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ASLwrite is a somacheirographic writing system that developed from si5s. It was created to be an open-source, continuously-developing orthography for American Sign Language, trying to capture the nuances of ASL's features. ASLwrite is used by no more than a handful of people revolving around discussions happening on Facebook and Google Groups. However, it is spreading, with comic strips and more becoming available, its core components are digits, locatives and movements which are written in a rigid order from left to right. Its digits are representations of handshapes – or the configuration of the hand and fingers – where the locatives represent locations on the body, the marks represent anything from location to small movements to facial expressions and the movements indicate the movement of the hands in space by modifying the digits; the order of the writing is from left to right, top to bottom, with locatives or certain marks beginning words. Sentences are ended by the full stop mark. Questions in written ASL are denoted by eyebrow marks bounding the question not unlike Spanish's "¿?."

Question words or wh-questions in ASL can form the interrogative. There are in total 105 characters in ASLwrite with 67 digits, five diacritic marks, twelve locatives, sixteen extramanual marks and five movement marks. Since its creation, it has evolved to include more digits, locatives and marks as well as modify those present. Si5s, a system built from SignWriting, was first proposed by Robert Arnold in his 2007 Gallaudet thesis A Proposal of the Written System for ASL; the ASLwrite community split from Arnold upon his decision to maintain si5s as a private venture with ASLized after the publication of his and Adrean Clark's book How to Write American Sign Language. Today, ASLwrite's website notes: The ASLwrite community is committed to keeping written ASL available in the public domain by providing resources for writers of all ages. We believe that written ASL will be changed through regular usage by ASL speakers, support individual adaptation of the language by the signing community; this website serves as a continuing record of written ASL’s development.

ASLwrite is a somacheirographic system meaning that it represents the body and hands and relays cheremic information. However, it incorporates logographs and is featural; the general principle is to capture a single ASL word per segment, from left to right, registering non-manual feature, handshape and general orientation. It imagines the writer/speaker is looking down at their hands or viewing words from the profile such that words can be made either as if seen from straight-on or from one's profile; the digibet captures handshape information as well as orientation and some locations. Locatives are characters that capture location, though handshape diacritics like edge do capture some locations such as edge of palm. Diacritics, such as movements, modify handshapes and can indicate small movements or small orientations. Movements themselves are flexible in their shapes and orientations, which makes digitising this script difficult. From left to right, up to down, this is the order in which to write characters: 1) Non-manual marks – Often, this is seen as raised or lowered eyebrows, but it can include body or mouth marks such as shoulder-shift and teeth-clench.

2) Frontal or profile locatives – Captures the same location information, just from two perspectives. An example is the shoulder locative is either a shoulder frontal locative, written above or below the handshape. 2) Handshapes – Can be written before or after the locative. A handshape can be oriented in 360º depending its location and is written at the end of its movement path if there is one; each handshape present is written, when more than one handshape is written, a movement must be present. 2a) Diacritics / movements – Written as a part of the handshape, though larger movements or movements that affect multiple handshapes is written after. 3) Movements – Larger movements or movements that affect multiple handshapes. When a handshape changes without overt movement, the handshapes are written left-to-right with a single movement below similar to an underline. 4) Non-manual & punctuation marks – These are questioning marks such as why, who and how. The stop mark is denoted by a "o" mark; the digibet is composed of handshapes called digits that are modified by movements.

It shares 23 handshapes with ASL's manual alphabet. Digits are grouped together by features such as +thumb/-thumb or +closed/-closed. In practise, there are 67 digits in ASLwrite's digibet, though that number is growing as new digits are added representing diverse handshapes. Moreover, other languages may adopt this system which would add more digits. There are five diacritics, they are: Hinge, Rattle and Edge. Movements are thus hard to capture in a digital or non-handwritten fashion; the movements are diverse and aim to capture the movements of the hands and body. There are three points – an endpoint, a firmpoint and a contactpoint –, an orbit mark, a steering and a crank mark as well as the movement mark or line; the movement line can be as clean or as erratic as possible. The points denote the end of a handshape's path and the degree to which the mo


