Anterior spinal artery
In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the artery that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord. It arises from branches of the vertebral arteries and courses along the anterior aspect of the spinal cord, it is reinforced by several contributory arteries the artery of Adamkiewicz. The anterior spinal artery arises bilaterally as two small branches near the termination of the vertebral arteries. One of these vessels is larger than the other, but they are about equal in size. Descending in front of the medulla oblongata, they unite at the level of the foramen magnum; the single trunk descends in the front of the medulla spinalis, extending to the lowest part of the medulla spinalis. It is continued as a slender twig on the filum terminale. On its course the artery takes several small branches, which enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramina; these branches are derived from the vertebral artery, the ascending cervical artery, a branch of the inferior thyroid artery in the neck, the intercostal arteries in the thorax, from the lumbar artery, iliolumbar artery and lateral sacral arteries in the abdomen and pelvis.
The vessel is placed in the pia mater along the anterior median fissure. It supplies that membrane, the substance of the medulla spinalis sending off branches at its lower part to be distributed to the cauda equina. Disruption of the anterior spinal artery leads to bilateral disruption of the corticospinal tract, causing motor deficits, bilateral disruption of the spinothalamic tract, causing sensory deficits in the form of pain/temperature sense loss, it is called anterior spinal artery syndrome. This occurs. Contrast this with medial medullary syndrome, when the anterior spinal artery is occluded at the level of the medulla oblongata; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 579 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Spinal Arterial Anatomy at Neuroangio.org Yoshioka K, Niinuma H, Ohira A, Nasu K, Kawakami T, Sasaki M, Kawazoe K. MR angiography and CT angiography of the artery of Adamkiewicz: noninvasive preoperative assessment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. Radiographics.
2003 Sep-Oct. PMID 12975511 Full Text Drawing of the anterior spinal artery Horizontal view of blood supply to the spinal cord
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, security, military and sociocultural integration among its members and other countries in Asia. It regularly engages other countries in the Asia-Pacific region and beyond. A major partner of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, ASEAN maintains a global network of alliances and dialogue partners and is considered by many as a global powerhouse, the central union for cooperation in Asia-Pacific, a prominent and influential organisation, it is involved in numerous international affairs, hosts diplomatic missions throughout the world. ASEAN was preceded by an organization formed in 31 July 1961 called the Association of Southeast Asia, a group consisting of the Philippines, the Federation of Malaya, Thailand. ASEAN itself was created on 8 August 1967, when the foreign ministers of five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, signed the ASEAN Declaration.
As set out in the Declaration, the aims and purposes of ASEAN are to accelerate economic growth, social progress, cultural development in the region, to promote regional peace and mutual assistance on matters of common interest, to provide assistance to each other in the form of training and research facilities, to collaborate for better utilisation of agriculture and industry to raise the living standards of the people, to promote Southeast Asian studies and to maintain close, beneficial co-operation with existing international organisations with similar aims and purposes. The creation of ASEAN was motivated by a common fear of communism, ASEAN achieved greater cohesion in the mid-1970s following a change in balance of power after the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; the region's dynamic economic growth during the 1970s strengthened the organization, enabling ASEAN to adopt a unified response to Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979. ASEAN's first summit meeting, held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976, resulted in an agreement on several industrial projects and the signing of a Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, a Declaration of Concord.
The end of the Cold War between the West and the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s allowed ASEAN countries to exercise greater political independence in the region, in the 1990s ASEAN emerged as a leading voice on regional trade and security issues. In 1984, Brunei became ASEAN's sixth member and on 28 July 1995, Vietnam joined as the seventh member. Laos and Myanmar joined two years on 23 July 1997. Cambodia was to have joined at the same time as Laos and Burma, but its entry was delayed due to the country's internal political struggle, it joined on 30 April 1999, following the stabilization of its government. In 1990, Malaysia proposed the creation of an East Asia Economic Caucus composed of the members of ASEAN as well as China and South Korea, with the intention of counterbalancing the growing US influence in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and in Asia as a whole. However, the proposal failed because of heavy opposition from the Japan. Work for further integration continued, the ASEAN Plus Three, consisting of ASEAN, China and South Korea, was created in 1997.
