Aston railway station
Aston railway station serves the districts of Aston and Nechells in Birmingham, England. The passenger entrance is on Lichfield Road; the station is on the Chase Line. The station is situated adjacent to and above the Lichfield Road, crossed by a bridge as the railway line, part of the original Grand Junction Railway, opened in 1837, is on an embankment through what was "pastoral parkland" at the time of its construction; the line crosses the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal, just south of Lichfield Road, on a bridge, all that remains of a longer viaduct of ten arches, described as "one of the most beautiful structures on the line of the Grand Junction". The section of the viaduct crossing Lichfield Road south of the station, was replaced by a steel bridge in 1906; the route of the Grand Junction Railway, sweeping in a wide arc from Perry Barr through Aston to its terminus at Vauxhall, was dictated by the refusal of James Watt the younger, the tenant of Aston Hall, to allow the railway to encroach upon Aston Park in the grounds of the Hall as planned in the Grand Junction's Act of 1833.
The line was intended to enter Birmingham through a mile-long tunnel under the high ground on which the park is situated. In clause IV of a second Act of 1834, the Grand Junction was forbidden from enter upon or into, injure or damage, for the purposes of this Act...any Part of a certain Park lying within the parish of Aston-juxta-Birmingham in the County of Warwick, Handsworth in the County of Stafford, known by the name of Aston Park... In 1846, the Grand Junction was one of several railways which were merged and incorporated into the London and North Western Railway. Aston was opened by the LNWR in 1854 and became a junction in 1862 when a line was opened to Sutton Coldfield by the same railway. In 1880 the LNWR opened a line from Aston to Stechford on the Birmingham to Coventry line which gave access to the Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon Company's works at Saltley, reached by a short private siding, opened in 1904, from what the LNWR termed Washwood Heath Junction at the point where the Aston-Stechford line passed over the Midland Railway from Birmingham to Derby.
The new line was used for the Wolverhampton portions of some London expresses and to provide through carriages between Euston and Walsall. The first station at Aston was replaced by a new building during the construction of the Stechford line with a booking office level with Lichfield Road. Stairs and hydraulic lifts for goods traffic gave access to each of the two platforms. In 1880, the LNWR opened a line for freight traffic from Aston to Windsor Street goods depot; the latter line closed in 1980. The LNWR's Aston locomotive depot was opened in 1883 in the area between the Aston to Birmingham and the Aston to Stechford lines and with an entrance on Long Acre, Nechells, it was closed in 1965, by under British Railways ownership. The line between Aston and Vauxhall and Duddeston was quadrupled in 1891. In 1900, a connection to Nechells gas works was opened from a point near Nechells Park Road bridge on the line towards Birmingham New Street; when the gas works closed in 1969, the branch was taken out of use at the same time.
The station became part of the London and Scottish Railway during the Grouping of 1923. It passed to the London Midland Region of British Railways on nationalisation in 1948; when Sectorisation was introduced, the station was served by Regional Railways on behalf of the West Midlands PTE, for whom British Rail had been running the trains since the PTE's inception. In 2011, London Midland, proposed a major reduction in the opening hours of the ticket office, with complete closure at weekends. Apart from the Sutton Coldfield branch, all of the routes passing through Aston, including the Windsor Street branch, were electrified in 1966 as part of the London Midland Region's electrification programme; the actual energization of the line from Coventry to Walsall through Aston took place on 15 August 1966. In preparation for electrification, Aston's Aston No. 1 and No. 2, were closed, semaphore signalling was replaced by multiple-aspect colour light signals and control transferred to the power signal box at Birmingham New Street.
Electrification of the line to Sutton and Lichfield was completed in 1992 as part of the modernisation of the Cross-City Line. In 2017, control of the signalling at Aston was transferred to the West Midlands Signalling Centre at Saltley. Aston receives regular services on both the Cross-City Line, from Lichfield Trent Valley to Redditch and the Walsall Line, from Wolverhampton to Walsall via Birmingham New Street. In the evenings, services for the Chase Line call at Aston. Six services which call at Aston operate on the Cross-City Line in each direction every hour. Services southbound terminate at either Longbridge and Redditch, with three per hour to both each since the December 2014 timetable change. Northwards, there are three destinations on the Cross-City Line, which are Four Oaks, Lichfield City and Lichfield Trent Valley. Two of the six services run the full length of the line to terminate at Lichfield Trent Valley, two go to Lichfield City and the other two only venture as far as Four Oaks.
