ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority prefers the name US-ASCII for this character encoding. ASCII is one of the IEEE milestones. ASCII was developed from telegraph code, its first commercial use was as a seven-bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began on October 6, 1960, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association's X3.2 subcommittee. The first edition of the standard was published in 1963, underwent a major revision during 1967, experienced its most recent update during 1986. Compared to earlier telegraph codes, the proposed Bell code and ASCII were both ordered for more convenient sorting of lists, added features for devices other than teleprinters.

Based on the English alphabet, ASCII encodes 128 specified characters into seven-bit integers as shown by the ASCII chart above. Ninety-five of the encoded characters are printable: these include the digits 0 to 9, lowercase letters a to z, uppercase letters A to Z, punctuation symbols. In addition, the original ASCII specification included 33 non-printing control codes which originated with Teletype machines. For example, lowercase i would be represented in the ASCII encoding by binary 1101001 = hexadecimal 69 = decimal 105; the American Standard Code for Information Interchange was developed under the auspices of a committee of the American Standards Association, called the X3 committee, by its X3.2 subcommittee, by that subcommittee's X3.2.4 working group. The ASA became the United States of America Standards Institute and the American National Standards Institute. With the other special characters and control codes filled in, ASCII was published as ASA X3.4-1963, leaving 28 code positions without any assigned meaning, reserved for future standardization, one unassigned control code.

There was some debate at the time whether there should be more control characters rather than the lowercase alphabet. The indecision did not last long: during May 1963 the CCITT Working Party on the New Telegraph Alphabet proposed to assign lowercase characters to sticks 6 and 7, International Organization for Standardization TC 97 SC 2 voted during October to incorporate the change into its draft standard; the X3.2.4 task group voted its approval for the change to ASCII at its May 1963 meeting. Locating the lowercase letters in sticks 6 and 7 caused the characters to differ in bit pattern from the upper case by a single bit, which simplified case-insensitive character matching and the construction of keyboards and printers; the X3 committee made other changes, including other new characters, renaming some control characters and moving or removing others. ASCII was subsequently updated as USAS X3.4-1967 USAS X3.4-1968, ANSI X3.4-1977, ANSI X3.4-1986. Revisions of the ASCII standard: ASA X3.4-1963 ASA X3.4-1965 USAS X3.4-1967 USAS X3.4-1968 ANSI X3.4-1977 ANSI X3.4-1986 ANSI X3.4-1986 ANSI X3.4-1986 ANSI INCITS 4-1986 ANSI INCITS 4-1986 INCITS 4-1986 INCITS 4-1986In the X3.15 standard, the X3 committee addressed how ASCII should be transmitted, how it should be recorded on perforated tape.

They proposed a 9-track standard for magnetic tape, attempted to deal with some punched card formats. The X3.2 subcommittee designed ASCII based on the earlier teleprinter encoding systems. Like other character encodings, ASCII specifies a correspondence between digital bit patterns and character symbols; this allows digital devices to communicate with each other and to process and communicate character-oriented information such as written language. Before ASCII was developed, the encodings in use included 26 alphabetic characters, 10 numerical digits, from 11 to 25 special graphic symbols. To include all these, control characters compatible with the Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique International Telegraph Alphabet No. 2 standard of 1924, FIELDATA, early EBCDIC, more than 64 codes were required for ASCII. ITA2 were in turn based on the 5-bit telegraph code Émile Baudot invented in 1870 and patented in 1874; the committee debated the possibility of a shift function, which would allow more than 64 codes to be represented by a six-bit code.

In a shifted code, some character codes determine choices between options for the following character codes. It allows compact encoding, but is less reliable for data transmission, as an error in transmitting the shift code makes a long part of the transmission unreadable; the standards committee decided against shifting, so ASCII required at least a seven-bit code. The committee considered an eight-bit code, since eight bits would allow two four-bit patterns to efficiently encode two digits with binary-coded decimal. However, it would require all data transmission to send eight bits. Th

Battle of Custoza (1848)

The First Battle of Custoza was fought on July 24 and 25, 1848 during the First Italian War of Independence between the armies of the Austrian Empire, commanded by Field Marshal Radetzky, the Kingdom of Sardinia, led by King Charles Albert of Sardinia-Piedmont. In March 1848, the city of Milan launched an uprising against Austrian occupation. Charles Albert declared war on Austria. Venice declared its independence from Austria; the Austrian Field Marshal Radetzky withdrew his forces from Milan to the defensive positions based on the four fortresses known as the Quadrilateral: Verona, Mantua and Legnago. The Piedmontese took Peschiera after a short siege, but Radetzky received substantial reinforcements. Around 15 July, the Piedmontese Army was dispersed on the war theatre, from the Rivoli plateau on the north to Governolo on the south. Marshal Radetzky attacked, on July 23, the Piedmontese II Corps, forced it to retire first before Peschiera and after another successful attack on the 24th, behind the river Mincio, separating the Piedmontese Army in two.

The Piedmontese High Command reacted and uncertainly to the news coming from the north, it was decided to attack the Austrian army in the rear towards the village of Staffalo, with the bulk of the I Corps. However, this lulled the Sardinian commanders into a false sense of complacency, spurred Radetzky to stop his advance beyond the Mincio and march on these enemy forces. For the 25th, the Piedmontese were ordered to attack the enemy further in the area, while the II Corps was instructed to support the attack from the Mincio. For the whole day, the outnumbered Piedmontese were subjected by attacks by two Austrian army corps, by the end of the day the whole line had been forced to move back. While not a total victory, the spirit of King Charles Albert and of his generals was all but broken; the attempt to renew the war effort the next year resulted in another victory for Radetzky and the effective end of the First Italian War of Independence. Battle of Custoza, Encyclopædia Britannica Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states Pieri, Piero.

Storia militare del Risorgimento: guerre e insurrezioni. Torino: Giulio Einaudi

Yukio Yashiro

Yukio Yashiro was a Japanese academic, art historian, Botticelli scholar and Director of the Institute for Art Research in Tokyo. In 1960, he became the founding director of the Museum of Japanese Art in Nara; this museum of Asian art was established to preserve and display the private collection of the Kintetsu Corporation. Charles Lang Freer Medal, September 15, 1965. In a statistical overview derived from writings by and about Yukio Yashiro, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses 100+ works in 100+ publications in 7 languages and in 1,000+ library holdings; the most held works by Yashiro include: 2000 years of Japanese Art. A Planning Guide for Corporate Museums and Visitor Centers. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-27657-6. Third presentation of the Charles Lang Freer medal, September 15, 1965. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. Martin, John H, Phyllis G Martin.. Nara: a Cultural Guide to Japan's Ancient Capital. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle. ISBN 978-0-804-81914-5.