In 1992, the Common Effective Preferential Tariff scheme was adopted as a schedule for phasing out tariffs with the goal to increase the "region's competitive advantage as a production base geared for the world market". This law would act as the framework for the ASEAN Free Trade Area, an agreement by member states concerning local manufacturing in ASEAN, it was signed on 28 January 1992 in Singapore. After the 1997 Asian financial crisis, a revival of the Malaysian proposal, known as the Chiang Mai Initiative, was put forward in Chiang Mai, Thailand, it called for better integration of the economies of ASEAN as well as the ASEAN Plus Three. The bloc focused on peace and stability in the region. On 15 December 1995, the Southeast Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty was signed with the intention of turning Southeast Asia into a nuclear-weapon-free zone; the treaty took effect on 28 March 1997. It became effective on 21 June 2001 after the Philippines ratified it banning all nuclear weapons in the region.
On 15 December 2008, member states met in Jakarta to launch a charter, signed in November 2007, with the aim of moving closer to "an EU-style community". The charter turned ASEAN into a legal entity and aimed to create a single free-trade area for the region encompassing 500 million people. President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated: "This is a momentous development when ASEAN is consolidating and transforming itself into a community, it is achieved while ASEAN seeks a more vigorous role in Asian and global affairs at a time when the international system is experiencing a seismic shift". Referring to climate change and economic upheaval, he concluded: "Southeast Asia is no longer the bitterly divided, war-torn region it was in the 1960s and 1970s"; the financial crisis of 2007–2008 was seen as a threat to the goals envisioned by the charter, set forth the idea of a proposed human rights body to be discussed at a future summit in February 2009. This proposition caused controversy, as the body would not have the power to impose sanctions or punish countries which violated citizens' rights and would therefore be limited in effectiveness.
The body was established in 2009 as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights. In November 2012, the commission adopted the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration. The'ASEAN W
Massey University is a university based in Palmerston North, New Zealand, with significant campuses in Albany and Wellington. Massey University has 30,883 students, 13,796 of whom are extramural or distance-learning students, making it New Zealand's second largest university when not counting international students. Research is undertaken on all three campuses, more than 3,000 international students from over 100 countries study at the university. Massey University is the only university in New Zealand offering degrees in aviation, dispute resolution, veterinary medicine, nanoscience. Massey's veterinary school is accredited by the American Veterinary Medical Association and is recognised in the United States, Australia and Britain, its agriculture programme is the highest-ranked in New Zealand, 19th in Quacquarelli Symonds' world university subject rankings. Massey's Bachelor of Aviation is an internationally recognised and accredited qualification, is the first non-engineering degree to be recognised by the Royal Aeronautical Society, has ISO9001-2000 accreditation.
The New Zealand Agricultural College Act of 1926 established the sixth college of the University of New Zealand at Turitea, across the Manawatu River from Palmerston North City. It drew from the agriculture departments of Victoria University College in Wellington and Auckland University College. In 1927 the college was renamed Massey Agricultural College after former New Zealand Prime Minister William Fergusson Massey, who died in 1925 and had been vigorous in land reform efforts; the Massey Agricultural College Committee first met on 1 February 1927, the Batchelar property, near the present Turitea site, was purchased that June. The college was opened for tuition on 20 March 1928 by O. J. Hawkin. Women were admitted with Enid Hills being the first. With the demise of the UNZ in 1961, it became Massey College, part of Victoria University of Wellington. In 1960 a branch of VUW was established in Palmerston North to teach students by distance education, known as extramural study. In 1963 this branch amalgamated with Massey College to form Massey University College of Manawatu, on 25 September, the Massey University Act 1963 made it an independent university as Massey University of Manawatu, with its present name being adopted in 1966.
Inaugurated in 1993, classes began at Massey's Albany campus in 1994. In December 2010 Massey announced that the Wellington campus would close its School of Engineering and Advanced Technology the next month. Students were offered places at either the Albany or Manawatu campuses with compensation, but those who could not make the move and chose to undertake their degree elsewhere were given no compensation, only a few papers were able to be cross-credited; the College of Health was launched in February 2013 with three broad goals: promoting health and wellbeing and injury prevention and protecting people and communities from environmental risks to health. In December 2016, the Chancellor of the University, Chris Kelly, caused outrage by making several comments in a rural newspaper regarding the gender of those in the veterinarian profession. While outlining changes that were being made to the structure of the University's veterinarian and agricultural degrees, Kelly said that more women passed the first year of the veterinarian degree "because women mature earlier than men, work hard and pass.