The Walsall line is served by fewer trains: there are two in each direction every hour, both of which call all stations between Wolverhampton and Walsall via Birmingham New Street. In January 1858 there were eight trains from Aston to Wolverhampton via Bescot Junction and Willenhall, the first at 08:21 and the last at 21:11 on weekdays. In the opposite direction, on weekdays, nine trains from Wolverhampton arrived at Aston between 08:51 and 22:25; the Sunday service consisted of six trains in each d
Astoria Regional Airport
Astoria Regional Airport is a public airport in Warrenton, three miles southwest of Astoria, in Clatsop County, Oregon. The airport is the home of Coast Guard Air Station Astoria; the airport has no airline flights. Flights to Portland International Airport were most provided by SeaPort Airlines from March 2008 until Spring of 2010; until 1974-75 Astoria had flights on its successors. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 1,851 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 1,531 in 2009 and 3,482 in 2010; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a general aviation facility based on enplanements in 2008 but it would be categorized as commercial service - non-primary based in enplanements in 2010. Astoria Regional Airport covers 870 acres at an elevation of 15 feet, it has two asphalt runways: 8/26 is 5,795 by 100 feet and 14/32 is 4,996 by 100 feet. In 2010 the airport had 38,721 aircraft operations, average 106 per day: 60% general aviation, 36% military, 4% air taxi.
48 aircraft were based at the airport: 79% single-engine, 6% multi-engine, 4% helicopter, 4% ultralight, 6% military. The airport houses a United States Coast Guard station with service and controls for three HH-60 helicopters and three motor life boat rescue stations located on the Oregon and Washington coasts. Coast Guard Air Station Astoria Warrenton-Astoria Regional Airport at Port of Astoria website Aerial image as of August 2000 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for AST, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for AST AirNav airport information for KAST ASN accident history for AST FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
Asti is a city and comune of 76,164 inhabitants located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about 55 kilometres east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River. It is the capital of the province of Asti and it is deemed to be the modern capital of Monferrato. People have lived around what is now Asti since the Neolithic period. Before their defeat in 174 BC by the Romans, tribes of Ligures, the Statielli, dominated the area and the toponym derives from Ast which means "hill" in the ancient Celtic language. In 124 BC the Romans built a castrum, or fortified camp, which evolved into a full city named Hasta. In 89 BC the city received the status of colonia, in 49 BC that of municipium. Asti become an important city of the Augustan Regio IX, favoured by its strategic position on the Tanaro river and on the Via Fulvia, which linked Derthona to Augusta Taurinorum. Other roads connected the city to the main passes for what are today France; the city was crucial during the early stages of the barbarian invasions which stormed Italy during the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
In early 402 AD the Visigoths had invaded northern Italy and were advancing on Mediolanum, the imperial capital at that time. Honorius, the young emperor and a resident in that city, unable to wait for promised reinforcements any longer, was compelled to flee from Milan for safety in the city of Arles in Gaul. However, just after his convoy had left Milan and crossed the River Po his escape route through the Alps was cut off by the Gothic cavalry; this forced him to take emergency refuge in the city of Hasta until more Roman troops could be assembled in Italy. The Goths placed Hasta under siege until March when General Stilicho, bringing reinforcements from the Rhine and defeated them at the Battle of Pollentia. After this first victorious defence, thanks to a massive line of walls, Hasta suffered from the barbarian invasions which stormed Italy after the fall of the Western Empire, declined economically. In the second half of the 6th century it was chosen as seat for one of the 36 Duchies in which the Lombards divided Italy.
