Midway International Airport
Chicago Midway International Airport is a major commercial airport on the southwest side of Chicago, located eight miles from the Loop. Established in 1927, Midway served as Chicago's primary airport until the opening of O'Hare International Airport in 1955. Today, Midway is the second-largest airport in Chicago metropolitan area and the state of Illinois, serving 22,027,737 passengers in 2018. Traffic is dominated by low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines. Named Chicago Municipal Airport, it was renamed to honor the Battle of Midway; the airfield is located in a square mile bounded by 55th and 63rd Streets, Central and Cicero Avenues. The current terminal complex was completed in 2001; the terminal bridges Cicero Avenue and contains 43 gates with facilities for international passengers. Stevenson Expressway and the CTA Orange Line provide freeway and rapid transit access to The Loop. Named Chicago Air Park, Midway Airport was built on a 320-acre plot in 1923 with one cinder runway for airmail flights.
In 1926 the city leased the airport and named it Chicago Municipal Airport on December 12, 1927. By 1928, the airport lit for night operations. A major fire early on June 25, 1930, destroyed two hangars and 27 aircraft, "12 of them tri-motor passenger planes." The loss was estimated at more than two million dollars. The hangars destroyed were of the Universal Air Lines, Inc. and the Grey Goose Airlines, the latter under lease to Stout Air Lines. The fire followed an explosion of undetermined cause in the Universal hangar. In 1931 a new passenger terminal opened at 62nd St. More construction was funded in part by $1 million from the Works Progress Administration; the March 1939 OAG shows 47 weekday departures: 13 on United, 13 American, 9 TWA, 4 Northwest, two each on Eastern, Pennsylvania Central, C&S. New York's airport was the busiest airline airport in the United States, but Midway passed LaGuardia in 1948 and kept the title until 1960; the record-breaking 1945 Japan–Washington flight of B-29s refueled at the airport on their way to Washington DC.
In July 1949 the airport was renamed after the Battle of Midway. That year Midway saw 3.2 million passengers. The diagram on the January 1951 C&GS approach chart shows four parallel pairs of runways, all 4240 ft or less except for 5730-ft runway 13R and 5230-ft runway 4R. Airport diagram for 1959 The April 1957 OAG shows 414 weekday fixed-wing departures from Midway: 83 American, 83 United, 56 TWA, 40 Capital, 35 North Central, 28 Delta, 27 Eastern, 22 Northwest, 19 Ozark, 11 Braniff, 5 Trans-Canada, 5 Lake Central. Air France, REAL had a few flights per week. Midway was running out of room and in any case could not handle the 707 and DC-8 jets that appeared in 1959. Electras and Viscounts could have continued to fly out of Midway, but O'Hare's new terminal opened in 1962, allowing airlines to consolidate their flights. From July 1962 until United returned in July 1964, Midway's only scheduled airline was Chicago Helicopter. In August 1966 a total of four fixed-wing arrivals were scheduled, all United 727s.
By 1967 reconstruction began at the airport, adding three new concourses with 28 gates and three ticket counters, in 1968 the city invested $10 million in renovation funds. The funds supported construction of the Stevenson Expressway, Midway saw the return of major airlines that year, with 1,663,074 passengers on smaller-capacity, shorter range twin-jet and trijet airliners such as the McDonnell Douglas DC-9, BAC One-Eleven, Boeing 727, Boeing 737 that could use Midway's runways, which the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 could not. In May 1968 there were 22 scheduled departures: six United 727s to MSP, DCA and LGA, 12 Northwest 727s to MSP and CLE, one Delta DC-9 to STL and three Ozark FH227s; the December 1970 OAG shows 86 weekday arrivals on 13 fixed-wing airlines from 31 airports, but the August 1974 shows 14 arrivals on four airlines, in 1976–79 Midway had only the two or three Delta DC-9s from St Louis. Midway Airlines arrived on October 31, 1979 with DC-9 nonstops to Kansas City and Cleveland Lakefront.
