Circumnavigation means to travel all the way around the entire planet, or an island, or continent. This article is concerned with circumnavigation of the Earth, the first known circumnavigation of Earth was the Magellan-Elcano expedition, which sailed from Seville, Spain, in 1519 and returned in 1522 after crossing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The word circumnavigation is a formed from the verb circumnavigate, from the past participle of the Latin verb circumnavigare. If a person walks completely around either Pole, they cross all meridians, the trajectory of a true circumnavigation forms a continuous loop on the surface of Earth separating two halves of comparable area. A basic definition of a global circumnavigation would be a route which covers roughly a great circle, in practice, people use different definitions of world circumnavigation to accommodate practical constraints, depending on the method of travel. The first single voyage of global circumnavigation was that of the ship Victoria and it was a Castilian voyage of discovery, led initially by Ferdinand Magellan between 1519 and 1521, and by the Basque Juan Sebastián Elcano from 1521 to 1522.
It continued across the Pacific discovering a number of islands on its way, Elcano and a small group of 18 men were actually the only members of the expedition to make the full circumnavigation. However, traveling west from Europe, in 1521, Magellan reached a region of Southeast Asia, Magellan thereby achieved a nearly complete personal circumnavigation of the globe for the first time in history. In 1577, Elizabeth I sent Francis Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas, Drake set out from Plymouth, England in November 1577, aboard Pelican, which Drake renamed Golden Hind mid-voyage. In June 1579, Drake landed somewhere north of Spains northern-most claim in Alta California, Drake completed the second circumnavigation of the world in September 1580, becoming the first commander to lead an entire circumnavigation. For the wealthy, long voyages around the world, such as was done by Ulysses S. Grant, became possible in the 19th century, however, it was improvements in technology and rising incomes that made such trips relatively common.
The nautical global circumnavigation record is held by a wind-powered vessel. It can be seen that the route roughly approximates a great circle, in yacht racing, a round-the-world route approximating a great circle would be quite impractical, particularly in a non-stop race where use of the Panama and Suez Canals would be impossible. The second map on the shows the route of the Vendée Globe round-the-world race in red. It can be seen that the route does not pass through any pairs of antipodal points and it is allowed to have one single waypoint to lengthen the calculated track. The voyage followed the North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, since the advent of world cruises in 1922, by Cunards Laconia, thousands of people have completed circumnavigations of the globe at a more leisurely pace. Typically, these voyages begin in New York City or Southampton, routes vary, either travelling through the Caribbean and into the Pacific Ocean via the Panama Canal, or around Cape Horn.
From there ships usually make their way to Hawaii, the islands of the South Pacific, New Zealand, northward to Hong Kong, South East Asia, and India
Buenos Aires Cabildo
The Buenos Aires Cabildo is the public building in Buenos Aires that was used as seat of the ayuntamiento during the colonial times and the government house of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Today the building is used as a museum, mayor Manuel de Frías proposed the building of the Cabildo in what is now the Plaza de Mayo on March 3,1608, since the government of the city lacked such a building. Its construction financed with taxes from the port of Buenos Aires, in 1682, due to lack of maintenance, the building was almost in ruins, and the construction of a new Cabildo with 2 stories and 11 arches wide was planned. Construction of the new building did not start until July 23,1725, was suspended in 1728, soon construction was, again suspended due to lack of funds. The tower of the new Cabildo was finished in 1764, yet even by the time of the May Revolution in 1810 the Cabildo was still not completely finished. In 1880 the architect Pedro Benoit raised the tower by 10 meters and with a covered with glazed tiles.
The tower was demolished nine years in 1889 to create space for the Avenida de Mayo avenue and the three northernmost arches of the original eleven were demolished. In 1931, to room for the Julio A. Roca avenue. In 1940, the architect Mario Buschiazzo reconstructed the colonial features of the Cabildo using various original documents, the tower, the red tiles, the iron bars on the windows and the wooden windows and doors were all repaired. Currently, the Cabildo hosts the National Museum of the Cabildo, the patio of the Cabildo still has its 1835 ornamental water well. Trofeos de la Reconquista de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires en el Año 1806, Buenos Aires, Litografía, Imprenta y Encuadernación de Guillermo Kraft
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina. The city is located on the shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata. The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Provinces capital, rather, in 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores, the 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996, Buenos Aires is considered an alpha city by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires quality of life was ranked 81st in the world and one of the best in Latin America in 2012 and it is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, and is known for its preserved Spanish/European-style architecture, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup.
