, attend to neighborhood issues, advocate for neighborhood interests in meetings of the City Council and city commissions.
A section of the city has been designated a Historic District, a Historic District Commission has been established by the City Council. In addition, many landmark structures in the older neighborhoods have been identified within a Landmark Structures Historic District of the Historic Preservation Code. Neighborhoods with Wikipedia pages include Tamarisk; as of the census of 2010, there were 48,579 people, 14,774 households, 4,811 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,574.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,787 housing units at an average density of 1,161.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 78.4% White, 10.6% Asian, 6.8% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.0% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 14,774 households of which 13.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 24.7% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.2% had a male householder with no wife presen
College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS
A national championship in the highest level of college football in the United States the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, is a designation awarded annually by various organizations to their selection of the best college football team. Division I FBS football is the only National Collegiate Athletic Association sport for which the NCAA does not sanction a yearly championship event; as such, it is sometimes unofficially referred to as a "mythical national championship". Due to the lack of an official NCAA title, determining the nation's top college football team has engendered controversy. A championship team is independently declared by multiple individuals and organizations referred to as "selectors"; these choices are not always unanimous. In 1969 the President of the United States Richard Nixon declared a national champion by announcing, ahead of the season-ending game between #1 Texas and #2 Arkansas, that the winner of that game would receive a plaque from the President himself, commemorating that team as the year's national champion.
Texas went on to win that game, 15–14. While the NCAA has never endorsed a championship team, it has documented the choices of some selectors in its official NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision Records publication. In addition, various analysts have independently published their own choices for each season; these opinions can diverge with others as well as individual schools' claims to national titles, which may or may not correlate to the selections published elsewhere. Two of the most recognized national champion selectors are the Associated Press, which conducts a poll of sportswriters, the Coaches Poll, a survey of active members of the American Football Coaches Association. Since 1992, various consortia of major bowl games have aimed to invite the top two teams at the end of the regular season to compete in what is intended to be the de facto national championship game; the current iteration of this practice, the College Football Playoff, selects four teams to participate in national semi-finals hosted by two of six partner bowl games, with their winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship.
The concept of a national championship in college football dates to the early years of the sport in the late 19th century, the earliest contemporaneous polls can be traced to Caspar Whitney, Charles Patterson, The Sun in 1901. Therefore, the concept of polls and national champions predated mathematical ranking systems, but it was Frank Dickinson's math system, one of the first to be popularized, his system named 10–0 Stanford the national champion of 1926, prior to their tie with Alabama in the Rose Bowl. A curious Knute Rockne coach of Notre Dame, had Dickinson backdate two seasons, which produced Notre Dame as the 1924 national champion and Dartmouth in 1925. A number of other mathematical systems were born in the 1920s and 1930s and were the only organized methods selecting national champions until the Associated Press began polling sportswriters in 1936 to obtain rankings. Alan J. Gould, the creator of the AP Poll, named Minnesota, SMU co-champions in 1935, polled writers the following year, which resulted in a national championship for Minnesota.
The AP's main competition, United Press, created the first Coaches Poll in 1950. For that year and the next three, the AP and UP agreed on the national champion; the first "split" championship occurred in 1954, when the writers selected Ohio State and the coaches chose UCLA. The two polls disagreed in 1957, 1965, 1970, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1990, 1991, 1997, 2003; the Coaches Poll would stay with United Press when they merged with International News Service to form United Press International but was acquired by USA Today and CNN in 1991. The poll was in the hands of USA Today and ESPN from 1997 to 2005 before moving to sole ownership by USA Today. Beginning in 2014, Amway became a joint sponsor with USA Today. Though some of the math systems selected champions after the bowl games, both of the major polls released their rankings after the end of the regular season until the AP polled writers after the bowls in 1965, resulting in what was perceived at the time as a better championship selection than UPI's.
After 1965, the AP again voted before the bowls for two years, before permanently returning to a post-bowl vote in 1968. The coaches did not conduct a vote after the bowls until 1974, in the wake of awarding their 1973 championship to Alabama, who lost to the AP champion, undefeated Notre Dame, in the Sugar Bowl; the AP and Coaches polls remain the major rankings to this day. The Bowl Championship Series, famous for its use of math, was the successor of the Bowl Alliance, itself the successor of the Bowl Coalition. Besides the many adjustments it underwent during its tenure, including a large overhaul following the 2004 season that included the replacement of the AP Poll with the Harris poll, the BCS remained a mixture of math and human polls since its inception in 1998, with the goal of matching the best two teams in the nation in a national championship bowl game which rotated yearly between the Sugar, Fiesta and Orange Bowls from 1998 to 2005, a standalone game titled the BCS National Championship Game.
