ARIA Charts

The ARIA Charts, stylised as the AR1A Charts since November 2018, are the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association. The charts are a record of the highest selling albums in various genres in Australia. ARIA became the official Australian music chart in June 1988, succeeding the Kent Music Report, Australia's national charts since 1974; the Go-Set charts were Australia's first national singles and albums charts, published from 5 October 1966 until 24 August 1974. Succeeding Go-Set, the Kent Music Report began issuing the national top 100 charts in Australia from May 1974; the compiler, David Kent published Australia's national charts from 1940–1974 in a retrospective fashion using state based data. In mid 1983, the Australian Recording Industry Association commenced licensing the Kent Music Report chart; the first printed national top 50 chart available in record stores, branded the Countdown chart, was dated the week ending 10 July 1983.

ARIA began compiling its own charts in-house from the chart survey dated 13 June 1988, corresponding with the printed top 50 chart dated week ending 26 June 1988. Various artists compilation albums were included in the albums chart, as they had been on the Kent Report chart, until 2 July 1989, when a separate Compilations chart was created; the ARIA Report, detailing the top 100 singles and albums charts, was first available via subscription in January 1990. The printed top 50 chart ceased publication in June 1998, but resumed publication in the year; the printed top 50 chart again ceased publication at the end of 2000. Since 17 February 1997, all physical sales data contributing towards the chart has been recorded electronically at point of sale. In March 1991, "Do the Bartman" by The Simpsons was the first single to reach #1 in Australia, not available on 7 inch vinyl, but cassingle only. In April 2006, ARIA began publishing the Digital Tracks Chart, counting download sales data from providers such as iTunes and BigPond Music.

Starting from 9 October 2006, digital sales data was integrated into the singles chart alongside physical sales, although singles were required to have a physical release to be included. From 5 November 2007, the eligibility rules were widened so that singles only available digitally could chart, "Apologize" by Timbaland was the first single to enter the chart purely on digital sales. In February 2008, "Don't Stop the Music" by Rihanna became the first single to reach number one on digital sales alone. In May 2006, it was announced that the Brazin retailing group, comprising HMV, Sanity and Virgin Megastore outlets, would no longer contribute sales data to the ARIA charts. However, after a five-month absence, Brazin re-commenced contributing sales figures on 26 November 2006. On 10 December 2012, ARIA launched the Streaming Tracks Chart, tracking audio streaming data from services such as Spotify, Apple Music. ARIA introduced streaming data into the singles chart on 24 November 2014, the albums chart on 15 May 2017.

In October 2018, ARIA changed the methodology to give greater emphasis to paid subscription streams over ad-supported streams. The ARIA website publishes the top 50 singles and albums charts, top 40 digital tracks chart, top 20 dance singles chart; the ARIA Report is available via paid e-mail subscription each week. These reports are uploaded to the Pandora Archive periodically; the top 50 singles and albums charts are published by online industry magazine The Music Network, along with various other charts. On 5 February 2006, the ARIA Chart Show was a radio program launched on the Nova network and broadcast throughout Australia, playing the official ARIA top 50 singles; the live music program was hosted by Jabba each Sunday afternoon at 3:00pm. From 1 June 2013 to 3 September 2016, the Take 40 Australia radio program broadcast the official ARIA top 40 singles on Saturday afternoons from 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm, on each state's Hit Network-owned radio station; the show was aired before the top 50 chart, dated for the following Monday, is published on the ARIA website at 6:00 pm.

The charts were published online at 6:00 pm each Sunday. ARIA Top 100 Singles Chart ARIA Top 100 Albums Chart ARIA Top 100 Physical Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Digital Albums Chart ARIA Top 50 Streaming Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Club Tracks Chart ARIA Top 50 Catalogue Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Singles Chart ARIA Top 40 Urban Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Country Albums Chart ARIA Top 40 Music DVDs Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Singles Chart ARIA Top 25 Dance Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Australian Artist Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Compilation Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Jazz & Blues Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Classical/Crossover Albums Chart ARIA Top 10 Core Classical Albums Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Singles Chart ARIA Top 20 Hitseekers Albums Chart Yearly Top 100 End of Year charts profiling the year in music End of Decade Top 100 charts profiling the decade in music Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2006 to present: Pre-2000: 2000 to present: 2016 to present: Music of Australia List of Australian chart achievements and milestones Official website Top 50 chart archives from June 1988 at Top 100 chart archives from January 2001 at National Library of Australia