Their September 1989 timetable shows 117 weekday departures to 29 cities, plus 108 departures on their commuter affiliates to 22 more cities. Midway quit flying in 1991. In 1982, the city of Chicago purchased Midway Airport from the Chicago Board of Education for $16 million. Three years Southwest Airlines began operations at Midway. Midway was a focus city for Vanguard Airlines from 1997 to 2000; the Chicago Transit Authority displaced the Carlton Midway Inn to open a new CTA terminal at the airport on October 31, 1993, for the new Chicago'L' Orange Line that connected Midway to Chicago's Loop. Midway Airport is the end of the line, which crosses the southwest part of the city before ending at the Loop
Daniel K. Inouye International Airport
Daniel K. Inouye International Airport known as Honolulu International Airport, is the principal aviation gateway of the City and County of Honolulu on Oahu in the State of Hawaii, it is identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States, with traffic now exceeding 21 million passengers a year and rising. The airport is named after the U. S. Senator and Medal of Honor recipient Daniel K. Inouye, who represented Hawaii from 1963 until his death in 2012; the airport is located in the Honolulu census-designated place three miles northwest of Honolulu's central business district. Main roads leading to the airport are Nimitz Highway and the Queen Liliuokalani Freeway of Interstate H-1. Daniel K. Inouye International Airport serves as the principal hub of Hawaiian Airlines, the largest Hawaii-based airline, it offers flights between the various airports of the Hawaiian Islands and serves the continental United States, Australia, New Zealand, American Samoa, Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, South Korea.
It is host to major United States and international airlines, with direct flights to North American and Pacific Rim destinations. In addition to services to most major western cities and many smaller gateways in California, the airport has succeeded in attracting long-haul services to the East Coast including the added destinations of Toronto–Pearson and Washington–Dulles, which have joined established services to Atlanta, New York–JFK, Boston, it is the base for Aloha Air Cargo, which offered both passenger and cargo services under the name Aloha Airlines. This airline ceased passenger flights on March 31, 2008, sold off its cargo services to Seattle-based Saltchuk Resources, Inc.. In 2012, the airport handled 19,291,412 passengers, 278,145 aircraft movements and processed 412,270 metric tons of cargo, it is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021, in which it is categorized as a large-hub primary commercial service facility.
HNL opened in March 1927 as John Rodgers Airport, named after World War I naval officer John Rodgers. It was funded by the territorial legislature and the Chamber of Commerce, was the first full airport in Hawaii: aircraft had been limited to small landing strips, fields or seaplane docks. From 1939 to 1943, the adjacent Keehi Lagoon was dredged for use by seaplanes, the dredged soil was moved to HNL to provide more space for conventional airplanes; the U. S. military grounded all civil aircraft and took over all civil airports after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Rodgers Field was designated Naval Air Station Honolulu. The Navy built a control tower and terminal building, some commercial traffic was allowed during daylight hours. Rodgers Field was returned to the Territory of Hawaii in 1946. At the time, at 4,019 acres, it was one of the largest airports in the United States, with four paved land runways and three seaplane runways. John Rodgers Airport was renamed Honolulu Airport in 1947. Being near the center of the Pacific Ocean it was a stop for many transpacific flights.
By 1950 it was the third-busiest airport in the United States in terms of aircraft operations, its 13,097-foot runway was the longest in the world in 1953. In summer of 1959 Qantas began the first jet service to Honolulu on its flights between Australia and California. Qantas introduced these jet flights with Boeing 707 aircraft operating a routing of Sydney – Fiji – Honolulu – San Francisco. Aeronautical engineer and airline consultant, Frank Der Yuen, advised in the design of the original building and founded its aerospace museum; the original terminal building on the southeast side of runways 4 was replaced by the John Rodgers Terminal, dedicated on August 22, 1962 and opened on October 14, 1962. From 1970 through 1978, the architect Vladimir Ossipoff designed a terminal modernization project that remodeled this terminal and created several additions, which included the Diamond Head Concourse in 1970, the Ewa Concourse in 1972, the Central Concourse in 1980. Pan American World Airways used Honolulu as a transpacific hub for many years as a connecting point between the West Coast and Polynesia in 1946, followed by service to East Asia through Midway Island and Wake Island from 1947.