The winner of the BCS Championship Game was awarded the national championship of the Coaches Poll thus winning the AFCA National Championship Trophy. The BCS winner received the MacArthur Bowl from the National Football Foundation. Neither the AP Poll, nor other current selectors, had contractual obligations to select the BCS champion as th
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
Michigan Stadium, nicknamed "The Big House", is the football stadium for the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan. It is the largest stadium in the United States, the second largest stadium in the world and the 34th largest sports venue, its official capacity is 107,601, but it has hosted crowds in excess of 115,000. Michigan Stadium was built in 1927 at a cost of $950,000 and had an original capacity of 72,000. Prior to the stadium's construction, the Wolverines played football at Ferry Field; every home game since November 8, 1975 has drawn a crowd in excess of 100,000, an active streak of more than 200 contests. On September 7, 2013, the game between Michigan and the Notre Dame Fighting Irish attracted a crowd of 115,109, a record attendance for a college football game since 1927, an NCAA single-game attendance record at the time, overtaking the previous record of 114,804 set two years for the same matchup. Michigan Stadium was designed with footings to allow the stadium's capacity to be expanded beyond 100,000.
Fielding Yost envisioned a day. To keep construction costs low at the time, the decision was made to build a smaller stadium than Yost envisioned but to include the footings for future expansion. Michigan Stadium is used for the University of Michigan's main graduation ceremonies, it has hosted hockey games including the 2014 NHL Winter Classic, a regular season NHL game between the Toronto Maple Leafs and the Detroit Red Wings with an official attendance of 105,491, a record for a hockey game. Additionally, a 2014 International Champions Cup soccer match between Real Madrid and Manchester United had an attendance of 109,318, a record crowd for a soccer match in the United States. Prior to playing at Michigan Stadium, Michigan played its games at Ferry Field, which at its peak could seat 40,000 people. Fielding Yost recognized the need for a larger stadium after original expansions to Ferry Field proved to be too small, persuaded the regents to build a permanent stadium in 1926. Fashioned after the Yale Bowl, the original stadium was built with a capacity of 72,000.
However, at Yost's urging, temporary bleachers were added at the top of the stadium, increasing capacity to 82,000. On October 1, 1927, Michigan played Ohio Wesleyan in the first game at Michigan Stadium, prevailing 33–0; the new stadium was formally dedicated three weeks in a contest against Ohio State on October 22. Michigan had spoiled the formal dedication of Ohio Stadium in Columbus five years earlier and was victorious again, besting the Buckeyes 21–0 before a standing-room-only crowd of 84,401. In 1930, electronic scoreboards were installed, making the stadium the first in the United States to use them to keep the official game time. In 1956, the addition of a press box raised the stadium's official capacity to 101,001; the one "extra seat" in Michigan Stadium is said to be reserved for Fritz Crisler, athletic director at the time. Since all official Michigan Stadium capacity figures have ended in "-01", although the extra seat's location is not specified. Before 1968, Michigan Stadium maintained a policy of "No women or children allowed on the field".
Sara Krulwich, now a photojournalist for The New York Times, was the first woman on the field. Longtime radio announcer Bob Ufer dubbed Michigan Stadium "The hole that Yost dug, Crisler paid for, Canham carpeted, Schembechler fills every cotton-pickin' Saturday afternoon". Since November 8, 1975, the stadium has held over 100,000 fans for every home game; the game against Indiana University on October 25, 1975 was the last sub-100,000 attendance home game for Michigan. Michigan Stadium's size is not wholly apparent from the outside as most of the seats are below ground level. By the mid-1980s, Michigan Stadium became known by the nickname "The Big House". Michigan's game versus Ball State University on November 4, 2006, was the 200th consecutive crowd of over 100,000 fans. Traditionally, when the game's attendance is announced, the public address announcer thanks the fans for "being part of the largest crowd watching a football game anywhere in America today". On September 9, 2006, attendees of Michigan's football game against the Central Michigan Chippewas endured the first weather delay in the stadium's history after lightning struck nearby during the first quarter and play was suspended for one hour.