Whereas men find out about booze and all sorts of crazy things during their first year... That’s fine, but the problem is one woman graduate is equivalent to two-fifths of a full-time equivalent vet throughout her life because she gets married and has a family, normal." These remarks caused widespread outrage, with Kelly's apology via Twitter and Facebook doing little to calm the situation. Kelly resigned as Chancellor on 14 December 2016, was replaced promptly by Pro Chancellor Michael Ahie. Massey University has campuses in the Manawatu at Palmerston North, at Wellington and on Auckland's North Shore at Albany. In addition, Massey offers most of its degrees extramurally within New Zealand and internationally, it has the nation's largest business college. Research is undertaken on all three campuses. New Zealand's first satellite, KiwiSAT is being designed and built by New Zealand Radio Amateurs with the support of Massey in space environment testing; the Manawatu campus in Palmerston North is based at the Turitea site.
The campus has around 9,000 students. The Turitea site houses the main administrative units of Massey University as well as the College of Humanities and Social Sciences, the College of Sciences, the Business School; the Turitea site is home to the only Veterinary School in New Zealand. In 2013 the College of Education became the Institute of Education and is part of College of Humanities and Social Sciences. In 2016, Massey University sold its Palmerston North-based Hokowhitu Campus. Since 1993 the Auckland campus in Albany has grown in a fast developing part of Auckland's North Shore City. Science and Business are the two largest colleges on the campus with the College of Science housing the New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study on the campus. Around 7,000 students are enrolled at Albany; this campus has grown since and an on-campus accommodation facility opened in semester one 2015. In 1999 the Wellington campus was created through the acquisition of the Wellington Polytechnic. Part of Massey Wellington sits inside the New Zealand Dominion Museum building.
The Wellington campus specializes in Design and Communication and Journalism. It has over 4,000 students. Extramural study first began in 1
Austrian Service Abroad
Austrian Service Abroad is a non-profit initiative and was founded in 1998 by Andreas Maislinger and Andreas Hörtnagl. Since 2001 Michael Prochazka is part of the managing committee; the association for Services Abroad, founded in 1998 by Andreas Hörtnagl and Andreas Maislinger was renamed in 2006 as Austrian Service Abroad. Since 2001 Michael Prochazka is in the board of directors of the non-governmental organization. Once a month a meeting takes place in each federal state; the organization provides positions for an alternative Austrian national service all over the world and is based in Innsbruck. The regular nine month alternative national service is substituted by a 12-month service at one of its partner organisations abroad. There are great variations in the requirements. Austrian Service Abroad is an institution which provides young male Austrians with a government funded alternative to the compulsory military service, its main focuses are Holocaust Memorial Service. Austrian Service Abroad offers three different types of Zivildienst-substitutes: Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service This program was founded in 1992 and has been a part of the association Austrian Service Abroad since 1998.
It deals with the victims of Nazism. Austrian Holocaust Memorial servants work for Holocaust memorials, like museums and research facilities For several years now, Austrian Holocaust Memorial servants have been sent to assignments in former refuge countries of the victim groups persecuted by the Nazis, for example the Casa Stefan Zweig in Petrópolis, the Centre for Jewish Studies in Shanghai, as well as the Jewish Museum of Australia in Melbourne. Since 1992 hundreds of young Austrian Holocaust Memorial servants in 22 countries have reappraised the history of the Holocaust worldwide and made an important contribution to the Austrian processing of history. Austrian Social Service It is performed within the scope of projects that serve the economic and social development of the respective country. Social servants are active in the following areas: projects for street-children, educational projects and children's villages, care for the old and handicapped, medical care as well as care and help for homosexuals.
Further places of assignment are environmental projects and developing projects in the countries of the Third World. Andreas Daniel Matt, the first foreign servant of the year who has provided his social service in 2004 in a SOS children's village in Lahore has, with the organization proLoka, founded another place of assignment. Since October, 1998 hundreds of Austrian Social servants were predominantly assigned to countries in Central and South America and Asia, but organizations like royal London Society for the Blind in England and the orphanage faith in Saint Petersburg are part of this worldwide network. Austrian Peace Service Peace servants are occupied within organizations that serve the achievement or protection of peace in connection with armed conflicts, they work, e.g. in non-state organizations in Israel where they organize workshops or common initiatives of the conflicting parties. In Nanjing in China a peace service application place exists since 2008 in the John Rabe house which reappraises the massacre of Nanjing in 1937.