Dragoynovo is a village in central southern Bulgaria, in the Parvomay municipality of Plovdiv Province. The region of Dragoyna is located where the Maritsa valley merges with the high mountains of the Rhodopes; the Dragoyna peak has two summits - Golyama and Malka Dragoyna, with an attitude difference of some 110 metres. They are connected by a saddle; as the highest point in the region, the peak has an extensive view. According to the 2011 census, the village of Dragoyna has 359 inhabitants. Out of Rhode, 352 are ethnic Bulgarians; the name of the village until 1906 was Kozluk. In the 5th century BC, the powerful Odrysian kingdom was established in the Maritsa valley; the kingdom survived for centuries. The region of Dragoyna was a local centre of the Thracian aristocracy within the Odrysian kingdom. A high concentration of Thracian tumuli has been registered in the area. A golden ring has been found in Ezerovo near Dragoyna bearing an inscription, thought to be in Thracian using the Greek alphabet.

It indicates. A settlement, most related to the sanctuary, was located close to the modern village of Dragoynovo. In the 1st century AD this part of Thrace was added to the Roman Empire, it remained a part of its eastern half, the Byzantine Empire, it is known that a town centre and churches from the Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages existed in the region. In this period the legend – about queen Dragoyna – was made up. A Thracian sanctuary was discovered on Dragoyna Peak in 2004; the highest part of the peak of Golyama Dragoyna – an area of about 2 dka – is surrounded by a stone wall, which can be seen on the surface as stone ruins four to ten metres in width. The ruins consist of local stones with irregular shape, together with some large dressed stone blocks. A concentration of artifacts has been registered on the surface and in the treasure hunters' "trenches" within the area, surrounded by the stone wall as well as north of the stone wall. Pottery and treasure hunters' digs can be found in an area of about 1 dka in the saddle between Golyama and Malka Dragoyna, where one of the ways to the peak is located.

Traces of an ancient road are visible on the eastern slopes of the peak, which offers the shortest way to the site. Some artifacts have been registered on the southeast slopes; the artifact mapping suggests. Angel Karaiotov, a 19th-century freedom fighter Thracian sanctuary in Dragoyna Tourism agencies in the region


Justuss is Canadian reggae musician Snow's third album. Like his second album Murder Love, Justuss is a reggae album performed in Jamaican Patois and featured fellow reggae stars such as Yami Bolo, Nadine Sutherland, Buju Banton, Beenie Man, Terror Fabulous; because of his criminal record, Snow was unable to obtain a visa to promote Justuss in the United States. Despite being banned from Japan as well in 1996, the single "Boom Boom Boogie" reached number 29 in Japan. For Justuss, Snow worked with producer Marcus Kane in Canada and with Tony Kelly and Laurie Bogin for three-and-a-half-months in Jamaica. Snow told Billboard magazine in 1996. Tony Kelly and Laurie brought out more of my creativity and different styles." According to Elektra Marketing Director Michelle Murray, Murder Love "did well worldwide. So, we have to reestablish his credibility. We think this album is different because Snow has created a musical journey from his life-long experience; this album has strong songs and a good thematic balance.

Justuss has powerful underlying meanings." The marketing strategy for Justuss consisted of releasing limited edition LPs to underground markets and worldwide stations. For the United States and Canada, Elektra planned to market "If This World Were Mine" to various clubs, DJs, "college and mix shows." Elektra planned to "iron out" Snow's visa issues but were unable to do as he did not tour the United States or Japan to promote the album. "Boom Boom Boogie" achieved Gold status in Japan and "If This World Were Mine" was released as a twelve-inch single in the United States and Canada. However, the music videos for "If This World Were Mine" appeared on The Box and "Boom Boom Boogie" played "five to six spins a day" on MTV Japan. Despite the fact that Justuss is Snow's lowest selling album, it received positive reviews. Elena Oumano of Billboard declared, "His nimble tongued rude bwoy DJ persona remains as persuasive as in appealing dance tracks like opener "Steadly Woa" and "Mash Up Da Nation." But for his third album, Snow tips the album toward the sweetly intense he unveiled in only a track or two on his debut set.

