ASTM International known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products and services. Some 12,575 ASTM voluntary consensus standards operate globally; the organization's headquarters is in West Conshohocken, about 5 mi northwest of Philadelphia. Founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association for Testing Materials, ASTM International predates other standards organizations such as the BSI, IEC, DIN, ANSI, AFNOR, ISO. A group of scientists and engineers, led by Charles Dudley, formed ASTM in 1898 to address the frequent rail breaks affecting the fast-growing railroad industry; the group developed a standard for the steel used to fabricate rails. Called the "American Society for Testing Materials" in 1902, it became the "American Society for Testing and Materials" in 1961 before it changed its name to “ASTM International” in 2001 and added the tagline "Standards Worldwide".
In 2014, it changed the tagline to "Helping our World Work better". Now, ASTM International has offices in Belgium, China and Washington, D. C. Membership in the organization is open to anyone with an interest in its activities. Standards are developed within committees, new committees are formed as needed, upon request of interested members. Membership in most committees is voluntary and is initiated by the member's own request, not by appointment nor by invitation. Members are classified as users, consumers, "general interest"; the latter includes consultants. Users include industry users, who may be producers in the context of other technical committees, end-users such as consumers. In order to meet the requirements of antitrust laws, producers must constitute less than 50% of every committee or subcommittee, votes are limited to one per producer company; because of these restrictions, there can be a substantial waiting-list of producers seeking organizational memberships on the more popular committees.
Members can, participate without a formal vote and their input will be considered. As of 2015, ASTM has more than 30,000 members, including over 1,150 organizational members, from more than 140 countries; the members serve on one or more of 140+ ASTM Technical Committees. ASTM International has several awards for contributions to standards authorship, including the ASTM International Award of Merit ASTM International is classified by the United States Internal Revenue Service as a 501 nonprofit organization. ASTM International has no role in enforcing compliance with its standards; the standards, may become mandatory when referenced by an external contract, corporation, or government. In the United States, ASTM standards have been adopted, by incorporation or by reference, in many federal and municipal government regulations; the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act, passed in 1995, requires the federal government to use developed consensus standards whenever possible. The Act reflects.
Other governments have referenced ASTM standards. Corporations doing international business may choose to reference an ASTM standard. All toys sold in the United States must meet the safety requirements of ASTM F963, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Toy Safety, as part of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008; the law makes the ASTM F963 standard a mandatory requirement for toys while the Consumer Product Safety Commission studies the standard's effectiveness and issues final consumer guidelines for toy safety. International Organization for Standardisation Materials property Pt/Co scale Technical standard Media related to ASTM at Wikimedia Commons ASTM International
Holy Week in Malaga, is the annual commemoration of the Passion of Jesus Christ that takes place during the last week of Lent, the week before Easter. It is one of the main cultural events and tourist attraction of Málaga. During Holy Week, 42 brotherhoods make 45 processions through the streets of Málaga showing realistic wooden sculptures narrating scenes of the events of the Passion of Christ, or images of the Virgin Mary showing sorrow. Holy Week in Málaga was declared in 1965 Fiesta of International Tourist Interest of Spain. A characteristic common with the rest of the Holy Week in Spain is usage of the nazareno or penitential robe for some of the participants in the processions; this garment consists in a tunic, capirote used to conceal the face of the wearer, sometimes a cloak. The fabrics used in these garments are velvet, satin or twill; the Nazarenos of some brotherhoods can wear gloves, scapulars and the tunic fastened with cincture or belts of espartos. The exact colors and forms of these robes depend on the particular brotherhood, in Malaga the colors of the Nazarenos of the section of the Christ and the Virgin are different.
The nazarenos carry candles and they go before the thrones. The majority of the brotherhoods carry a significant number of insignia in the procession that are carried by nazarenos: Cross guide is carried at the beginning of each procession and is responsible for guiding it. Banner is an emblem of the cofradía in the form of folded flag, that carries in the center embroidered in thread of gold and silk, the shield of the brotherhood. Senatus is the name with which it is known to an emblem that serves to recall the time of the Roman Empire in which the Passion of Jesus Christ passes, it bears the letters SPQR, an acronym for the Latin expression Senatus Populus Que Romanus. Book of Rules is a book that contains the rules of the Brotherhood. Standard is an insignia, sometimes embroidered in gold thread and luxuriously decorated, with a painting of the Christ or Virgin of each brotherhood; some processions are accompanied by women. It is formed by a black dress, a sign of mourning and pains, is accompanied by a mantilla, lace or silk veil or shawl worn over the head and back.