Buenos Aires will host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics and the 2018 G20 summit, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture, the hill was known to them as Buen Ayre, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill, in 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea, the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the Fair Winds to aid them in their navigation, a sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
Pedro de Mendoza called the city Holy Mary of the Fair Winds, mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, a second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción. Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form Buenos Aires became the common usage during the 17th century, the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As. It is common as well to refer to it as B. A. or BA /ˌbiːˈeɪ/ bee-AY), while BA is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation Baires, in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516 and his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay
Palace of the Argentine National Congress
The Palace of the Argentine National Congress is a monumental building, seat of the Argentine National Congress, located in Buenos Aires at the western end of Avenida de Mayo. Constructed between 1898 and 1906, the palace is a National Historic Landmark, the Kilometre Zero for all Argentine National Highways is marked on a milestone at the Congressional Plaza, next to the building. The idea of a palace was first proposed and decreed in 1895. Designed by the Italian architect Vittorio Meano and completed by Argentine architect Julio Dormal, inaugurated that year, its aesthetic details were not completed until 1946. The edifice was built at a cost of US$6 million allocated by the federal government, the building was officially accepted by Congress on 12 May 1906. As time went by, the building proved too small for its purpose, and in 1974 the construction of the Annex, from 1976 to 1983 the palace housed the Legislative Advisory Commission, which was a group of officers from the three Armed Forces.
Congressional Plaza, built by French Argentine urbanist Charles Thays, faces the palace, popular among tourists since its inauguration in 1910, the plaza is a preferred location for protesters and those who want to voice their opinion about congressional activities. The palace is in Neoclassical style, largely made of marble with elaborately furnished interiors, especially in the Lost Steps Hall. It is crowned by a bronze-plated dome 80 metres in height, weighing 3,000 tonnes and this cupola is supported over a 10 metres deep inverted dome foundation. The dome is lit during Argentina’s national holidays and other special occasions, the main entrance, called the Entrada de Honor, is exclusively used for ceremonial purposes. In front of it is the 8 metres high quadriga sculpture and it is made of bronze and weighs 20 tonnes. The palace used to have a shop in the basement. In 1997, with the first general restoration of facades, representatives of the Government of Buenos Aires promoted the recovery of the statues designed by Lola Mora to crown the entrance to Congress.
As the sculptor had personally donated to the government of province of Jujuy, however, at that time the idea did not materialize. Only in 2012, with the new Master Plan, the initiative gained momentum again, on 1 March 2014 replicas of the statues were inaugurated by President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner at the opening of the regular session. Casa Rosada Palace of Justice of the Argentine Nation List of National Historic Monuments of Argentina Web Bibliography International Bureau of the American Republics, Argentine Republic, A Geographical Sketch, with Special Reference to Economic Conditions, Actual Development, and Prospects of Future Growth. This Is Buenos Aires. de Dios Editores
Plaza Hotel Buenos Aires
The Plaza Hotel Buenos Aires is a five-star hotel located in the Retiro district, just steps from Calle Florida shopping area and overlooking the Plaza San Martín. The Plaza was originally developed by local landowner and banker Ernesto Tornquist, facing San Martín Square, the nine-story hotel was designed by German born architect Alfred Zucker and built at the northern end of Florida Street. The establishment was inaugurated as the Plaza Hotel on July 15,1909, the hotels developer, Ernesto Tornquist, had died in 1908, however. Touted at the time as the finest hotel in South America, the original 160 rooms and 16 suites each had central heating and telephone access, and all were accessible via elevators. The hotel was furnished at its outset by the prestigious London houses of Thompson & Company. Marble sculptures by Gustav Eberlein of Germany and ceiling frescoes by Julio Vila y Prades of Spain added to the hotels decor, two new wings were added between 1942 and 1948, and additional work completed in 1977 brought the total number of rooms to nearly 400.