DJ stardom only spans only a brief season or two and Snow's plush, Afro-Erotic crooning—a sure route to career longevity—surpasses his mic rocking."Writing for Vibe magazine, She added, "Justuss covers a wider musical range—fragments of reggae and funk treasures, contemporary hip-hop and soul—opening up dancehalls borders without sacrificing the fundamental hardcore vibe. Snow unfurls nimble-tongued stutters and a heretofore unrevealed gift for intimacy—a mike cuddling singing style with subtlety and chops to match any of today's soul brothers."Dmitri Ehlrich of Entertainment Weekly gave Justuss a "B" grade and wrote, "Perhaps the most surprising thing about this album of pop- and rap-tinged dancehall is how credible it is. While one is tempted to dismiss the Toronto MC as the Vanilla Ice of dancehall, Snow, in fact, has considerable skills: an easygoing flow, a mastery of Jamaican patois, enough ideas to keep his songs interesting."Even longtime Snow critic Rick Anderson, who gave Murder Love a negative review, observed, "Snow's third album finds him emerging from the sophomore slump of his underwhelming Murder Love, but still not delivering any hit singles to rival the success of "Informer," from his debut.

By now it's clear that he is more than just a novelty act, but he is still struggling to define a sound for himself, something more than a hybrid of his influences."In reviewing the track "Boom Boom Boogie," Larry Flick opined, "for the past few years, Snow has been working hard to strengthen his skills and credibility as a reggae toaster. He reveals a high degree of progress on this single which boldly blends pure Jamaican rhythms with dance/funk keyboards, his vocal style is now a hybrid of soul crooning and raunchy chatting, ripping through the baseline with palpable confidence." "I Want You" appears. "Me and Joey," a collaboration with Thai rapper Joey Boy, appears as a single on Justuss albums sold in Thailand. Justuss was nominated for a Juno Award for Best Reggae Recording in 1998 Justuss is the name of Snow's daughter. Snow Lyrics an Australian Snow fansite

Ila Patnaik

Ila Patnaik is an Indian economist. And former Principal Economic Advisor to the Government of India. During this time, she prepared the Economic Survey of India, 2013-14 and contributed to numerous Government of India committees and task forces. In 2014, she was the only female economist ranked within the top ten in India, along with the likes of Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen and former RBI governors Y V Reddy, Raghuram Rajan and Urjit Patel, she writes regular columns for the Indian Express. She is a well known to be outspokenly opposed to the Government of India's controversial policy on demonetisation, having written on it for Indian Express within just three days of the announcement. After months of opposing the decision in the public, she was invited as an expert on the topic in various international media platforms, including Bloomberg and interviews with the UK's BBC, her thoughts on the subject were reflected as a book chapter titled "Demonetisation: The Economists Speak". She is a professor at the National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.

Ila Patnaik was born in New Delhi. She did her B. A. in Economics, Hindu College, University of Delhi, Delhi. A. in Economics, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Phil. in Economics, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. D. in Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, U. K. Ila Patnaik was an Economics Editor, Indian Express, she wrote a Fortnightly column in Business Standard. She worked as Editor, Macro Track, A Quarterly Update on the Indian Economy, NCAER, New Delhi, 1997-2001, she did a program on NDTV, Policy with Patnaik from 2007 to 2009. Profile "Most held works by Ila Patnaik". WorldCat