The territory of Asti comprised a wide area, stretching out to the Maritime Alps. This remained when northern Italy was conquered by the Franks with the title of County. In the late Carolingian age Asti was ruled directly by his bishops, who were the main landlords of the area. Most important are Audax and Bruningus, who moved the episcopal seat to the Castel Vecchio, where it remained until 1409; the bishopric of Asti remained a powerful entity well into the 11th century, when Pietro II received huge privileges by emperor Henry II. In the second half of the century, Bishop Otto tried to resist the aims of the powerful countess Adelaide of Susa, who damaged the city several times. During Otto's reign, a commune and the consul magistrates are mentioned for the first time and make this City-State the first republic of Europe. Asti was one of the first free communes of Italy, in 1140 received the right to mint coins of its own by Conrad II; as the commune, had begun to erode the lands of the bishop and other local faudataries, the latter sued for help to Frederick Barbarossa, who presented under the city walls with a huge army in February 1155.
After a short siege, Asti was burnt. Subsequently, Asti adhered to the Lombard League against the German emperor, but was again defeated in 1174. Despite this, after the Peace of Constance, the city gained further privileges; the 13th century saw the peak of the Astigiani economic and cultural splendour, only momentarily hindered by wars against Alba, Savoy and the Marquesses of Montferrat and Saluzzo. In particular, the commune aimed to gain control over the lucrative trade routes leading northwards from the Ligurian ports. In this period, the rise of the Casane Astigiane resulted in contrasting political familial alliances of Guelph and Ghibelline supporters. During the wars led by Emperor Frederick II in northern Italy, the city chose his side: Asti was defeated by the Guelphs of Alessandria at Quattordio and Clamandrana, but thanks to Genoese help, it recovered easily. After Frederick's death, the struggle against Thomas II of Savoy became fierce: the Astigiani defeated him on February 23, 1255, at the Battle of Montebruno, but Thomas replied ordering all traders from Asti to be arrested in Savoy and France.
This move showed worry on the part of Asti's neighbouring states over the excessive power gained by the city, which had captured Alba and controlled both Chieri and Turin. This state of affairs led to the intervention of Charles I of Anjou King of Naples and the most powerful man in Italy. After some guerrilla actions, Asti signed a pact of alliance with Pavia and William VII of Montferrat. In 1274 the Astigiani troops were defeated at the Battle of Cassano, but, on December 12, 1275, were victorious over the Angevins at the Battle of Roccavione, ending Charles' attempt to expand in Piedmont. In the 1290s, after William VII had been defeated, Asti was the most powerful city in Piedmont. However, internal struggles for the control of trading and banking enterprises soon divided the city into factions; the most prominent faction were the powerful bankers of the Solari family, who, in 1314, gave the city to king Robert of Naples. The free Republic of Asti ceased to exist. In 1339 the Ghibelline exiles recaptured the city, expelling their allies.
In 1342 however, the menace of the Solari counteroffensive led the new rulers to submit to Luchin
Assured shorthold tenancy
The assured shorthold tenancy is the default legal category of residential tenancy in England and Wales. It is a form of assured tenancy with limited security of tenure, introduced by the Housing Act 1988 and saw an important default provision and a widening of its definition made by the Housing Act 1996. Since 28 February 1997 in respect of accommodation to new tenants who are new to their landlords, the assured shorthold tenancy has become the most common form of arrangement that involves a private residential landlord; the equivalent in Scotland is short assured tenancy. The tenancy must meet the basic requirements of the following: 1a; the tenancy started between 15 January 1989 and 27 January 1997 and was accompanied by a prescribed warning, was for a fixed term, for at least six months. The tenancy started at or after 28 February 1997 2; the tenancy is not excluded by a notice stating it is not a shorthold before or after the tenancy 3. The tenancy does not specify within it that it is not a shorthold 4.
The tenancy is not a letting to an existing assured tenant of the landlord's whether of the same premises or not The landlord has the right to terminate: by using a "section 21 notice", which in practice results in a minimum notice period of 2 months. Post Housing Act 1996, there is no minimum length for which an assured shorthold tenancy may be granted and a section 21 notice can be served at any time; the exception being to tenancies in England that began on or after 1 October 2015. However, when court proceedings are based on the section 21 notice the court cannot order the tenant to give up possession earlier than six months from the beginning of the tenancy. Where one assured shorthold tenancy follows another, the tenant is protected for only 6 months from the beginning of the first tenancy under which the premises were occupied. A section 21 notice may not be issued unless the tenancy deposit registration requirements were met within 30 days of the deposit payment. At any time on any of the ordinary assured grounds should this be satisfied using a section 8 notice under the Housing Act 1988.