On September 3, 2011, Michigan and Western Michigan mutually agreed to end their game with 1:27 left in the third quarter because of an ongoing lightning delay. It was the first time; the stadium was evacuated at 6:38 p.m. and the game was called shortly after 7:00. On June 21, 2007, the University's Board of Regents approved a $226 million renovation and expansion project for Michigan Stadium; the project included replacement of some bleachers, widening of aisles and individual seats, installing hand rails, the addition of a new press box, 83 luxury boxes, 3,200 club seats. The renovation plan garnered opposition from students and fans around the country, which waned as the renovation neared external completion. A disabled-veterans group filed a federal lawsuit against the university on April 17, 2007, alleging that the design of the project did not meet federal standards for wheelchair-accessible seating. On March 11, 2008, as part of the settlement terms of a lawsuit filed against the university pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the university announced that the official capacity of the stadium would be reduced to accommodate additional wheelchair-accessible seati
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Yankee Stadium (1923)
The original Yankee Stadium was a stadium located in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. It was the home ballpark of the New York Yankees, one of the city's Major League Baseball franchises, from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008; the stadium hosted 6,581 Yankees regular season home games during its 85-year history. It was the former home of the New York Giants football team from 1956 through the first part of the 1973–74 football season; the stadium's nickname, "The House That Ruth Built", is derived from Babe Ruth, the baseball superstar whose prime years coincided with the stadium's opening and the beginning of the Yankees' winning history. It has been known as "The Big Ballpark in The Bronx", "The Stadium", "The Cathedral of Baseball"; the stadium was built from 1922 to 1923 for $2.4 million. The stadium's construction was paid for by Yankees owner Jacob Ruppert, eager to have his own stadium after sharing the Polo Grounds with the New York Giants baseball team the previous 10 years. Yankee Stadium opened for the 1923 MLB season and at the time, it was hailed as a one-of-a-kind facility in the country for its size.
Over the course of its history, it became one of the most famous venues in the United States, having hosted a variety of events and historic moments during its existence. While many of these moments were baseball-related—including World Series games, no-hitters, perfect games and historic home runs—the stadium hosted boxing matches, the 1958 NFL Championship Game, Jehovah's Witnesses conventions and three Papal Masses; the stadium went through many alterations and playing surface configurations over the years. The condition of the facility worsened in the 1960s and 1970s, prompting its closing for renovation from 1974 to 1975; the renovation altered the appearance of the venue and reduced the distance of the outfield fences. In 2006, the Yankees began building a new $2.3 billion stadium in public parkland adjacent to the stadium. The price included $1.2 billion in public subsidies. The design includes a replica of the frieze along the roof, in Yankee Stadium. Monument Park, a Hall of Fame for prominent former Yankees, was relocated to the new stadium.
Yankee Stadium closed following the 2008 baseball season and the new stadium opened in 2009, adopting the "Yankee Stadium" moniker. The original Yankee Stadium was demolished in 2010, two years after it closed, the 8-acre site was converted into a park called Heritage Field; the Yankees had played at the Polo Grounds in upper Manhattan since 1913, sharing the venue with the New York Giants. However, relations between the two teams were rocky, with the Giants harboring resentment towards the Yankees; the Yankees had been looking for a new and permanent venue since at least 1909. The local papers had periodic announcements about the Yankees acquiring and developing land in the Kingsbridge neighborhood for a new ballpark northeast of 225th and Broadway, wrote about the park as if its construction was in progress; the Kingsbridge pipe dream continued with new owners Ruppert and Huston. The Yankees would remain tenants at the Polo Grounds for ten years, the same length of time they had spent at Hilltop Park.
For the 1920 season, the Yankees acquired star slugger Babe Ruth and in his first year with his new team, the Yankees drew 1.3 million fans to the Polo Grounds, outdrawing the Giants. By the middle of 1920, the Giants had issued an eviction notice to the Yankees, soon rescinded. In 1921, the Yankees won their first American League pennant; this exacerbated Giants owner Charles Stoneham's and manager John McGraw's resentment of the Yankees and reinforced their insistence that the Yankees find another place to play their home games. McGraw, always ready with a pointed quote for the sportswriters, derisively suggested that the Yankees relocate "to Queens or some other out-of-the-way place". Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston and Jacob Ruppert, the Yankees' owners since January 1915 decided to put the club's dream into reality and build their own stadium; the owners did so at speculation. Baseball teams played in 30,000-seat facilities, but Huston and Ruppert invoked Ruth's name when asked how the Yankees could justify a ballpark with 60,000 seats.
The doubt over the Yankees' lasting power was amplified by baseball's sagging popularity after the 1919 Black Sox Scandal, in which eight Chicago White Sox players were expelled for conspiring with gamblers to fix that year's World Series. Many people felt three baseball teams could not prosper in New York City, but Huston and Ruppert were confident the Yankees could thrive amongst the more established New York Giants and Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League; the total bill for construction of the stadium was $2.5 million. Huston and Ruppert explored many areas for Yankee Stadium. Of the other sites being considered, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, at Amsterdam Avenue between 136th and 138th streets in Manhattan, nearly became reality. Consideration was given to building atop railroad tracks on the West Side of Manhattan and to Long Island City, in Queens; the area Huston and Ruppert settled on was a 10 acres lumberyard in the Bronx within walking distance from and in sight of, Coogan's Bluff. The Polo Grounds was located on the Manhattan side of the Har
1963 Rose Bowl
The 1963 Rose Bowl was a college football bowl game played on January 1, 1963, at the end of the 1962 college football season. It was the 49th Rose Bowl Game; the USC Trojans defeated the Wisconsin Badgers, 42–37. This is the first #1 versus #2 match-up to occur in a bowl game, although #1 versus #2 match-ups had occurred as regular season games. Ron Vander Kelen, the Wisconsin quarterback and Pete Beathard, the USC quarterback, were both named the Rose Bowl Player of the Game. Down 42–14 in the fourth quarter, Vander Kelen put together a number of drives to score 23 unanswered points and put the Badgers in position to win the game. Due to the historic #1 versus #2 bowl match-up, the number of Rose Bowl records set, the furious fourth quarter rally by Wisconsin, this game appears on lists of "greatest bowl games of all time." This was the first bowl game to pair the #1 and #2 teams in the AP Poll, although there had been six regular season #1 versus #2 games since the inception of the poll in 1936.