By 1960, Pan American was serving the airport with Boeing 707 jets. Pan Am flight number 1 operated with a 707 flew a westbound routing of San Francisco – Honolulu – Wake Island – Tokyo – Hong Kong with this flight continuing on to New York City via stops in Asia and Europe with the airline operating nonstop 707 service to Los Angeles and Portland, OR with the latter flight continuing on to Seattle as well as direct 707 jet service from Honolulu to Calcutta, Jakarta, Manila, Rangoon and Singapore in 1960. United Airlines was flying nonstop Douglas DC-6 "Mainliner" service from San Francisco in 1947 and by 1961 was operating Douglas DC-8 jet service nonstop from Los Angeles and San Francisco with direct one stop DC-8 flights from both Chicago and New York City. British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines began serving the airport during the mid 1940s with Douglas DC-4 aircraft flying a routing of Sydney – Auckland – Fiji – Canton Island – Honolulu – San Francisco – Vancouver, B. C. In 1950, Northwest Airlines was operating nonstop flights from Seattle with Boeing 377 Stratocruiser propliners and by 1961 Northwest was flying daily Douglas DC-8 jet service on a round trip routing of New York City – Chicago –
T. F. Green Airport
T. F. Green International Airport is a public international airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, United States, six miles south of the state's capital and largest city of Providence. Opened in 1931, the airport was named for former Rhode Island governor and longtime senator Theodore Francis Green. Rebuilt in 1996, the renovated main terminal was named for former Rhode Island governor Bruce Sundlun, it was the first state-owned airport in the United States. The Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2017–2021 categorized it as a small hub primary commercial service facility. T. F. Green Airport is a regional airport serving the FAA's New England Region in the FAA System Plan; the airport is the largest and most active airport among the six operated by the Rhode Island Airport Corporation. T. F. Green Airport was dedicated on September 27, 1931, as Hillsgrove State Airport, drawing what was at that time the largest crowd that had attended a public function in the country.
In 1933, the Rhode Island State Airport Terminal was built on Airport Road called Occupasstuxet Road. In 1938, the airport was renamed in honor of Green, who had just been elected to the Senate two years earlier. At the time it had three 3,000-foot concrete runways; the Army Air Force took control from 1942 to 1945. The February 1947 diagram shows runways 10 and 16 all 4,000 feet long. A few years 5R was 5,466 feet, which it remained until extended to 6,466 feet around 1967; the April 1957 OAG shows 26 weekday departures: 11 Eastern, 10 American, four United and one National. Nonstops did not reach beyond Boston and Newark until 1959 when Eastern started a DC-7B nonstop to Washington, the longest until United started Cleveland in 1968 and Chicago in 1970 and Eastern started Miami in 1969 and Atlanta in 1970; the first jets were Mohawk BAC-111s in 1966. President Richard Nixon made a campaign stop at the airport on the night of Friday, November 3, 1972. A crowd of 10,000 watched as Nixon, standing on the steps of Air Force One, urged voters to support Republican candidates Herbert F. DeSimone for Governor and John Chafee for U.
S. Senator. Air Force One again touched down at T. F. Green on August 30, 1975, this time carrying President Gerald Ford, en route to a fundraiser in Newport, he was greeted by a crowd of about 1,500 supporters, as well as local politicians including Governor Philip W. Noel, Senator John O. Pastore, Providence Mayor Buddy Cianci. To enhance itself as the lone airport for a metro area of over 1.6 million people, a new terminal was built on Post Road in 1964, replacing the old 1933 terminal along Airport Road. In 1996 this terminal was replaced, expanding to 18 gates, adding a lower arrival level and an upper departure level. In 1997 four gates were added. Airlines added flights to T. F. Green Airport, including Air Canada, Southwest, SATA International, Spirit Airlines. After the September 11 attacks, T. F. Green Airport, like most airports in the United States, faced a temporarily decrease in passengers and fewer flights from American Airlines, SATA; until the 2015 finalization of the merger between American Airlines and US Airways, creating one single licensed carrier under the American Airlines name, the Providence metropolitan area was the largest MSA in the United States not served by American Airlines or any of its subsidiaries.