In most cases, if a Section 8 notice is served 14 days' notice must be given in order for the notice to be valid. The only potential landlord's disadvantage of a shorthold is the right of the tenant to refer the rent payable to a rent assessment committee. In this unusual scenario in which the landlord has been able to agree a rent higher than market comparables of the same accommodation, the landlord can serve a notice before or after the tenancy has begun stating it is not to be a shorthold, where no rent assessment application has been made. In other regards, except security of tenure, as a subset of assured tenancies, ASTs follow the definition requirements of assured tenancies, e.g. which includes maximum and minimum rent levels to exclude the most unusual extremes. Buy to let Notes References
Antibiotic sensitivity or antibiotic susceptibility is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. In clinical practice, antibiotics are most prescribed on the basis of general guidelines and knowledge about sensitivity: e.g. uncomplicated urinary tract infections can be treated with a first generation quinolone, etc. This is because Escherichia coli is the most causative pathogen, it is known to be sensitive to quinolone treatment. However, many bacteria are known to be resistant to several classes of antibiotics, treatment is not so straightforward; because susceptibility can vary within a species, antibiotic susceptibility testing is carried out to determine which antibiotic will be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo. Tests for antibiotic sensitivity include: Kirby-Bauer method. Small wafers containing antibiotics are placed onto a plate upon. If the bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic, a clear ring, or zone of inhibition, is seen around the wafer indicating poor growth.
Müeller-Hinton agar is used in this antibiotic susceptibility test. Stokes method Etest Agar and Broth dilution methods for minimum inhibitory concentration determination; the results of the test are reported on the antibiogram. Once a culture is established, there are two possible ways to get an antibiogram: a semi-quantitative way based on diffusion; the antibiotic will diffuse in the area surrounding each tablet, a disc of bacterial lysis will become visible. Since the concentration of the antibiotic was the highest at the centre, the lowest at the edge of this zone, the diameter is suggestive for the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, or MIC. A quantitative way based on dilution: a dilution series of antibiotics is established; the last vial in which no bacteria grow contains the antibiotic at the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration. Once the MIC is calculated, it can be compared to known values for a given bacterium and antibiotic: e.g. a MIC > 0,06 µg/ml may be interpreted as a penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Such information may be useful to the clinician, who can change the empirical treatment, to a more custom-tailored treatment, directed only at the causative bacterium. Clinical specimens are sent to the clinical laboratory for culture and sensitivity, culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing offered as one combined service; this is because the clinician needs to know which organism is causing the infection, which drugs will work against this strain. Some antibiotics kill the bacteria, whereas others prevent the bacteria from multiplying so that the host's immune system can overcome them. Ideal antibiotic therapy is based on determination of the aetiological agent and its relevant antibiotic sensitivity. Empiric treatment is started before laboratory microbiological reports are available when treatment should not be delayed due to the seriousness of the disease; the effectiveness of individual antibiotics varies with the location of the infection, the ability of the antibiotic to reach the site of infection, the ability of the bacteria to resist or inactivate the antibiotic.
An antibiogram is the result of an antibiotic sensitivity test. It is by definition an in vitro sensitivity, but the correlation of in vitro to in vivo sensitivity is high enough for the test to be clinically useful; this is the case in vulnerable patients, such as patients in the intensive care unit. When these patients develop a hospital-acquired pneumonia, more hardy bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa are involved. Treatment is generally started on the basis of surveillance data about the local pathogens involved; this first treatment, based on statistical information about former patients, aimed at a large group of involved microbes, is called empirical treatment. Before starting this treatment, the physician will collect a sample from a suspected contaminated compartment: a blood sample when bacteria have invaded the bloodstream, a sputum sample in the case of a ventilator associated pneumonia, a urine sample in the case of a urinary tract infection; these samples are transferred to the microbiology lab, which looks at the sample under the microscope, tries to culture the bacteria.