This edged out event still strains the Sino-Japanese relations and was decisive in 2005 for wide protests in Beijing and other towns. The Japanese school book quarrel led in China to movements against falsification of history in Japanese school books. That's why the Austrian Peace Service donated together with the Thomas Rabe Community Center in 2009 for the first time the John Rabe Award; the International Council is the advisory arm for the executive committee of the Austrian Service Abroad regarding all matters of the respective country. Ernst Florian Winter, Chairman Argentina: Erika Rosenberg Australia: Paul R. Bartrop, Daniel James Schuster Bosnia and Herzegovina: Eli Tauber Brazil: Alberto Dines Canada: Walter Absil Costa Rica: Roland Spendlingwimmer Croatia: Branko Lustig France: Michel Cullin, Beate Klarsfeld Georgia: Gabriela von Habsburg Germany: Thomas Rabe Hungary: György Dalos India: Barbara Nath-Wiser Israel: Ben Segenreich Italy: Camilla Brunelli Palestinian territories: Andreas Sami Prauhart Poland: Władysław Bartoszewski Russia: Ilya Altman Senegal: Charles M. Huber Sweden: Gerald Nagler United Kingdom: Ladislaus Löb United States: Randolph M. Bell, Anna Rosmus The US is the country with the largest number of places offered for Holocaust Memorial Service.
Well known Holocaust Museums and Memorial Institutions like the Simon Wiesenthal Center and the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation in Los Angeles received several Holocaust Memorial Servants since the 1990s. At present, Austrian Service Abroad sends young Austrians to the following partner institutions: Argentina Buenos Aires - Center for homeless children and adolescents Australia Melbourne - Jewish Museum of Australia Melbourne - Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research CentreThe Jewish Holocaust Museum and Research Centre considers the finest memorial to all victims of racist policies to be an educational program which aims to combat anti-Semitism and prejudice in the community and foster understanding between people; the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service representatives work in different fields and areas of responsibility, undertaking translation, working in the library and on the museum’s database, helping with exhibitions and events
USA Softball is the governing body for the United States national softball team. In addition, it oversees more than 150,000 amateur teams nationwide, it is a 501 non-profit organization. USA Softball was founded in 1933 as the Amateur Softball Association with a tournament held in Chicago, organized by Leo Fischer and Michael J. Pauley; the following year, the 1934 National Recreation Congress recognized the ASA. Shortly afterward, the ASA was located in New Jersey. A world amateur softball tournament was held by the ASA at Chicago's Soldier Field that started on September 7, 1939; the ASA relocated to its new headquarters in Oklahoma City on January 1, 1966. On June 30, 2016, the Amateur Softball Association of ASA/USA Softball announced that it would be changing its organizational and trade name to "USA Softball," effective on January 1, 2017, along with a new logo. Since 2005, the organization has run the World Cup of Softball; the USA Softball Hall of Fame Complex hosts the NCAA Women's College World Series and the Big 12 Conference softball championship.
In 1978, the United States Olympic Committee named USA Softball the national governing body of softball in the United States. Due to this designation, USA Softball is responsible for training and promoting the six USA softball national teams that compete in events such as the Olympics, Pan American Games, World Championships and other international and domestic events. In 1996, the USA softball women's national team became the first American softball team to compete in the Olympics; the USA softball youth program began in 1974. Over 80,000 teams, 1.3 million players, 300,000 coaches participate in USA Softball's youth division on an annual basis. The USA Softball adult program began in 1934. With over 170,000 teams, 2.5 millions players, 500,000 coaches involved on an annual basis, the adult program is the largest USA Softball program. USA Softball provides programs of competition for adults including fast pitch, slow pitch and modified pitch for men and women; the National Softball Hall of Fame was dedicated May 1973, in Oklahoma City.
It has 337 members with 125 deceased, including players, managers and other suitable individuals. USA Softball publishes an updated rule book for softball each year, used by adult and youth recreational leagues in the United States and abroad; the USA Softball rules were used for the softball competition when it was an Olympic sport between 1996 and 2008. Official website
Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines was an American airline based in the A-Tech Center in College Park, flying to 144 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier and, as of February 2010, commenced service as a United Express carrier. It was a wholly owned subsidiary of Inc.. ASA operated nearly 900 flights each day, its main hub was at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. ASA changed its name to ExpressJet in 2011. In November 2011, ASA and ExpressJet received a single operating certificate from the FAA and in December 2011, all flights were operated by ExpressJet on behalf of its major airline code sharing partners. On March 12, 1979, the company was incorporated as Atlantic Southeast Airlines, Inc. with headquarters established in the Atlanta area. June 27 saw the start of operations with one 19-passenger de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprop aircraft between Atlanta and Columbus, Georgia. From 1979 to 1999 the call sign for ASA was "ACEY". In 1999 there was confusion with call sign for the Federal Aviation Administration - New Mexico based fighter unit with the call sign "ACER".