The decrease in service was severe to Chicago O'Hare as between both United and American decreased the number of one way daily seats from nearly a combined 1,400 to today's 225 daily one way seats. Nine flights of 727, 735, 757 and MD-80 service to today's regional jet use. Since the HNTB-designed Bruce Sundlun Terminal opened in 1996, T. F. Green became more congested due to increased traffic and post-9/11 security changes. Renovations followed, including expansion of baggage rooms to accommodate a new In-Line Explosive Detection System Baggage Handling System, expanded security screening checkpoints, more concessions and ticket counters, expansion of RIAC offices on the second and third floors. Traffic increased to a high of 5.7 million passenger in 2005, while at the same time Boston Logan was handling 25 million passengers. After 2005 airlines started consolidating service at larger airports withdrawing service and reducing frequencies at mid sized hubs and small sized hubs. Airports such as T. F. Green, Bradley, etc. were affected.
The recession and Boston Logan's proximity to the Providence metro area took its toll on T. F. Green as numbers decreased to 3.5 million in 2015. In 2017 numbers have grown just shy of 4 million passenger. With the addition of Amazon Air, which includes its own Prime Jets plus DHL and Atlas Air Jets, cargo numbers have increased to nearly 44 million pounds; this will increase with a full year of service from Amazon Air. Amazon moved their cargo service from T. F. Green to Bradley International Airport as of August 1, 2018. In 2017 the airport had 74,561 aircraft operations, average 204 per day: 50% scheduled commercial, 14% air taxi, 35% general aviation and <1% military. 33 aircraft were based at this airport: 55% single-engine, 9% multi-engine, 30% jet and 6% helicopter. In 2017 T. F. Green handled about 3,937,000 passengers; the mainline airline with the largest presence at T. F. Green is Southwest, which carried 45.07% of all passengers in 2017, followed by American with 13.65%. T. F. Green handled over 43,500,000
Orlando International Airport
Orlando International Airport is a major public airport located six miles southeast of Downtown Orlando, United States. In 2018, MCO handled 47,696,627 passengers, making it the busiest airport in the state of Florida and the eleventh-busiest airport in the United States; the airport serves as a hub for Silver Airways and a focus city for Frontier, JetBlue and Spirit. Southwest is the airport's largest carrier by passengers carried; the airport is a major international gateway for the mid-Florida region, with over 850 daily flights on 44 airlines. The airport serves 135 domestic and international destinations. At 13,302 acres, MCO is one of the largest commercial airports in the US. In addition, the airport is home to a maintenance base for United Airlines; the airport code MCO stands for the airport's former name, McCoy Air Force Base, a Strategic Air Command installation, closed in 1975 as part of a general military drawdown following the end of the Vietnam War. In terms of commercial airline service, the Greater Orlando area is served by Orlando Sanford International Airport, more indirectly by Daytona Beach International Airport, Orlando Melbourne International Airport, Tampa International Airport, St. Pete–Clearwater International Airport.
The airfield was constructed as a U. S. Army Air Forces facility and military operations began in 1942 as Orlando Army Air Field #2, an auxiliary airfield to Orlando Army Air Base, now known as Orlando Executive Airport. Orlando Army Air Field #2 was renamed Pinecastle Army Airfield in January 1943. At the end of World War II, Pinecastle was used for unpowered glide tests of the Bell X-1 from B-29 aircraft before the program moved to Muroc Army Airfield in California– now Edwards AFB – for the world's first supersonic flight. With the establishment of an independent U. S. Air Force in 1947, the airfield was placed in caretaker status, until being reactivated during the Korean War as a Strategic Air Command facility for B-47 Stratojets and KC-97 Stratofreighters and renamed Pinecastle AFB. In the 1950s, the base began hosting Navigation Competition. A B-47 Stratojet crashed during the 1958 competition, killing Colonel Michael Norman Wright McCoy, commander of the 321st Bombardment Wing, the host wing for Pinecastle AFB.
