McChord Field is a United States Air Force base in the northwest United States, in Pierce County, Washington. South of Tacoma, McChord Field is the home of the 62d Airlift Wing, Air Mobility Command, the field's primary mission being worldwide strategic airlift; the McChord facility was consolidated with the U. S. Army's Fort Lewis on 1 February 2010 to become part of the Joint Base Lewis-McChord complex; this initiative was driven by the Base Realignment and Closure Round in 2005 and is designed to combine current infrastructure into one maximizing war fighting capability and efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The 62d Airlift Wing is the host unit at McChord Field, it is assigned to the Eighteenth Air Force and is composed of more than 7,200 active duty military and civilian personnel. It is tasked with supporting worldwide combat and humanitarian airlift contingencies. Aircraft of the 62d fly around the globe; the 62d Operations Group flies the C-17 Globemaster III transport from McChord Field.
It consists of an Operations Support Squadron. 4th Airlift Squadron 7th Airlift Squadron 8th Airlift SquadronOther wing components are the 62d Maintenance Group, 62d Operations Group and 62d Medical Squadron. Other major units stationed at McChord Field are: 446th Airlift Wing Western Air Defense Sector 22nd Special Tactics Squadron 262nd Information Warfare Aggressor Squadron 361st Recruiting Squadron 373d Training Squadron The McChord Air Museum, founded in 1982 by the McChord Air Museum Foundation, is the official USAF Heritage Center whose mission is to portray the history of McChord Field, the aircraft woven through that history and the people who made that history part of the heritage of McChord; that mission is accomplished by the exhibit of aircraft, scaled models, unit exhibits, extensive collection of armament, instruments and art from the USAF art collection, vintage uniforms and other memorabilia. Operations of the McChord Air Museum are located in three separate areas; the main Museum gallery and operations facility is located in the south end of McChord Field, Heritage Hill Airpark, aircraft restoration and maintenance.
The McChord Air Museums historic aircraft collection reside on the aforementioned Heritage Hill located the near McChord's main runway in the center of the base and is the most visible component of the museum. The airpark is home to the following aircraft: Fairchild-Republic A-10A Thunderbolt II, Douglas B-18 Bolo, Douglas B-23 Dragon, Beech UC-45J Expeditor, Douglas TC-47 Skytrain, Fairchild C-82A Packet, Douglas C-124C Globemaster II, Lockheed C-130E Hercules, Lockheed C-141B Starlifter, McDonnell Douglas F-15A Eagle, North American F-86D Sabre, McDonnell CF-101F Voodoo, Convair F-102A Delta Dagger, Convair F-106A Delta Dart, Sikorsky UH-19F Chickasaw, Kaman HH-43A Huskie and Lockheed T-33A Shooting Star. In 1917, the citizens of Pierce County, Washington approved a bond measure for $2 million to buy 70,000 acres of land to be donated to the Federal Government for use as a military reservation; this land became Camp Lewis. Ten years in 1927, another bond measure was passed to establish an airfield just north of the military reservation.
The airfield, named Tacoma Field opened 14 March 1930. On 28 February 1938 the airfield was transferred to the federal government. Three years after the transfer, on 3 July 1940, the airfield was renamed McChord Field, in honor of Colonel William Caldwell McChord, killed in an accident near Richmond, Virginia on 18 August 1937. Col. McChord, rated as a junior military aviator in 1918, died while trying to force-land his Northrop A-17 near Maidens, Virginia. At the time of his death, he was Chief of the Operations Division in HQ Army Air Corps. Tacoma Field was renamed McChord Field, 17 December 1937. Over the subsequent two decades McChord Field grew to 3,000 acres, encompassing the northern tip of the 70,000 acre Ft. Lewis, it became independent of Ft. Lewis in 1947 following the creation of the Air Force under provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 and was subsequently named McChord AFB. In 1940 McChord Field became the headquarters of the GHQ Air Force Northwest Air District, with a mission for the defense of the Pacific Northwest and Upper Great Plains regions of the United States.