The hotel was a part of the Inter-Continental Hotels chain from 1981-1982 and was renamed the Plaza Inter-Continental. The Washington, DC-based Marriott Hotels Group assumed management of the hotel in 1994 for a period of 30 years while the property was controlled by Tornquinsts descendants. It was renamed the Marriott Plaza Hotel Buenos Aires, following a US$10 million refurbishment, the establishment was awarded a five star rating. The hotel today maintains 270 rooms and 48 suites and it received a facelift on the occasion of its 100th anniversary in 2009, celebrated with tours for the local people and a book retelling its fabulous and centennial history. The hotel was sold in 2013 and returned to its historic name, the Plaza Hotel Buenos Aires
The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Argentine Navy is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force, each ship of the Argentine Navy is designated with the prefix ARA before its name. The Argentine Navy day is celebrated on May 17, anniversary of the victory achieved in 1814 in the Battle of Montevideo over the Spanish fleet during the war of Independence. The Argentine Navy was created in the aftermath of the May Revolution of May 25,1810, the navy was first created to support Manuel Belgrano in the Paraguay campaign, but it was sunk by ships from Montevideo, and did not take part in that conflict. Renewed conflicts with Montevideo led to the creation of a second fleet, as Buenos Aires had little maritime history, most men in the navy were from other nations, such as the Irish-born admiral William Brown, who directed the operation. As the cost of maintaining a navy was too high, most of the Argentine naval forces were composed of privateers, Brown led the Argentine navy in further naval conflicts at the War with Brazil and the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata.
In the 1870s the Argentine Navy began modernizing itself, the most powerful ships at this time included the Italian-built Garibaldi and her sister ships, General Belgrano, Pueyrredón, and San Martín, each at over 6,000 tons. Three older ironclads, Almirante Brown and Libertad dated from the 1880s, the navys ships were built primarily in Italy, Britain and Spain and were operated by over 600 officers and 7760 seamen. These were supported by a battalion of marines and an artillery battery, Argentina remained neutral in both world wars. In 1940, Argentinas navy was ranked the eighth most powerful in the world, a ten-year building programme costing $60 million had produced a force of 14,500 sailors and over a thousand officers. A naval air force was in operation, in the postwar period, Naval Aviation and Marine Corps units were put under direct Navy command. With Brazil, Argentina is one of two South American countries to have operated two aircraft carriers, the ARA Independencia and ARA Veinticinco de Mayo, the Navy took part in all military coups through the 20th century.
During the last dictatorship, Navy personnel were involved in the Dirty War of the late 1970s in which thousands of people were kidnapped and killed by the forces of the Military Junta, the Naval Mechanics School, known as ESMA, was a notorious centre for torture. Among their more well-known victims were the Swedish teenager Dagmar Hagelin and French nuns, Alice Domon and this fleet was supported by several ELMA tankers and transports as well as two ice breakers/polar ships. New German MEKO class destroyers and Thyssen-Nordseewerke submarines were still under construction at the time, despite leading the invasion of the Falkland Islands, in both strategic and tactical aspects the Argentine fleet played only a small part in the subsequent conflict with the Royal Navy. The ARA San Luis submarine played a role, nearly sinking the frigate HMS Arrow on 10 May. The submarine ARA Santa Fe, after a resupply mission, was attacked and disabled off South Georgia. She was scuttled by the British, the submarine force greatly reinforced their assets with the introduction of the Thyssen-Nordseewerke class
Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral
The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It is located in the city center, overlooking Plaza de Mayo, on the corner of San Martín and Rivadavia streets and it is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires and the primatial church of Argentina. The Cathedral of Buenos Aires was rebuilt several times since its origins in the 16th century. The present building is a mix of styles, with an 18th-century nave and dome. The interior keeps precious 18th-century statues and altarpieces, as well as abundant Neo-Renaissance, during the definitive foundation of Buenos Aires by Juan de Garay in 1580, part of a block facing the main square was reserved for the major church of the town. This is still the location of the current Cathedral, which is the last building in a series of churches that occupied the site. At the time of its foundation, the town depended on the diocese of Asunción, the first main church of Buenos Aires was a modest building made of wood and adobe, and was replaced by a new one in 1605 by Governor Hernandarias.