The following year the base was renamed for McCoy. The base was home to the 306th Bombardment Wing operating the B-52 Stratofortress and the KC-135 Stratotanker, it was used by EC-121 Warning Star early warning aircraft of the 966th Airborne Early Warning and Control Squadron, a tenant unit at McCoy assigned to the Aerospace Defense Command. During the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962, McCoy AFB became a temporary forward operating base for more than 120 F-100 Super Sabre and F-105 Thunderchief fighter bombers and the primary base for U-2 reconnaissance aircraft flying over Cuba. One of these U-2s was shot down by Soviet-operated SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missiles near Banes, Cuba, its pilot, Major Rudolf Anderson, Jr. USAF, was the crisis' only combat death. Following the crisis, McCoy AFB hosted a permanent U-2 operating detachment of the 100th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing until 1973. McCoy AFB was identified for closure in early 1973 as part of a post-Vietnam reduction in force; the following year, McCoy's 306th Bombardment Wing was inactivated, its B-52D Stratofortress and KC-135A Stratotanker aircraft reassigned to other SAC units and most of the McCoy AFB facility turned over to the city of Orlando by the General Services Administration in late 1974 and early and mid 1975.
USAF responsibility for the airfield's air traffic control tower was turned over to the Federal Aviation Administration and the airport established its own crash and rescue department utilizing equipment transferred by the GSA. In the early 1960s, when jet airline flights came to Orlando, the installation became a joint civil-military facility. Early jetliners such as the Boeing 707, Boeing 720, Douglas DC-8 and Convair 880 required longer and sturdier runways than the ones at Herndon Airport. Nearby lakes and commercial and residential development made expansion impractical, so an agreement was reached between the city of Orlando and the U. S. Air Force in 1962 to use McCoy AFB under a joint arrangement; the military offered a large AGM-28 Hound Dog missile maintenance hangar and its associated flight line ramp area in the northeast corner of the field for conversion into a civil air terminal. The city would cover the cost of building a replacement missile maintenance hangar on the main base's western flight line.
The new civil facility would be known as the Orlando Jetport at McCoy and would operate alongside McCoy AFB. This agreement became a model for other joint civil-military airports in operation today. Airline flights to the Orlando Jetport began shortly after an agreement was signed by the city and USAF in October 1961. Over the next few years airline flights shifted from the old Herndon Airport. In 1971 scheduled airlines were Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, National Airlines and Southern Airways; when McCoy AFB closed in 1975, part of the facility stayed under military control to support Naval Training Center Orlando and several tenant commands. There are only a few enclaves on the original McCoy AFB site that the military still uses such as the 164th Air Defense Artillery Brigade from the Florida Army National Guard in the former McCoy AFB Officers Club complex, an Army Reserve intelligence unit in the former SAC Alert Facility, the 1st Lieutenant D
Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport known as MIA and as Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the Miami area, with over 1,000 daily flights to 167 domestic and International destinations. The airport is in an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 8 miles northwest of Downtown Miami, in metropolitan Miami, between the cities of Miami, Doral, Miami Springs, the village of Virginia Gardens, the unincorporated Fontainebleau neighborhood, it is South Florida's main airport for long-haul international flights and a hub for the Southeastern United States, with passenger and cargo flights to cities throughout the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, as well as cargo flights to East Asia. It is the largest gateway between the United States and south to Latin America, is one of the largest airline hubs in the United States, owing to its proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth, large local Latin American and European populations, strategic location to handle connecting traffic between North America, Latin America, Europe.