The 17th Bombardment Group was moved to the new airfield from March Field and was equipped with the Douglas B-18 Bolo medium bomber. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the 17th Bombardment Group flew anti-submarine patrols off the west coast of the United States with the new North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber; as the first unit to operate the B-25, the 17th achieved another "first" on 24 December 1941 when one of its Mitchells dropped four 300-pound bombs on a Japanese submarine near the mouth of the Columbia River. The 17th Bomb Group was reassigned in February 1942 to Columbia Army Air Base in South Carolina, where crews from the group were selected to carry out the Doolittle Raid on Japan in April. With the departure of the 17th Bomb Group, the mission of McChord Field became supporting the Army Air Forces Training Command's mission of training of units and individuals for bombardment and reconnaissance operations. Northwest Air Force was re-designated as the Second Air Force, a
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
A multistage rocket, or step rocket, is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. A tandem or serial stage is mounted on top of another stage; the result is two or more rockets stacked on top of or attached next to each other. Two-stage rockets are quite common, but rockets with as many as five separate stages have been launched. By jettisoning stages when they run out of propellant, the mass of the remaining rocket is decreased; each successive stage can be optimized for its specific operating conditions, such as decreased atmospheric pressure at higher altitudes. This staging allows the thrust of the remaining stages to more accelerate the rocket to its final speed and height. In serial or tandem staging schemes, the first stage is at the bottom and is the largest, the second stage and subsequent upper stages are above it decreasing in size. In parallel staging schemes solid or liquid rocket boosters are used to assist with launch.
These are sometimes referred to as "stage 0". In the typical case, the first-stage and booster engines fire to propel the entire rocket upwards; when the boosters run out of fuel, they fall away. The first stage burns to completion and falls off; this leaves a smaller rocket, with the second stage on the bottom, which fires. Known in rocketry circles as staging, this process is repeated until the desired final velocity is achieved. In some cases with serial staging, the upper stage ignites before the separation—the interstage ring is designed with this in mind, the thrust is used to help positively separate the two vehicles. A multistage rocket is required to reach orbital speed. Single-stage-to-orbit designs have not yet been demonstrated; the reason multi-stage rockets are required is the limitation the laws of physics place on the maximum velocity achievable by a rocket of given fueled-to-dry mass ratio. This relation is given by the classical rocket equation: Δ v = v e ln where: Δ v is delta-v of the vehicle.
The delta v required to reach low Earth orbit requires a wet to dry mass ratio larger than can realistically be achieved in a single rocket stage. The multistage rocket overcomes this limit by splitting the delta-v into fractions; as each lower stage drops off and the succeeding stage fires, the rest of the rocket is still traveling near the burnout speed. Each lower stage's dry mass includes the propellant in the upper stages, each succeeding upper stage has reduced its dry mass by discarding the useless dry mass of the spent lower stages. A further advantage is that each stage can use a different type of rocket engine, each tuned for its particular operating conditions, thus the lower-stage engines are designed for use at atmospheric pressure, while the upper stages can use engines suited to near vacuum conditions. Lower stages tend to require more structure than upper as they need to bear their own weight plus that of the stages above them. Optimizing the structure of each stage decreases the weight of the total vehicle and provides further advantage.
The advantage of staging comes at the cost of the lower stages lifting engines which are not yet being used, as well as making the entire rocket more complex and harder to build than a single stage. In addition, each staging event is a possible point of launch failure, due to separation failure, ignition failure, or stage collision; the savings are so great that every rocket used to deliver a payload into orbit has had staging of some sort. One of the most common measures of rocket efficiency is its specific impulse, defined as the thrust per flow rate of propellant consumption: I s p = T d m d t g 0 When rearranging the equation such that thrust is calculated as a result of the other factors, we have: T = I s p g 0 d m d t These equations show that a higher specific impulse means a more efficient rocket engine, capable of burning for longer periods of time. In terms of staging, the initial rocket stages have a lower specific impulse rating, trading efficiency for superior thrust in order to push the rocket into higher altitudes.
Stages of the rocket have a higher specific impulse rating because the vehicle is further outside the atmosphere and the exh
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Lockheed Martin Corporation is an American global aerospace, defense and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995, it is headquartered in Maryland, in the Washington, DC, area. Lockheed Martin employs 100,000 people worldwide as of December 2017. Lockheed Martin is one of the largest companies in the aerospace, defense and technologies industry, it is the world's largest defense contractor based on revenue for fiscal year 2014. In 2013, 78% of Lockheed Martin's revenues came from military sales. In 2009 US government contracts accounted for $38.4 billion, foreign government contracts $5.8 billion, commercial and other contracts for $900 million. Lockheed Martin operates in four business segments: Aeronautics and Fire Control and Mission Systems, Space Systems; the company has received the Collier Trophy six times, including in 2001 for being part of developing the X-35/F-35B LiftFan Propulsion System, most in 2006 for leading the team that developed the F-22 Raptor fighter jet.