The peineta, similar in appearance to a large comb, is used to hold up the mantilla. Before the throne are placed a group of six or eight acolytes dressed in vestments, many of them wearing dalmatics; the thrones, in others places called pasos, are enormous platforms where are located the sculptures that depict different scenes from the gospels related to the Passion of Christ or the Sorrows of Virgin Mary. Each brotherhood exhibit two thrones, the first one would be a sculpted scene of the Passion, or image of Christ; the structure of the thrones, known as cajillo, is richly carved in wood, bronze or nickel silver and some gilt with gold leaf. In each of the corners of the cajillo is placed the arbotantes or lantern to illuminate the image or sculptural group, located in the upper part of the cajillo; the thrones of Christ are adorned at the top with carpet of flowers such as carnations or iris, or a mountain of corks, while most of the Virgin's thrones are covered by an ornate canopy secured to the cajillo by 12 or 16 palio bars.
From the front and sides of the canopy hang the bambalinas, velvet or mesh draperies embroidered in gold and silk. In front of the image of the Virgin is placed the candelería, a set of candlesticks which are placed in a stepped layout. Thrones are carried on the shoulders of men and women, called men of thrones or bearers, through long bars or beams called varales, which measure between 8 and 14 meters long; each throne has 8 varales depending on the size of the throne. Depending on weight, some can weigh up to 5 tonnes, a throne requires between 120 and 270 portadores to moved; each person can carry between 20 and 40 kilograms of weight, during the time of the procession, from 6 to 14 hours. At the front of the throne’s varales there is a big bell; this is rung with a hammer by the Throne Butler to stop to rest the bearers. The sculptures are located at the top of the throne and are the central axis of each brotherhood, most of the sculptures are carved wood life-size or somewhat smaller; some of these carvings are great works of art with centuries of antiquity, although during the burning of churches and convents in the 1931 riots, a great number of these sculptures were destroyed, between them the great majority of works of Pedro de Mena.
After the Civil War, authors such as Mariano Benlliure, Francisco Palma Burgos, Castillo Lastrucci or José Navas Parejo began to make new sculptures to replace the destroyed works. These sculptures are in their respective churches and chapels during the rest of the year where they receive worship; the images of Jesus are situated on the first throne, which represents a biblical passage of the Gospels: triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Jesus carrying the cross, Jesus crucified, descent from the Cross, etc. Depending on the scene depicted the carving of Jesus may appear alone or accompanied by other statues related to the biblical passage; some images of Christ wear tunics, smooth or richly embroidered over much of
Maria Enriquez de Luna was the wife of Juan Borgia, second Duke of Gandia. She was a first cousin of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile, therefore of the House of Trastamara, she married Juan somewhere between 1493-1494, together, they had three children: twins Juan de Borja y Enriquez, who became the 3rd Duke of Gandía, Francisca de Jesus Borja, who became a nun at a convent in Valladolid. The younger Juan was the father of Saint Francis Borgia, their third child, Isabel de Borja y Enriquez, was born. She grew up to be abbess of Santa Clara in Gandia. In personality, Maria was intelligent, financially shrewd, devoted to her husband and children, in contrast to her husband, regarded by many as a womanizer, a gambler, a drunkard, an incompetent general. Sometime after the end of Pope Alexander VI's papacy, along with her aunt Isabella of Castille, tried to press murder charges against her brother-in-law, Cesare Borgia for the alleged murder of her husband Juan. Soler Salcedo, Juan Miguel.
Nobleza Española: grandeza inmemorial 1520. Visión Libros. ISBN 8498861799. Salazar y Acha, Jaime de. «Una rama subsistente del linade de Borja en la América española». Boletín de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía: pp. 16–17. OCLC 27332380. House of Borgia Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba Route of the Borgias Dukes of Gandía Enríquez Diario Borja - Borgia Tres siglos de Historia día a día
The Rattlesnake Fire was a wildfire that started on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation on April 11, 2018 and expanded into the San Carlos Indian Reservation and Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests in Arizona in the United States. The fire burned a total of 26,072 acres; the cause of the fire remains unknown. The Rattlesnake fire was reported around 1:30 p.m. on April 11, 2018, on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation 20 miles southeast of Whiteriver, Arizona, in a remote area east of Rattlesnake Point. By the next day, the fire had grown to 400 acres and had expanded to the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest; the cause of the fire was unknown. On June 3, the fire expanded into the San Carlos Indian Reservation and 158 fire personnel were recruited to fight the fire; the Rattlesnake Fire had grown to 2,644 acres with red flag warnings in effect. It expanded into the Bear Wallow Wilderness. Air support was utilized for the first time and closures were put in place for areas of the national forest, along with several roads.