This was the second Rose Bowl meeting between the fourth meeting, overall. Wisconsin finished the regular season 8-1; the Badgers were undefeated except for a loss to conference rival Ohio State at Ohio Stadium, ranked #5 in the AP poll at the time. Notable victories were over then-#1 Northwestern during homecoming and a comeback victory over archrival Minnesota ranked #5; the Badgers earned their third trip to the Rose Bowl. After two consecutive losing seasons in 1960 and 1961, John McKay turned the Trojans around in his third season as head coach; the team opened with a defeat of number 8 ranked Duke. Consecutive wins against SMU, at Iowa, at Illinois got the Trojans ranked higher in the top 10. On November 3, 1962, the Trojans played their biggest game of the season against the Washington Huskies, who were ranked #9. In the homecoming game, the Trojans blanked the Huskies 14–0. With that win, the Trojans were ranked number two behind Northwestern. On November 17, by beating Navy and with Alabama losing to Georgia Tech 7–6, USC ascended to the number one spot in the AP poll.
In the UCLA–USC rivalry game, the Bruins led 3–0 until the fourth quarter, when the Trojans scored two touchdowns. In what would be the final game for Notre Dame football coach Joe Kuharich, USC shut out a 5–4 Notre Dame team at the Coliseum, breaking a five-game losing streak for the Trojans against the Fighting Irish in the annual intersectional rivalry; the Trojans finished ranked number 1 for the first time in the history of the AP poll, were undefeated for the first time since the 1939 USC Trojans team played in the 1940 Rose Bowl. USC tackle Marv Marinovich was ejected when he got caught elbowing Steve Underwood, the Wisconsin captain. Wisconsin, under the direction of quarterback Ron Vander Kelen put together an incredible comeback attempt in the fourth quarter. Pete Beathard had completed his fourth touchdown pass with 14:54 left in the game to put USC up 42–14; the Badgers, led by Vander Kelen, put together one of the greatest comebacks in the history of college football, scoring 23 unanswered points in the fourth quarter before time ran out.
The final score of the game was USC-42, Wisconsin-37. For their efforts, USC quarterback Pete Beathard and Wisconsin quarterback Ron Vander Kelen were both named the Rose Bowl MVPs. USC touchdown Pete Beathard to Ron Butcher Wisconsin Touchdown 1-yard run by Ralph Kurek fullback USC touchdown Ben Wilson run USC touchdown Ron Heller 25-yard run USC touchdown Beathard pass to Hal Bedsole Wisconsin touchdown VanderKelen 17-yard run USC touchdown pass by Pete Beathard to Hal Bedsole USC touchdown pass by Pete Beathard to Fred Hill Wisconsin touchdown Lou Holland Wisconsin touchdown Gary Kroner Wisconsin safety A bad snap on USC punt resulted in a UW safety. Wisconsin touchdown VanderKelen 19-yard pass to Pat Richter for the final 42–37 score Eleven Rose Bowl records were set and five still stand as of 2008: most intercepted passes, most touchdown passes, most first downs by one team, most penalties; the Rose Bowl record 79 total points scored in this game stood for nearly thirty years. The omitted records stood for more than thirty years were broken by Danny O'Neil of the Oregon Ducks in the 1995 Rose Bowl.
The 1964 Cotton Bowl Classic subsequently became the second #1 versus #2 bowl game, while the 1969 Rose Bowl became the second #1 versus #2 Rose Bowl. Both of the consensus 1962 All-America ends played in this game. Pat Richter and Hal Bedsole would be inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, in 1996 and 2012, respectively; this was Richter's last college game. Three players from this game have been inducted into the Rose Bowl Hall of Fame. John McKay has been inducted as a coach; the game is considered by many to be among the greatest games in college football history, along with the 2006 Rose Bowl among others. 1963 Rose Bowl on IMDb UW-Madison Archives 1963 Rose Bowl photostream at Flickr