Lockheed Martin is developing the F-35 Lightning II and leads the international supply chain, leads the team for the development and implementation of technology solutions for the new USAF Space Fence, is the primary contractor for the development of the Orion command module. The company invests in healthcare systems, renewable energy systems, intelligent energy distribution and compact nuclear fusion. Merger talks between Lockheed Corporation and Martin Marietta began in March 1994, with the companies announcing their $10 billion planned merger on August 30, 1994; the headquarters for the combined companies would be at Martin Marietta headquarters in North Bethesda, Maryland. The deal was finalized on March 1995, when the two companies' shareholders approved the merger; the segments of the two companies not retained by the new company formed the basis for the present L-3 Communications, a mid-size defense contractor in its own right. Lockheed Martin later spun off the materials company Martin Marietta Materials.
Both companies contributed important products to the new portfolio. Lockheed products included the Trident missile, P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft, U-2 and SR-71 reconnaissance airplanes, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16 Fighting Falcon, F-22 Raptor, C-130 Hercules, A-4AR Fightinghawk and the DSCS-3 satellite. Martin Marietta products included Titan rockets, Sandia National Laboratories, Space Shuttle External Tank, Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers, the Transfer Orbit Stage and various satellite models. On April 22, 1996, Lockheed Martin completed the acquisition of Loral Corporation's defense electronics and system integration businesses for $9.1 billion, the deal having been announced in January. The remainder of Loral became Loral Communications. Lockheed Martin abandoned plans for a $8.3 billion merger with Northrop Grumman on July 16, 1998, due to government concerns over the potential strength of the new group. For the Mars Climate Orbiter, Lockheed Martin incorrectly provided NASA with software using measurements in US Customary force units when metric was expected.
The development of the spacecraft cost $193.1 million. In addition to their military products, in the 1990s Lockheed Martin developed the texture mapping chip for the Sega Model 2 arcade system board and the entire graphics system for the Sega Model 3, which were used to power some of the most popular arcade games of the time. In May 2001, Lockheed Martin sold Lockheed Martin Control Systems to BAE Systems. On November 27, 2000, Lockheed completed the sale of its Aerospace Electronic Systems business to BAE Systems for $1.67 billion, a deal announced in July 2000. This group encompassed Sanders Associates, Fairchild Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Electronics & Communications. In 2001, Lockheed Martin won the contract to build the F-35 Lightning II. In 2001, Lockheed Martin settled a nine–year investigation conducted by NASA's Office of Inspector General with the assistance of the Defense Contract Audit Agency; the company paid the United States government $7.1 million based on allegations that its predecessor, Lockheed Engineering Science Corporation, submitted false lease costs claims to NASA.
On May 12, 2006, The Washington Post reported that when Robert Stevens took control of Lockheed Martin in 2004, he faced the dilemma that within 10 years, 100,000 of the about 130,000 Lockheed Martin employees – more than three-quarters – would be retiring. On August 31, 2006, Lockheed Martin won a $3.9 billion contract from NASA to design and build the CEV capsule named Orion for the Ares I rocket in the Constellation Program. In 2009, NASA reduced the capsule crew requirements from the initial six seats to four for transport to the International Space Station. On August 13, 2008, Lockheed Martin acquired the government business unit of Nantero, Inc. a company that had developed methods and processes for incorporating carbon nanotubes in next-generation electronic devices. In 2009, Lockheed Martin bought Unitech. On November 18, 2010, Lockheed Martin announced that it would be closing its Eagan, Minnesota location by 2013 to reduce costs and optimize capacity at its locations nationwide. In January 2011
Air Force Systems Command
The Air Force Systems Command is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command. It was established in April 1951; the mission of AFSC was Development for new weapons systems. AFSC took on engineering functions which resided in the Air Materiel Command, the Army Air Forces Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command as a separate research and development command in 1950, it incorporated Air Proving Ground Command in 1957. On 1 July 1992, AFSC and Air Force Logistics Command were merged to form the Air Force Materiel Command, located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. In the reorganization of 1961, Air Force Systems Command acquired the materiel procurement function from Air Force Logistics Command, it was re-integrated with Air Force Logistics Command in 1992. The origins of Air Force Systems Command date at least to the establishment of the Airplane Engineering Department by the Chief Signal Officer, U. S. Army, on 13 October 1917 at McCook Field, Ohio. Re-designated the Engineering Division of the U.