The next day, the fire was at three percent containment and officials reported that while the cause of the fire was still unknown, it was believed to be cause by a human. By April 18, the fire had ballooned to 11,339 acres, with the fire growing in the south and southeast on the San Carlos Indian Reservation and Bear Wallow Wilderness, it grew more by April 25, expanding to 21,513 acres due to warming trends, including hot days, little humidity and light winds. Fire fighters focused on containing spot fires and continuing burnout efforts by removing ground fuels; the fire was declared 63 percent contained at 25,996 acres on April 29. By May 1, the fire remained 63 percent contained. Red flag conditions persisted along with low humidity. Forest Road 25 was closed. Cooler weather and light precipitation enabled crews to make headway on containment, with the fire being at 82 percent containment by the evening of May 2; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Media related to Rattlesnake Fire at Wikimedia Commons
France competed at the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics, in Nanjing, China from 16 August to 28 August 2014. Medals awarded to participants of mixed-NOC teams are represented in italics; these medals are not counted towards the individual NOC medal tally. France qualified two archers from its performance at the 2013 World Archery Youth Championships. IndividualTeam France qualified 18 athletes. Qualification Legend: Q=Final A. SinglesDoubles France qualified a boys' team from their performance at the 2013 U18 3x3 World Championships. Skills Competition RosterTeddy Cheremond Lucas Dussoulier Élie Fedensieu Karim MouliomGroup Stage Knockout Stage France qualified a boys' and girls' team from their performance at the 2014 CEV Youth Continental Cup Final. France qualified one boxer based on its performance at the 2014 AIBA Youth World Championships Girls France qualified four boats based on its performance at the 2013 World Junior Canoe Sprint and Slalom Championships. BoysGirls France qualified two divers based on its performance at the Nanjing 2014 Diving Qualifying Event.
France qualified two athletes based on its performance at the 2014 FIE Cadet World Championships. BoysGirlsMixed Team France qualified one team of two athletes based on the 8 June 2014 IGF Combined World Amateur Golf Rankings. IndividualTeam France qualified one athlete based on its performance at the 2014 European MAG Championships and another athlete based on its performance at the 2014 European WAG Championships. BoysGirls France qualified one athlete based on its performance at the 2014 European Trampoline Championships. France qualified two athletes based on its performance at the 2013 Cadet World Judo Championships. IndividualTeam France qualified one athlete based on its performance at the 2014 Youth A World Championships and another based on the 1 June 2014 Olympic Youth A Pentathlon World Rankings. France qualified two boats based on its performance at the 2013 World Rowing Junior Championships. Qualification Legend: FA=Final A. Roster Group Stage Semifinal Gold Medal Match France qualified one boat based on its performance at the 2013 World Techno 293 Championships.
France qualified two boats based on its performance at the Byte CII European Continental Qualifiers and one boat from the Techno 293 European Continental Qualifiers. France qualified one shooter based on its performance at the 2014 European Shooting Championships. IndividualTeam France qualified eight swimmers. BoysGirlsMixed France qualified two athletes based on its performance at the European Qualification Event. SinglesTeamQualification Legend: Q=Main Bracket. Boys France qualified one athlete based on its performance at the 2014 European Youth Olympic Games Qualifier. IndividualRelay France qualified 1 quota in the boys' events based on the team ranking after the 2014 Weightlifting Youth European Championships. Boys France qualified one athlete based on its performance at the 2014 European Cadet Championships. Girls
Mushaway Peak is a small but conspicuous butte located 4 mi southeast of Gail in central Borden County, Texas. It is one of the region's most venerable landmarks; the summit of this peak rises to an altitude of 2,851 ft above sea level, the same altitude as the High Plains of the Llano Estacado 10 mi to the northwest. Mushaway Peak is in fact an erosional remnant of what was once a much larger Llano Estacado that has retreated by the process of headward erosion, its resistant cap has protected its underlying sediments, which have remained intact while surrounding sediments have been eroded away by Grape Creek and Bull Creek, two tributaries of the upper Colorado River. Mushaway Peak has been known by various names, including: Cordova Mountain, Cordova Peak, De Corde Peak, Mount Irwin, Mochaquo Mountain, Muchakooago Peak, Mucha Koo Ave, Mucha Kooay Mountain, Muchakooayo Peak, Muchakooay Peak, Mucha Koody Mountain, Mucha Kooga, Muchakooga Peak, Muchakooyo Peak, Mucha Kowa Peak, Mucha Koway Peak, Muchaque Peak, or Old Baldy.
In a 1936 decision of the United States Board on Geographical Names, "Muchakooay Peak" was recommended as proper orthography. However, the 1936 decision was revised in 1973 when "Mushaway Peak" was selected as the official name of this geographic feature. Caprock Escarpment Double Mountain Duffy's Peak Farm to Market Road 669 Mount Blanco Public domain photos of West Texas and Llano Estacado