The FAA insisted one change call its sign and ASA was the one to change since they had used the call sign for the least amount of time. June 27, 1999 ASA changed to call sign CAA "Candler" after the founder of Asa Candler. On March 15, 2006 ASA was allowed to change its call sign back to ACEY, after the New Mexico fighter unit went defunct. Over the years, ASA's ICAO identifier changed from ASE to CAA to ACY to ASQ.. The company went public when the initial stock offering was completed in 1982; the first of a fleet of Embraer EMB-110 Bandeirante twin engine turboprop commuter airliners was delivered to ASA in December 1980. On April 1, 1983 the company acquired Southeastern Airlines. About a year in 1984, ASA joined the Delta Connection Program as one of the first regional partners. After only a few years as a true regional airline, the company was named'Regional Airline of the Year' by Air Transport World in January 1987. ASA initiated jet service with introduction of British Aerospace BAe 146-200 aircraft in 1995.
Two years the company began using Canadair CRJ200 regional jets for service from its Atlanta hub. CRJ service from the Dallas/Fort Worth hub began in 2000. On September 8, 1998 the company was honored as one of the global aviation and aerospace industry's best managed companies by Aviation Week and Space Technology magazine. Delta Air Lines acquired the company on March 22, 1999, increasing its stake in Atlantic Southeast Airlines from 28% to 100%, operations began on May 11 of that year. In 2000, Comair, a Delta Connection partner, joined ASA in announcing industry's largest regional jet order. In 2000, ASA went international with flights to Toronto, from Atlanta. In 2001, President Skip Barnette was named Regional Airline Executive of the year by the 2000 Commuter/Regional Airline News. Near the end of 2001, ASA carried the 2002 Olympic Flame between Miami and Mobile, Alabama, as part of Delta's sponsorship of the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City. In 2002, ASA began using its first Delta Connection 70-seat Canadair CRJ700 aircraft.
All previous CRJs were CRJ200 models. In 2002, ASA began service to its 100th airport: Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport in Cincinnati, Ohio. By June 2003, ASA had received its 100th CRJ. In 2004, a special-edition CRJ700 was delivered to ASA to celebrate its 25th anniversary of passenger service. On August 15, 2005, Delta announced that it had entered into an agreement to sell ASA to SkyWest, Inc. for $425 million, on September 8, 2005, SkyWest announced that the acquisition had been completed, that the code shares and flying would commence that night. Shortly after the completion of the purchase by SkyWest, Inc. the decision was made to close ASA's Salt Lake City hub and transfer 12 of ASA's CRJ700s to SkyWest Airlines. Only 4 of the 12 airplanes were transferred between the certificates. SkyWest Airlines took delivery of the remainder of ASA's regional jet orders, as 5 additional CRJ700s and 17 CRJ900s. On June 1, 2006, ASA filed with the US Department of Transportation for an exemption to begin service from Los Angeles International Airport to nine Mexican destinations under the Delta Connection brand.
This service is contingent on US as well as Mexican government approvals. ASA announced the opening of a Los Angeles crew base on December 1, 2006, to support the expanded west coast operations. ASA began operations at its new Los Angeles focus city on December 15, 2006. On December 20, 2006, Skywest Inc. announced that 8 Comair CRJ700 aircraft would be transferred to Atlantic Southeast Airlines and operated out of Delta's Cincinnati hub beginning in January 2007. This followed a request for proposal put out by Delta Air Lines aiming to reduce costs of its Delta Connection service. On December 30, 2008, Delta announced that 10 CRJ900 aircraft would be allocated to Atlantic Southeast Airlines beginning in April 2009. Eight aircraft will be delivered from the factory and two in service with Pinnacle Airlines will be transferred to ASA; as part of the fleet enhancement, 20 CRJ200 aircraft were removed from ASA's Delta Connection Agreement beginning in June 2010. ASA had the lowest rate of on-time performance, the worst rate of mishandled baggage among all 19 US air carriers reporting to the US Department of Transportation for the full-year 2006.