S. Army Air Service in March 1919, this organization carried out the research and testing of military aircraft, engines and accessories. Renamed the Materiel Division of the newly established Army Air Corps in October 1926, it undertook the procurement and maintenance activities of Army aviation. American aviation development fell behind its European rivals after the mid-1930s when Germany started a continental arms race; the threat of war at the decade's end began to change the situation. During the late 1930s American industry spent over $100 million annually on aviation research. University grants grew and military personnel enrollment in science courses increased. Leaders of the Army Air Forces were alarmed by many of the new weapons that would revolutionize air warfare which had emerged from foreign laboratories. Radar, jet aircraft and ballistic missiles had all either originated or been perfected outside the United States. Congress increased funds for R&D. Subsequently, the engineering function resided in the Materiel Command, the AAF Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command, the Air Materiel Command.
The war had shown the destructiveness of aerial attack and made Arnold an aggressive advocate for aeronautical research. On 7 November 1944, General Henry H. "Hap" Arnold, Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, directed the AAF Scientific Advisory Group to study the technological achievements of America's wartime allies and provide a blueprint for large-scale research and development of science and advanced technology for the Air Force. However, the Army Air Forces needed to achieve independence, which it did on 18 September 1947, with its transition into an independent United States Air Force; the role of the Air Force in the postwar world had to be defined. The 1948 Finletter Commission published its report, Survival in the Air Age, in January 1948, it set forth a new concept of airpower, i.e. a powerful peacetime force able to counter any enemy air attack. The Finletter Report inspired a group of senior USAF officers with backgrounds in engineering and related fields to analyze the existing R&D organization.
Their findings, the salesmanship of Generals Jimmy Doolittle and Donald Putt, convinced Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt S. Vandenberg to put the R&D mission on a more equal footing with the operational Air Force. Accordingly, in the face of intense Air Staff opposition, on 23 January 1950, the Research and Development Command came into being. Eight months it was re-designated the Air Research and Development Command as a separate organization devoted to research and development. Research and Development Command was redesignated the Air Research and Development Command on September 16, 1950, the Arnold Engineering Development Center was dedicated by President Harry S. Truman on June 25, 1951. During the 1950s, the new command began to make its mark. ARDC developed many ambitious missile prototypes. Among the successes of this period were the North American F-86 Sabre swept wing fighter, the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress intercontinental bomber, the Lockheed C-130 Hercules turboprop transport and the Lockheed U-2 high-altitude strategic reconnaissance aircraft.
In addition, ARDC played a major contribution in the development of Intercontinental ballistic missiles, which became a priority after the world learned that the Soviet Union had detonated a thermonuclear bomb on 23 August 1953. A crash program was employed which developed America's first ICBM, that became operational in 1959. In terms of importance and success, the ICBM program was rivaled only by the famed Manhattan Project of World War II. AIMACO, the "Supply Control Command compiler" for Air Materiel Command, began circa 1959 with the definition of a high level programming language influenced by the UNIVAC Flow-Matic and COMTRAN programming languages; the draft AIMACO language definition was developed by an AMC-chaired committee of industry representatives from IBM, United States Steel, AMC Programming Services. AIMACO had two compilers specified/designed, AMC intended all programming for AMC systems would be in AIMACO and compiled on a UNIVAC at the AMC headquarters at Wright-Patterson AFB for operation on UNIVAC or IBM computers.
An alternative compiler was designed by AMC Programming Services to compile systems on IBM computers for operation on IBM computers. AIMACO, along with COMTRAN, influenced development of the COBOL programming language; the Atlas program led to the
Scout (rocket family)
The Scout family of rockets were American launch vehicles designed to place small satellites into orbit around the Earth. The Scout multistage rocket was the first orbital launch vehicle to be composed of solid fuel stages; the original Scout was designed in 1957 at the NACA Langley center. Scout launch vehicles were used from 1961 until 1994. To enhance reliability the development team opted to use "off the shelf" hardware produced for military programs. According to the NASA fact sheet: "... the first stage motor was a combination of the Jupiter Senior and the Navy Polaris. The first successful orbital launch of a Scout, on February 16, 1961, delivered Explorer 9, a 7-kg satellite used for atmospheric density studies, into orbit; the final launch of a Scout, using a Scout G-1, was on May 8, 1994 local time from Vandenberg Air Force Base. The payload was the Miniature Sensor Technology Integration Series 2 military spacecraft with a mass of 163 kg. Per NASA, MSTI-2 acquired and tracked a LGM-30 Minuteman.