This can help in the diagnosis. Point-of-care resistance diagnostics can help practitioners avoid prescribing unnecessary antibiotics in the style of precision medicine. Traditional techniques take 12 to 48 hours whereas rapid testing using molecular diagnostics is defined as "being feasible within an 8-h working shift". Progress has been slow due to a range of reasons including regulation. In 2016, the United States National Institutes of Health announced the Antimicrobial Resistance Diagnostic Challenge as a $20 million prize to encourage the development of diagnostic tests to identify resistant bacterial infections; as of 2017, point-of-care resistance diagnostics was available for methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus, rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci through GeneX
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography. Ultrasound contrast agents rely on the different ways in which sound waves are reflected from interfaces between substances; this may be the surface of a more complex structure. Commercially available contrast media are gas-filled microbubbles that are administered intravenously to the systemic circulation. Microbubbles have a high degree of echogenicity. There is a great difference in echogenicity between the gas in the microbubbles and the soft tissue surroundings of the body. Thus, ultrasonic imaging using microbubble contrast agents enhances the ultrasound backscatter, of the ultrasound waves, to produce a sonogram with increased contrast due to the high echogenicity difference. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to image blood perfusion in organs, measure blood flow rate in the heart and other organs, for other applications. Targeting ligands that bind to receptors characteristic of intravascular diseases can be conjugated to microbubbles, enabling the microbubble complex to accumulate selectively in areas of interest, such as diseased or abnormal tissues.
This form of molecular imaging, known as targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound, will only generate a strong ultrasound signal if targeted microbubbles bind in the area of interest. Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound may have many applications in both medical diagnostics and medical therapeutics. However, the targeted technique has not yet been approved by the FDA for clinical use in the United States. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is regarded as safe in adults, comparable to the safety of MRI contrast agents, better than radiocontrast agents used in contrast CT scans; the more limited safety data in children suggests that such use is as safe as in the adult population. An echocardiogram is a study of the heart using ultrasound. A bubble echocardiogram is an extension of this that uses simple air bubbles as a contrast medium during this study and has to be requested specifically. Although colour Doppler can be used to detect abnormal flows between the chambers of the heart, it has a limited sensitivity.
When looking for a defect such as this, small air bubbles can be used as a contrast medium and injected intravenously, where they travel to the right side of the heart. The test would be positive for an abnormal communication if the bubbles are seen passing into the left side of the heart; this form of bubble contrast medium is generated on an ad hoc basis by the testing clinician by agitating normal saline prior to injection. There are a variety of microbubble contrast agents. Microbubbles differ in their shell makeup, gas core makeup, whether or not they are targeted. Microbubble shell: selection of shell material determines how the microbubble is taken up by the immune system. A more hydrophilic material tends to be taken up more which reduces the microbubble residence time in the circulation; this reduces the time available for contrast imaging. The shell material affects microbubble mechanical elasticity; the more elastic the material, the more acoustic energy it can withstand before bursting.
Microbubble shells are composed of albumin, lipid, or polymers. Microbubble gas core: The gas core is the most important part of the ultrasound contrast microbubble because it determines the echogenicity; when gas bubbles are caught in an ultrasonic frequency field, they compress and reflect a characteristic echo- this generates the strong and unique sonogram in contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Gas cores can be composed of heavy gases like perfluorocarbon, or nitrogen. Heavy gases are less water-soluble so they are less to leak out from the microbubble leading to microbubble dissolution; as a result, microbubbles with heavy gas cores last longer in circulation. Regardless of the shell or gas core composition, microbubble size is uniform, they lie within a range of 1–4 micrometres in diameter. That makes them smaller than red blood cells, which allows them to flow through the circulation as well as the microcirculation. Sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles, it is used to characterize liver lesions that cannot be properly identified using conventional ultrasound.