In 2018, 45,044,312 passengers traveled through the airport, making the airport the 13th busiest airport in the USA and the 40th busiest airport in the world in terms of total passenger traffic. MIA is the 3rd busiest airport in the US in terms of international passenger traffic; the airport handled more international cargo than any other airport in the United States. MIA is the busiest airport in the State of Florida in terms of total aircraft operations and total cargo traffic and the second-busiest in terms of total passenger traffic; the airport is American Airlines' primary gateway to Latin America along with a domestic hub for its regional affiliate American Eagle in the U. S. A, it serves as a focus city for Avianca, Frontier Airlines, LATAM, both for passengers and cargo operations. In the past, it has been a hub for Braniff International Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Air Florida, the original National Airlines, the original Pan American World Airways, United Airlines, Iberia Airlines and Fine Air.
For the World War II and United States Air Force Reserve use of the airport, see Miami Army AirfieldThe first airport on the site of MIA opened in the 1920s and was known as Miami City Airport. Pan American World Airways opened an expanded facility adjacent to City Airport, Pan American Field, in 1928. Pan American Field was built on 116 acres of land on 36th Street and was the only mainland airport in the eastern United States that had port of entry facilities, its runways were located around the threshold of today's Runway 26R. Eastern Airlines began to serve Pan American Field in 1931, followed by National Airlines in 1936. National used a terminal on the opposite side of LeJeune Road from the airport, would stop traffic on the road in order to taxi aircraft to and from its terminal. Miami Army Airfield opened in 1943 during the Second World War to the south of Pan American Field: the runways of the two were separated by railroad tracks, but the two airfields were listed in some directories as a single facility.
Following World War II in 1945, the City of Miami established a Port Authority and raised bond revenue to purchase Pan American Field, since renamed 36th Street Airport, from Pan Am. It merged with the former Miami Army Airfield, purchased from the United States Army Air Force south of the railroad in 1949 and expanded further in 1951 when the railroad line itself was moved south to make more room; the old terminal on 36th Street was closed in 1959. United States Air Force Reserve troop carrier and rescue squadrons operated from the airport from 1949 through 1959, when the last unit relocated to nearby Homestead Air Force Base. Nonstop flights to Chicago and Newark Liberty International Airport in northeast New Jersey started in late 1946, but nonstops didn't reach west beyond St. Louis and New Orleans until January 1962. Nonstop transatlantic flights to Europe began in 1970. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Air Florida had a hub at MIA, with a nonstop flight to London, England which it acquired from National upon the latter's merger with Pan Am.
Air Florida ceased operations in 1982 after the crash of Air Florida Flight 90. British Airways flew a Concorde SST triserial between Miami and London via Washington, D. C. from 1984 to 1991. After former Apollo 8 astronaut Frank Borman became president of Eastern Airlines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in New York City to Building 16 in the northeast corner of MIA, Eastern's maintenance base. Eastern remained one of the largest employers in the Miami metropolitan area until ongoing labor union unrest, coupled with the airline's acquisition by union antagonist Frank Lorenzo in 1986 forced the airline into bankruptcy in 1989. In the midst of Eastern's turmoil American Airlines CEO Bob Crandall sought a new hub in order to utilize new aircraft which AA had on order. AA studies indicated that Delta Air Lines would provide strong competition on most routes from Eastern's hub at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, but that MIA had many key routes only served by Eastern.
American announced that it would establish a base at MIA in August 1988. Lorenzo considered selling Eastern's profitable Latin American routes to AA as part of a Chapter 11 reorganization of Eastern in early 1989, but backed out in a last-ditch effort to rebuild the MIA hub; the effort proved futile, American purchased the routes (including the route authority between Miami and L
George Bush Intercontinental Airport
George Bush Intercontinental Airport is an international airport in Houston, United States, under class B airspace, serving the Greater Houston metropolitan area. Located about 23 miles north of Downtown Houston, between Interstate 45 and Interstate 69/U. S. Highway 59 with direct access to the Hardy Toll Road expressway, George Bush Intercontinental Airport has scheduled flights to a large number of domestic and international destinations; the airport named "Houston Intercontinental Airport", was renamed after George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States. In 2017, the airport served 40,696,189 passengers, making it the 48th busiest airport in the world, the 15th busiest airport in the United States. IAH has five runways. Houston Intercontinental is the second largest passenger hub for United Airlines; the airport serves as a focus city for Spirit Airlines. Under operations as United Express, Expressjet Airlines, Republic Airline, Mesa Airlines and Skywest Airlines operate hub operations from IAH.