The standard Scout launch vehicle was a solid propellant, four-stage booster system 75 feet in length with a launch weight of 47,398 pounds. Thrust at liftoff: 513.40 kN Mass at launch: 17,850 kg Diameter: 1.01 m Length: 25.00 m Stage 1: Algol Derived from Polaris missile Gross Mass: 11,600 kg Empty Mass: 1,650 kg Vacuum thrust: 564.25 kN Burn time: 47 s Diameter: 1.01 m Span: 1.01 m Length: 9.09 mStage 2: Castor Derived from Sergeant missile Gross Mass: 4,424 kg Empty Mass: 695 kg Vacuum thrust: 258.92 kN Burn time: 37 s Diameter: 0.79 m Span: 0.79 m Length: 6.04 mStage 3: Antares Gross Mass: 1,400 kg Empty Mass: 300 kg Vacuum thrust: 93.09 kN Burn time: 36 s Diameter: 0.78 m Span: 0.78 m Length: 2.90 mStage 4: Altair Gross Mass: 275 kg Empty Mass: 37 kg Vacuum thrust: 22.24 kN Burn time: 28 s Diameter: 0.64 m Span: 0.64 m Length: 2.53 m In the late 1950s, NASA established the Scout program to develop a multistage solid-propellant space booster and research rocket. The U. S. Air Force participated in the program, but different requirements led to some divergence in the development of NASA and USAF Scouts.
The basic NASA Scout configuration, from which all variants were derived, was known as Scout-X1. It was a four-stage rocket, which used the following motors: 1st stage: Aerojet General Algol 2nd stage: Thiokol XM33 Castor 3rd stage: Allegany Ballistics Laboratory X-254 Antares 4th stage: Allegany Ballistics Laboratory X-248 AltairScout's first-stage motor was based on an earlier version of the Navy's Polaris missile motor. Unlike the Thor or Atlas-Agena the Scout could be sold to foreign customers. San Marco 1, the first Italian satellite, launched by an Italian crew. San Marco 2, the second Italian satellite and first in the world launched from a sea platform. Three more San Marco satellites would use Scout rockets. Italy owned. AEREOS and AEROS B atmospheric research Ariel 3, the first satellite designed and constructed in the United Kingdom, four other Ariel satellites including first satellite for radioastronomy - Ariel 2. Magsat, the first globally complete 3D map of Earth's magnetic fields.
Transit satellites, a prototype satellite Transit 5A was launched 1962-12-19 by a Scout X-3. On four different flights, Scout rockets placed two Transit satellites in orbit with a single launch; the last of these, on 1988-08-25, launched Transit O-25 on a Scout G rocket. OFO-A, launched bullfrogs into space for biological experiments FR-1, a French satellite used to study VLF propagation Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, ANS was the first Dutch satellite. Was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope. Miniature Sensor Technology Integration Series 2, launched into low earth orbit on 8 May 1994 local time aboard the last NASA SCOUT booster. Explorer 9,13,13,16,19,20,22,23,24,27,30,37,39,42,45,46,48,52,53,56, 57 ESRO 1 A/B, 2A/B, Miranda ANS 1 San Marco 4,5 Triad 2 Gravity Probe A Triad 3 Transat AEM 1,2 Nova 1 Nova 2 HILAT Nova 3 ITV 1,2 Polar Bear REX 1 SAMPEX Radical DSAP 1 F1,F2,F3,F4,F5 RFD 1,2. OTV3 1,2,3,4,5; the Scout-X1 first flew on 1960-10-10, after an earlier failure in July 1960.
The rocket's first stage had four stabilizing fins, the vehicle incorporated a gyro-based guidance system for attitude stabilization to keep the rocket on course. Some other Scout designations were: The Scout X-2 which in 1962 introduced the Antares IIB stage upgrade. On 1962-08-23 a Scout X-2 was used for the first successful launch of a DMSP satellite, lifting off from Point Arguello near Vandenberg Air Force Base; the Scout X-3 which in 1963 introduced the Algol IIA upgrade. The Scout A-1 and B-1 which in 1965 introduced the Castor IIA and Altair III upgrades, respectively; the Scout D-1 which in 1972 introduced the Algol III upgrade. The Scout G flew from 1974 until the Scout's retirement in 1994, it was rated to orbit a 210 kg payload. The USAF Scout program was known as HETS or System 609A, the rockets were referred to as Blue