ASA's baggage handling performance improved in 2007, but they once again ranked last out of all 20 reporting carriers for on-time performance. ASA is not directly responsible for the mishandled baggage problems since ASA baggage is
Airservices Australia is an Australian Government owned corporation, responsible for providing safe, secure and environmentally responsible services to the aviation industry within the Australian Flight Information Region. Airservices Australia has international partnerships with ICAO, CANSO and IATA; the agency maintains a close relationship with the Australian Defence Force through the Future Service Delivery business group, which will see the acquisition of a joint civil-military air traffic management system under the OneSKY Australia Program. Under Australia's Civil Aviation Safety Authority regulation, Airservices Australia manages air traffic within Australian airspace which covers 11 per cent of the earth's surface; this includes the airspace over continental Australia, territorial waters and international airspace boundaries over the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Airservices Australia manages upper-level airspace under contract to the neighbouring Pacific Island Flight Information Regions of the Solomon Islands and Nauru.
Each year, Airservices Australia provides air navigation services for more than four million domestic and international flights carrying over 90 million passengers. The aviation industry relies on Airservices Australia for aeronautical data, telecommunications, terrestrial navigation aids, flight procedures and emergency services. Airservices Australia provides Aviation Rescue Fire Fighting services at 26 of Australia's busiest airports where there are more than 350,000 passenger per year on air transport flights. Airservices Australia's headquarters is located in the Alan Woods Building in central Canberra; the building is named in honour of the late Alan Woods, a chairman of the agency's predecessor organisation, the Civil Aviation Authority. The agency is funded by direct charges to the aviation industry and controlled by a board of directors, accountable to the Australian Parliament through the Minister for Infrastructure and Transport, The Honourable Darren Chester MP; the chair of Airservices Australia Board is Air Chief Marshal Sir Angus Houston AK, AFC.
The chief executive officer is Jason Harfield. The agency maintains more than 4,000 skilled aviation professionals, including air traffic controllers, engineering specialists and support staff working from two major control centres, 29 air traffic control towers and fire fighting stations at 26 of Australia's busiest airports. In 1999, the agency commenced using The Australian Advanced Air Traffic System, a computerised air traffic control system covering all sectors of Australian air space. Airservices Australia has 29 air traffic control towers and two air traffic control centres based in Brisbane and Melbourne. Australia has two Flight Information Regions. All airspace to the north of the dividing boundary is controlled by Brisbane Centre and all airspace to the south of the boundary is controlled by the Melbourne Centre; these centres cover the whole of Australia except for the Terminal Control Units and towers at major cities. In addition, Melbourne Centre is responsible for managing traffic handovers from South Africa, Sri Lanka, Maldives and New Zealand.
Brisbane Centre manages traffic handovers from neighbouring flight information regions including East Timor, Papua New Guinea and United States. There are three types of air traffic control. Tower controllers are located at an airport's control tower and are responsible for all aircraft and vehicle movements on taxiways, runways and in the immediate vicinity of the airport. Tower controllers use a range of technology to assist with this. Terminal controllers use radar and other surveillance technology to manage the flow of aircraft arriving and departing from major city airports. Airservices provides air traffic control services in an extended area around capital city airports, these controllers are instrumental in maximising the safe use of this busy airspace. En route controllers located in Brisbane and Melbourne are responsible for all aircraft flying at upper levels above 25 000 ft.. These controllers are responsible for the majority of air traffic over the Australian mainland and on oceanic routes within Australia's flight information region.
In 2013, Airservices was ranked among the world's best as part of an international safety benchmarking study undertaken by the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation. The study placed Airservices in second place for air navigation service providers in relation to the maturity of the organisation's Safety Management System, with a score of more than 90 per cent effectiveness; the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of Defence was established on 28 March 1921, after Parliament passed the Air Navigation Act 1920 in December 1920. The organisation was reformed as a separate Government Department, the Department of Civil Aviation, on 14 November 1938 after the enquiry into the crash of the DC-2 aircraft Kyeemah in 1938. Arthur Corbett was appointed director-general of Civil Aviation in April 1939, serving until his retirement in August 1944. From June 1946 to December 1955 the director-general was Richard Williams RAAF Chief of the Air Staff. Donald Anderson held the position of director-general from January 1956 until September 1973.
On 30 November 1973 the DCA merged with the Department of Shipping and Transport and became the Department of Transport, Air Transport Group. This group was again reformed as the Department of Aviation. Another merger took plac