It served as a hub for Houston-based Texas International Airlines and commuter air carrier Metro Airlines, based in the Houston area and started its first flights when Intercontinental opened in 1969. The airport serves as a hub for Atlas Air, which hosts a crew base and cargo logistics. A group of Houston businessmen purchased the site for Bush Intercontinental Airport in 1957 to preserve it until the city of Houston could formulate a plan for a new airport as a replacement for William P. Hobby Airport; the holding company for the land was named the Jet Era Ranch Corporation, but a typographical error transformed the words "Jet Era" into "Jetero" and the airport site subsequently became known as the Jetero airport site. Although the name Jetero was no longer used in official planning documents after 1961, the airport's eastern entrance was named Jetero Boulevard. Most of Jetero Boulevard was renamed Will Clayton Parkway; the City of Houston annexed the Intercontinental Airport area in 1965.
This annexation, along with the 1965 annexations of the Bayport area, the Fondren Road area, an area west of Sharpstown, resulted in a gain of 51,251 acres of land for the city limits. Houston Intercontinental Airport, the original name for the airport, opened in June 1969; the airport's IATA code of IAH derived from the stylization of the airport's name as "Intercontinental Airport of Houston." All scheduled passenger airline service operated from William P. Hobby Airport moved to Intercontinental upon the airport's completion. Hobby remained open as a general aviation airport and was once again used for scheduled passenger airline jet service two years when Southwest Airlines initiated intrastate airline service nonstop between Hobby and Dallas Love Field in 1971. Houston Intercontinental had been scheduled to open in 1967, but design changes regarding the terminals created cost overruns and construction delays; the prime contractor, R. F. Ball Construction of San Antonio, sued the city of Houston for $11 million in damages, but assistant city attorney Joseph Guy Rollins, Jr. defended the municipality on appeal to the Texas Supreme Court.
In the late 1980s, Houston City Council considered a plan to rename the airport after Mickey Leland—an African-American U. S. Congressman who died in an aviation accident in Ethiopia. Instead of renaming the whole airport, the city named Mickey Leland International Arrivals Building, which would become Mickey Leland Terminal D, after the congressman. In April 1997, Houston City Council unanimously voted to rename the airport George Bush Intercontinental Airport/Houston, after George H. W. Bush, the 41st President of the United States; the name change took effect on May 2, 1997. On August 28, 1990, Continental Airlines agreed to build its maintenance center at George Bush Intercontinental Airport; as of 2007, Terminals A and B remain from the airport's original design. Lewis W. Cutrer Terminal C opened in 1981, the Mickey Leland International Arrivals Building opened in May 1990, the new Terminal E opened on June 3, 2003; the rest of Terminal E opened on January 7, 2004. Terminal D is the arrival point for all international flights except for United flights, which use Terminal E. Terminal D held customs and INS until the opening of the new Federal Inspection Service building, completed on January 25, 2005.
At the time of the opening of IAH in 1969, domestic scheduled passenger airline flights were being operated by American Airlines, Braniff International Airways, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Eastern Air Lines, National Airlines and Houston-based Texas International Airlines which had operated as Trans-Texas Airways. International flights at this time were being flown by Pan American World Airways with ten nonstop flights a week operated with Boeing 707 jetliners to Mexico City. Texas International was operating direct services to Mexico at this time with Douglas DC-9 jets to Monterrey and Convair 600 turboprop flights to Tampico and Veracruz. KLM introduced Boeing 747 services in 1971 and by 1974 Air France was operating four nonstop Boeing 747 flights a week to both
Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport
Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport less known as Wold–Chamberlain Field, is a joint civil-military public use international airport. It is located in a portion of Hennepin County, United States, within 10 miles of both downtown Minneapolis and Saint Paul. MSP is the largest and busiest airport in the six-state Upper Midwest region of Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. A joint civil-military airport, MSP is home to the Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport Joint Air Reserve Station, supporting both Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard flight operations; the airport is located in the census-designated place of Fort Snelling in an unincorporated portion of Hennepin County. Small sections of the airport are within the city limits of Richfield. However, per Minnesota state law, the land on which the airport sits is not part of any city or school district. In 2017, Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport was the 17th busiest airport in the United States.