This second building was in danger of collapse by 1616 and had to be rebuilt again, in 1620, Buenos Aires was made seat of a bishopric by Pope Paul V. Its main church now had the status of a cathedral, after 1662, the cathedral was again rebuilt under bishop Cristóbal de la Mancha y Velazco and governor José Martínez de Salazar, being re-inaugurated in 1671. The cathedral now had three naves covered by a roof and a tower. Due to the bad quality of its materials, the tower. The whole church was rebuilt, starting in 1684, under bishop Azcona Imberto. In 1695 the building was almost finished, with the towers of the façade. In the early 18th century the works were slow, and the first tower was finished only around 1721, the second tower was begun in 1722 and finished around 1725. The main façade was redesigned between 1725 and 1727 by the Italian Jesuit Giovanni Bianchi, the design of the new façade was directly inspired by Italian Mannerist architecture. On the night of May 23,1752, the nave of the cathedral collapsed, the only portions still standing were the façade and towers, but the rest of the building needed to be completely rebuilt once again.
Italian architect Antonio Masella was put in charge of the project, Masella designed a majestic church, much larger than the previous structure, with a three-aisled nave covered with barrel vaulting and lateral chapels. A dome was to sit over the crossing, upon completion of the dome, fissures in the structure were detected and it had to be rebuilt
The corbeta ARA Uruguay, built in England, is the largest ship afloat of its age in the Armada de la República Argentina, with more than 140 years passed since its commissioning in September 1874. The last of the squadron of President Sarmiento, the Uruguay took part in revolutions, expeditions, rescues. This ship may be the oldest in South America having been built in 1874 at Laird Bros. shipyard of Birkenhead and this ship is rigged to a barque sailplan. The ships steel hull is lined in teak, the ships namesake is an earlier Argentine Navy schooner, a seven-gun combatant in the Battle of Juncal,1827. Originally built as a gunship, the ship was soon to be used as a training ship, after an episode known as the Mutiny of the Overcoats affected the continuity of studies in the emerging Naval Academy, the ship became a floating headquarters for naval training. In 1879, the gunboat, anchored in Buenos Aires, witnessed the graduation of the academys first class of Naval Officers, in 1884 it transported foreign scientific committees who came to observe a Transit of Venus.
In 1887 the ship was removed from its assignment and fitted for expedition support. In 1903 the ship was refitted specifically as a steam rescue ship with auxiliary sail propulsion. Additional bulkheads to create a total of eight compartments and hull reinforcement were added, the bilge keels were removed to facilitate damage-free passage through ice. Hard shell above deck storm and wave protection for crew was added fore, additional insulations of cork and sawdust were added. The rescue effort was led by Lieutenant Commander Julián Irízar who returned from his London diplomatic post of Naval Attache, a special crew of eight officers and nineteen men was selected based upon experience and ability to withstand the severe polar conditions. With all of the expedition members rescued successfully, the ship returned through a storm in a thoroughly battered condition, having been rolled up to 40 degrees. Arriving first at Puerto Santa Cruz, they telegraphed their success to headquarters, the Third French Antarctic Expedition, led by Jean-Baptiste Charcot, was supported by the Uruguay.
During this time ship was engaged in performing hydrographic and geographic surveys for the preparation of maritime navigation charts and she was dismissed from service in 1926, to become a floating ammunition dump. In 1954 the Uruguay was rebuilt in the Río Santiago Shipyard and it was moored two years at the pier of the Naval School, now officially designated as a museum ship. Removed from naval service in 1962, the Uruguay was in 1967 declared a National Historic Landmark, currently integrated since 1967 as a museum ship with the frigate ARA Presidente Sarmiento in the Museum of Sea and Navigation. It is moored at Puerto Madero in the city of Buenos Aires,3, a short distance from the Sarmiento. Secretariat of Culture of the Nation, almanac 1958 Daily Nation, with reminders of historical dates in Argentina
The Pizzurno Palace, as the Sarmiento Palace is commonly known, is an architectural landmark in the Recoleta section of Buenos Aires and the location of the Argentine Ministry of Education. Her 1882 death accordingly left the property to the city, which commissioned German Argentine architects Carlos Adolfo Altgelt, work began in 1886 on the building which, per Mrs. Rojas wishes, would include extensive museum and library facilities, as well. The buildings design was eclectic, inspired by both and French and German Renaissance Revival architecture and it was completed in 1888, and the Petronila Rodríguez de Rojas School was inaugurated in 1893. The buildings location facing leafy Rodríguez Peña Plaza created an oasis in the otherwise bustling Barrio Norte section of the upscale Recoleta ward. A lot immediately to the south of the building was converted into Petronila Rodríguez de Rojas Plaza as a homage to the civic-minded lady during the 1950s. The last dictatorship, which dissolved the Education Council in 1978, transferred the Ministry of Education to the building in 1980