The Golden Palominos

The Golden Palominos are an American musical group headed by drummer and composer Anton Fier, first formed in 1981. Aside from Fier, the Palominos membership has been wildly elastic, with only bassist Bill Laswell and guitarist Nicky Skopelitis appearing on every album through 1996, their latest work, 2012's A Good Country Mile features vocalist Kevn Kinney. While the Palominos' records featured a core set of musicians and a certain emotional continuity throughout the bulk of an album, various guest appearances resulted in stylistic changes from track to track; the group first featured Fier, singer-guitarist Arto Lindsay, saxophonist John Zorn, bass guitarist Bill Laswell and violinist/guitarist Fred Frith. Their self-titled debut album was released on New York's Celluloid Records in 1983, featured guest appearances by bassist Jamaaladeen Tacuma, guitarist Nicky Skopelitis, percussionist David Moss, turntablist M. E. Miller and others; the album has some of the first recorded turntable scratching outside of rap music, courtesy of Laswell and M.

E. Miller. M. E. Miller used vocal splitting technique to create harmony on the song he sings, they were influenced by so-called no wave music, but their music contained elements of funk and of the improvisational jazz stylings that became Zorn's trademark. This line-up lasted only for the first record, although all of the core members apart from Zorn were guests on subsequent Palominos recordings; the Palominos' next album, 1985's Visions of Excess, sounded vastly different. Of the band members that were on the first album, only Fier and Arto Lindsay remained. Visions of Excess marked the debut of singer Syd Straw, whose songwriting and vocals were featured prominently, as well as on the group's next album. Michael Stipe, John Lydon and Jack Bruce took turns on lead vocals, while Richard Thompson and Jody Harris were featured on lead guitar. Blast of Silence was released the following year, continuing in much the same vein as Visions of Excess and with appearances by many of the same personnel.

It included covers of two songs written by Little Feat's Lowell George. The record featured prominent guest appearances by Peter Blegvad, Matthew Sweet, Don Dixon, Peter Holsapple and T-Bone Burnett. A Dead Horse carried on in the sound of its predecessors but some of the songs crossed into a darker, more ambient and ethereal sound that dominated the Palomino records of the 1990s. Syd Straw had moved on and was no longer in the band, with most of the vocals now handled by Amanda Kramer of the dance music group Information Society. Fier was a guest on Straw's first solo record, Surprise. Drunk with Passion marked the first album not on Celluloid Records, taking cues from some of the darker sounds heard on A Dead Horse and using more processed and electronic sounds, giving some of its songs an ethereal feel; this album is arguably more influenced by its guest appearances. Guests included Hüsker Dü's Bob Mould, Richard Thompson, Michael Stipe, who provided one of the band's finer moments, the opening track "Alive and Living Now".

Nicky Skopelitis became more of a cornerstone of the band, contributing to the bulk of Drunk with Passion's songs along with Fier and Kramer. In 1992, Fier released his first solo record, a reworking of the Palomino's next album, This Is How It Feels; this Is How It Feels, released on Restless Records in 1993, continued the ambient sound of Drunk with Passion, but incorporated elements of club and trance music. It marked the introduction of new lead vocalist Lori Carson, who co-wrote nine of the CD's tracks with Anton Fier. Bill Laswell returned to contribute on this record, his production work on this and on the following record, Pure influenced Laswell's own remix work of the late 90's, as seen on the CDs Emerald Ather and City of Light; the album contains the first cover song since Blast of Silence, an ethereal, drum-machine-laced re-interpretation of Jackson Browne's "These Days". To further highlight the album's dance elements, an EP of remixes of songs from This Is How It Feels, entitled Prison of the Rhythm, was released shortly after the CD's release.

Pure, released a year is seen by many as the band's most focused work, owing much to the strong contributions once again of Carson and Skopelitis. Tracks such as "No Skin" and "Pure" continue in the dance/ambient style of the previous album; the CD stirred a minor controversy over the bare female breast on its cover, with some stores carrying a version of the CD with a booklet and the cover replaced by simple, text-based artwork. Another remix EP accompanied Pure's release. Pure was the last Palominos record for Lori Carson. However, the song "Little Suicides", from Pure showed the same sparse sound and strong yet quiet vocals that influenced Carson's solo work. Anton Fier produced Carson's 1995 solo record. 1994 saw the release of what was Fier's second solo recording, Absence of Time, which used outtakes from Pure for much of its framework. Dead Inside was another stylistic turnaround for the Palominos, their last proper album; this record had a deathly, industrial sound, with the line-up consisting only of Fier, multi-instrumentalist Knox Chandler, Nicky Skopelitis, poet Nicole Blackman.