Peruvian Airlines

Peruvian Airlines was a Peruvian airline based in Lima. The airline offered domestic flights out of its main base at Jorge Chávez International Airport. On October 2, 2019, the airline ceased all operations due to liquidity issues. Peruvian Airlines was founded in November 2007, receiving its Air Operator Certificate from Peru's aviation authority on August 7, 2008; the airline commenced operations on October 29, 2009, but ceased operations on October 2, 2019, due to the Peruvian Customs Tax Court seizing the airline's bank accounts after the airline failed to complete fuel payments. Peruvian Airlines served the following destinations: Peruvian codeshared with the following airlines: Aerolineas Argentinas Copa Airlines Star Peru In July 2018, at Farnborough Airshow, Peruvian Airlines made public plans to create a subsidiary named Aero Peru, to commence operations in 2020; as of November 2018, Peruvian Airlines active fleet consisted of the following aircraft: In 2018 Peruvian Airlines signed a letter of intent for 10 Irkut MC-21-300 aircraft.

On 28 March 2017 Peruvian Airlines Flight 112, operated by a Boeing 737-300 swerved off the runway while landing at Francisco Carle Airport and subsequently caught fire. All 141 onboard survived the accident. On 23 November 2018, Peruvian Airlines Flight 331, operated by a Boeing 737-500, suffered the collapse of its landing gear as it attempted to land at El Alto International Airport in La Paz, Bolivia; the plane was arriving from Cusco with five crew members on board. No injuries were reported. Peruvian Airlines


Nanoelectrochemistry is a branch of electrochemistry that investigates the electrical and electrochemical properties of materials at the nanometer size regime. Nanoelectrochemistry plays significant role in the fabrication of various sensors, devices for detecting molecules at low concentrations. Two transport mechanisms are fundamental for nanoelectrochemistry: electron transfer and mass transport; the formulation of theoretical models allows to understand the role of the different species involved in the electrochemical reactions. The electron transfer between the reactant and the nanoelectrode can be explained by the combination of various theories based on the Marcus theory. Mass transport, the diffusion of the reactant molecules from the electrolyte bulk to the nanoelectrode, is influenced by the formation of a double electric layer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. At the nanoscale it is necessary to theorize a dynamic double electric layer which takes into account an overlap of the Stern layer and the diffuse layer.

Knowledge of the mechanisms involved allows to build computational models that combine the density functional theory with electron transfer theories and the dynamic double electric layer. In the field of molecular modelling, accurate models could predict the behaviour of the system as reactants, electrolyte or electrode change; the role of the surface is reaction-specific: in fact, one site can catalyze certain reactions and inhibit other ones. According to TSK model, surface atoms in nanocrystals can occupy terrace, step or kink positions: each site has a different tendency to adsorb reactants and to let them move along the surface. Sites having lower coordination number are more reactive due to their high free energy. High energy sites, are less thermodynamically stable and nanocrystals have a tendency to transform to their equilibrium shape. Thanks to the progress in nanoparticles synthesis it is now possible to have a single-crystal approach to surface science, allowing more precise research on the effect of a given surface.

Studies have been conducted on nanoelectrodes exposing a, or plane to a solution containing the reactants, in order to define the surface effect on reaction rate and selectivity of the most common electrochemical reactions. Nanoelectrodes are tiny electrodes made of metals or semiconducting materials having typical dimensions of 1-100 nm. Various forms of nanoelectrodes have been developed taking advantage of the different possible fabrication techniques: among the most studied are the nanoband, hemispherical, nanopore geometries as well as the different forms of carbon nanostructures, it is necessary to characterize each produced electrode: size and shape determine its behaviour. The most used characterization techniques are: Electron microscopy Steady-state voltammetry Atomic force microscopy scanning electrochemical microscopy There are two properties that distinguish nanoelectrodes from electrodes: smaller RC constant and faster mass transfer; the former allows measurements to be made in high-resistance solutions because they offer less resistance, the latter, due to radial diffusion, allows much faster voltammetry responses.

Due to these and other properties, nanoelectrodes are used in various applications: Studying the kinetics of fast reactions Electrochemical reactions Studying small volumes, such as cells or single molecules As probes for obtaining high-resolution images with scanning electrochemical microscopy Electrochemical characterisation of atomic layers and multilayers