The airport was named best Airport in North America among air terminals that serve 25 to 40 million passengers annually, the second largest category, in 2016, 2017 and 2018 by The Airports Council International. The airport generates an estimated $15.9 billion a year for the Twin Cities' economy and supports 87,000 workers. MSP is the third largest hub airport for Delta Air Lines and its Delta Connection partners by passenger traffic, it serves as the home airport for Minnesota-based Sun Country Airlines. Delta Air Lines and its regional affiliates account for about 70% of the airport's passenger traffic; the airport is operated by the Metropolitan Airports Commission, which handles the operation of six smaller airports in the region. The airport came into being when several local groups came together to take control of the former bankrupt Twin City Speedway race track, giving the airport its original name, Speedway Field. Soon after, in 1921, the airport was renamed "Wold–Chamberlain Field" for the World War I pilots Ernest Groves Wold and Cyrus Foss Chamberlain.
Howard Hughes stopped at Wold–Chamberlain Field on his round the world flight in 1938. In 1944 the site was renamed to "Minneapolis–St. Paul Metropolitan Airport/Wold-Chamberlain Field", with "International" replacing "Metropolitan" four years later. Today it is rare to see the Wold–Chamberlain portion of the name used anywhere. MSP was the main base for Northwest Airlines starting in 1926 and became the main base of regional carrier North Central Airlines in 1952. North Central merged with Southern Airways to form Republic Airlines in 1979; the combined carrier came to control 79% of traffic at the airport, merged into Delta Air Lines in 2010. Ground was broken for the current Charles Lindbergh terminal building on October 26, 1958; the US $8.5 million, 600,000 square foot terminal with 24 gates on two concourses was designed by Lyle George Landstrom who worked for Cerny Associates and completed on January 13, 1962 and operations began on January 21, 1962. Pier D was completed in 1971 and Pier A was completed in 1972 as part of an expansion of the terminal designed by Cerny Associates.
This project involved rebuilding the existing concourses into bi-level structures equipped with holding rooms and jet bridges. It handles airlines such as Delta and others; the Gold Concourse included the airport's first moving walkway. In 1970, MSP served as the primary filming location for the film Airport, though the film presented the airport as a fictional Chicago-based Lincoln International. MSP was selected in part for notorious winter climate, yet the filming period remained stubbornly fair-weathered, forcing film crews to employ copious amounts of fake snow; as filming had to take place during normal airport operations, several features of the airport itself, such as the color-based labeling of different concourses, were present in the movie. This labeling system was replaced beginning in 2000 with the more familiar system of lettered concourses. Due in part to the impact of aircraft noise on south Minneapolis and surrounding suburbs, proposals were made in the 1990s to build a new airport on the fringes of the Twin Cities metro in Dakota County to handle larger jets and more international traffic.
Minneapolis and other neighboring cities were concerned that such a move would have a negative economic impact, so an arrangement was made where the Metropolitan Airports Commission would outfit many homes in the vicinity of the airport with sound insulation and air conditioning so that indoor noise could be reduced. A citizen group named ROAR was helped push the MAC to make these concessions. In 2004, the MAC voted to reduce funding for the soundproofing projects, stating in part that the economic climate had turned in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Minneapolis Mayor R. T. Rybak, a founding member of ROAR, promised that the city would challenge the funding changes; the Hubert H. Humphrey Terminal was built in 2001, it is used for charter and low cost airlines, including Minnesota-based Sun Country and Southwest, but is used for Condor and JetBlue. The terminal has a total of 14 gates. Concourses A and B opened on June 1, 2002 as part of a $250 million terminal expansion designed by Minneapolis-based Architectural Alliance.
The final component of the project included a $17.5 million extension of Concourse C consisting of six additional gates, which opened on October 31, 2