It remains visible in the blood for 3 to 8 minutes, is expired by the lungs. Octafluoropropane gas core with an albumin shell. Air within a lipid/galactose shell. Perflexane lipid microspheres is an injectable suspension developed by Alliance Pharmaceutical approved by the FDA for improving visualization of the left ventricular chamber of the heart, the delineation of the endocardial borders in patients with suboptimal echocardiograms. Beside its use to assess cardiac function and perfusion it is used as an enhancer of the images of prostate, liver and other organs. Perflutren lipid microspheres are composed of octafluoropropane encapsulated in an outer lipid shell. Targeted microbubbles are under preclinical development, they retain the same general features as untargeted microbubbles, but they are outfitted with ligands that bind specific receptors expressed by cell types of interest, such as inflamed cells or cancer cell
AST Research, Inc. was a personal computer manufacturer, founded in Irvine, California, in 1980 by Albert Wong, Safi Qureshey and Thomas Yuen. In the 1980s AST designed add-on expansion cards, before shifting to a major personal computer manufacturer towards the 1990s. By the late 1990s AST was acquired by Samsung, but was forced to close shortly after due to a series of losses. AST's original business was the manufacture and marketing of a broad range of microcomputer expansion cards focusing on higher-density replacements for the standard I/O cards in the IBM PC. A typical AST multifunction card of the mid-1980s would have an RS-232 serial port, a parallel printer port, a battery-backed clock/calendar, a game port, 384 KB of DRAM - marketed under the product name'SixPakPlus'. A similar expansion card was produced for the 8-bit Apple II, named the AST Multi I/O, which offered a serial and parallel interface, plus a battery-backed clock/calendar. In 1987 AST produced a pair of expansions cards for the Apple IIGS computer: The RamStakPlus, a dual RAM/ROM memory expansion card.
The latter card was sold to Silicon & Software and licensed and sold through Virtual Realities. AST Research produced for the Macintosh line the Mac286, a pair of NuBus cards containing an Intel 80286 and RAM, allowing a Macintosh to run MS-DOS side by side with its existing operating system; these cards were announced in March 1987 alongside Apple's Macintosh II line. The product line was sold to Orange Micro, which developed the concept further; as PC manufacturers improved the integration of peripheral controllers on their motherboards, AST's original business began to shrink, the company developed its own line of PCs, for the desktop and server markets. AST was one of the members of the Gang of Nine. In 1992 AST became a Fortune 500 company at place 431. AST computer's reliability was considered close to that of quality leaders Compaq, IBM. AST managed to gain a decent market share of the PC market, however, it never came close to overtaking Compaq and Dell. During 1992-1995, AST owned the largest market share in China with Legend as the largest local reseller of AST computer.
In 1993 Radio Shack sold its computer manufacturing division to AST, in 1994 they reached a deal to sell AST computers in Radio Shack stores. A year the electronics chain started selling IBM-brand computers instead. AST's fortunes shrunk due to the strategy of offering premium models in an competitive personal computer market, while Compaq Computer Corporation and other top-tier manufacturers slashed prices to go head-to-head with the cheapest clones; the failure of AST to recognize the movement towards the commoditization of the PC contributed to its downturn. AST insisted on developing and using its own components in the PCs it produced, instead of those of specialized OEMs. One used saying at AST, in an attempt to dismiss such competitors, was "the best technology they have is a screwdriver."By the mid-1990s, AST had severe problems in the competitive PC market. Revenues for 1996 were $2.104 billion, down from 1995 revenues of $2.348 billion. AST Research was acquired by Samsung on August 11, 1996.
Prior to this move, Samsung had owned a substantial stake and provided considerable financial support to keep AST going. However, Samsung was forced to close the California-based computer maker after a string of losses and a mass defection of research talent. AST sponsored the English football club Aston Villa from 1995 to 1998. In January 1999, the name and intellectual property were acquired by a new company named AST Computers, LLC. AST Computers, LLC was a private company founded in 1999 when Beny Alagem, founder of Packard Bell Electronics, bought the name and intellectual property of AST Research, Inc. AST Computers disappeared from the market in 2001; as of early 2011, the dormant AST trademark appears to be being relaunched by a new, independent company named DATA ACCESS based in France