Blackman's dark and deliberate ly

GIS in archaeology

GIS or Geographic Information Systems has been an important tool in archaeology since the early 1990s. Indeed, archaeologists were early adopters and developers of GIS and GIScience, Geographic Information Science; the combination of GIS and archaeology has been considered a perfect match, since archaeology involves the study of the spatial dimension of human behavior over time, all archaeology carries a spatial component. Since archaeology looks at the unfolding of historical events through geography and culture, the results of archaeological studies are rich in spatial information. GIS is adept at processing these large volumes of data that, geographically referenced, it is a cost-effective and fast tool. The tools made available through GIS help in data collection, its storage and retrieval, its manipulation for customized circumstances and the display of the data so that it is visually comprehensible by the user; the most important aspect of GIS in archaeology lies, not in its use as a pure map-making tool, but in its capability to merge and analyse different types of data in order to create new information.

The use of GIS in archaeology has changed not only the way archaeologists acquire and visualise data, but the way in which archaeologists think about space itself. GIS has therefore become more of a science than an objective tool. Survey and documentation are important to preservation and archaeology, GIS makes this research and fieldwork efficient and precise. Research done using GIS capabilities is used as a decision making tool to prevent loss of relevant information that could impact archaeological sites and studies, it is a significant tool that contributes to regional planning and for cultural resource management to protect resources that are valuable through the acquisition and maintenance of data about historical sites. In archaeology, GIS increases the ability to map and record data when it is used directly at the excavation site; this allows for immediate access to the data collected for analysis and visualization as an isolated study or it can be incorporated with other relevant data sources to help understand the site and its findings better.

The ability of GIS to model and predict archaeological sites is used by companies that are involved with utilizing vast tracts of land resources like the Department of Transportation. Section 106 of the National Preservation Act requires historical sites as well as others to be assessed for impact through federally funded projects. Using GIS to assess archaeological sites that may exist or be of importance can be identified through predictive modeling; these studies and results are used by the management to make relevant decisions and plan for future development. GIS makes this process less time consuming and more precise. There are different processes and GIS functionalities. Intrasite spatial analysis or distributional analysis of the information on the site helps in understanding the formation, process of change and in documentation of the site; this leads to research and conclusions. The old methods utilized for this provide limited exposure to the site and provide only a small picture of patterns over broad spaces.

Predictive modeling is used through data acquisition like that of hydrography and hypsography to develop models along with archaeological data for better analysis. Point data in GIS is used to focus on point locations and to analyze trends in data sets or to interpolate scattered points. Density mapping is done for the analysis of location trends and interpolation is done to aid surface findings through the creation of surfaces through point data and is used to find occupied levels in a site. Aerial data is more used, it focuses on the landscape and the region and helps interpret archaeological sites in their context and settings. Aerial data is analyzed through predictive modeling, used to predict location of sites and material in a region, it is based on the actual results. This is used in cultural resource management. GIS are able to store and combine multiple data sets, making complex analyses of the landscape possible. Catchment analysis is the analysis of catchment areas, the region surrounding the site accessible with a given expenditure of time or effort.

Viewshed analysis is the study of. This has been used to interpret the relationship of sites to their social landscape. Simulation is a simplified representation of reality, attempting to model phenomena by identifying key variables and their interactions; this is used to think through problem formulation, as a means of testing hypothetical predictions, as a means to generate data. In recent years, it has become clear that archaeologists will only be able to harvest the full potential of GIS or any other spatial technology if they become aware of the specific pitfalls and potentials inherent in the archaeological data and research process. Archaeoinformation science attempts to uncover and explore spatial and temporal patterns and properties in archaeology. Research towards a uniquely archaeological approach to information processing produces quantitative methods and computer software geared towards archaeological problem solving and understanding. Historical GIS The Getty Conservation Institute-sponsored Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities is a Web-based GIS tool that enables the Jordanian Department of Antiquities to inventory and manage the thousands of archaeological sites in Jordan.

The Digital Archaeological Atlas of the Holy Land provides online access to site records and media related to the arc