DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Internet Protocol television is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously; as a result, a client media player can begin playing the content immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet. IPTV is deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process. IPTV services may be classified into three main groups: Live television and live media, with or without related interactivity. Many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems.
One official definition approved by the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security and reliability. Another definition of IPTV, relating to the telecommunications industry, is the one given by Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is defined as the secure and reliable delivery to subscribers of entertainment video and related services; these services may include, for example, Live TV, Video On Demand and Interactive TV. These services are delivered across an access agnostic, packet switched network that employs the IP protocol to transport the audio and control signals. In contrast to video over the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, network security and performance are managed to ensure a superior entertainment experience, resulting in a compelling business environment for content providers and customers alike.
The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept developed an Internet video product named IP/TV. IP/TV was an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based application that transmitted single and multi-source audio and video traffic, ranging from low to DVD quality, using both unicast and IP multicast Real-time Transport Protocol and Real time control protocol; the software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach, Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was acquired by Cisco Systems in 1998. Cisco retains the IP/TV trademark. Internet radio company AudioNet started the first continuous live webcasts with content from WFAA-TV in January 1998 and KCTU-LP on 10 January 1998. Kingston Communications, a regional telecommunications operator in the UK, launched Kingston Interactive Television, an IPTV over digital subscriber line service in September 1999; the operator added additional VoD service in October 2001 with a VoD content provider. Kingston was one of the first companies in the world to introduce IPTV and IP VoD over ADSL as a commercial service.
The service became the reference for various changes to UK Government regulations and policy on IPTV. In 2006, the KIT service was discontinued, subscribers having declined from a peak of 10,000 to 4,000. In 1999, NBTel was the first to commercially deploy Internet protocol television over DSL in Canada using the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM and middleware created by iMagic TV; the service was marketed under the brand VibeVision in New Brunswick, expanded into Nova Scotia in early 2000 after the formation of Aliant. IMagic TV was sold to Alcatel. In 2002, Sasktel was the second in Canada to commercially deploy IPTV over DSL, using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. In 2005, SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television channels over an IPTV service. In 2005, Bredbandsbolaget launched its IPTV service as the first service provider in Sweden; as of January 2009, they are not the biggest supplier any longer. In 2007, TPG became the first internet service provider in Australia to launch IPTV.
By 2010, iiNet and Telstra launched IPTV services in conjunction to internet plans. In 2008, Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited launched IPTV under the brand name of PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan; this service is available in 150 major cities of the country offering 140 live channels. In 2010, CenturyLink – after acquiring Embarq and Qwest – entered five U. S. markets with an IPTV service called Prism. This was after successful test marketing in Florida. In 2016, Korean Central Television introduced the set-top box called Manbang providing video-on-demand services in North Korea via quasi-internet protocol television. Manbang allows viewers to watch five different TV channels in real-time, read find political information regarding the Supreme Leader and Juche ideology, read articles from state-run news organizations; the technology was hindered by low broadb
Makan Delrahim is an Iranian-American lawyer who serves as Assistant Attorney General for the Antitrust Division of the U. S. Department of Justice. Makan Delrahim was born on November 1969, in Tehran, Iran, his family are Persian Jews, they immigrated to the United States in 1979. Like many other Iranian Jewish immigrants, Delrahim's family settled in California. Delrahim struggled in elementary school because he did not speak English, though he learned it quickly, he helped with his family's business where he worked at his father's gas station outside the metropolitan Los Angeles area. Delrahim excelled in high school, was accepted to the University of California, Los Angeles, where he graduated in 1991 with a B. S. in kinesiology. He received a Specialization in Business/Economics, he attended the George Washington University Law School, graduating in 1995 with a J. D. with High Honors. Delrahim became a naturalized U. S. citizen while in law school. Delrahim earned a M. S. in biotechnology from Johns Hopkins University in 2002.
While in law school, Delrahim worked at the Office of Technology Transfer at the National Institutes of Health, on intellectual property issues at the Office of the United States Trade Representative, Executive Office of the President. After law school, Delrahim joined the Washingon, D. C. law firm, Patton Boggs, LLP. In 1998, Delrahim became a counsel to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, working under the -Chairman, Senator Orrin G. Hatch. Delrahim worked on intellectual property and antitrust issues, including patent reform and the investigation into Microsoft. Delrahim became the Chief of Staff and Chief Counsel of the Senate Judiciary Committee, until his appointment at the Department of Justice in 2003 Jon Leibowitz, President Obama's Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, a Democratic Senate Judiciary Committee aide and worked with Delrahim, remembered him as being creative and a pragmatist. From 2003 through 2005, Delrahim served as Deputy Assistant Attorney General for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division in the administration of President George W. Bush.
While there, he oversaw the Division's International and Policy sections and was the Chairman of the Merger Working Group of the International Competition Network. Delrahim served as a Commissioner on the bi-partisan blue ribbon Antitrust Modernization Commission, serving with former Chiefs of the Antitrust Division, Sanford Litvack, John Shenefield, ABA Antitrust Section Chair, Jon Jacobson. After the DOJ, Delrahim next joined the law firm of Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck, in Los Angeles, where he focused his work on antitrust, intellectual property and appellate matters, his clients included Anthem Inc. Qualcomm, Zuffa. In March 2016, Delrahim published an op-ed in the New York Post arguing that due to the importance of future U. S. Supreme Court nominations, Republicans should not oppose, instead should support Donald Trump over Hillary Clinton. After Trump's victory in the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Delrahim was active in Trump's presidential transition. After the inauguration of Donald Trump, Delrahim became Deputy White House Counsel and assisted in shepherding United States Supreme Court nominee Neil Gorsuch through the United States Senate confirmation process.
In March 2017, Trump announced his nomination of Delrahim as Assistant Attorney General for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division. This role, which required U. S. Senate confirmation, entails overseeing criminal cartel enforcement as well as corporate mergers and acquisitions. In September 2017, he was approved 73–21 by the U. S. Senate; when he arrived on the job he was gifted a hat with "Makan Antitrust Great Again" written upon it, by the staff of the Justice Department. When interviewed, Delrahim emphasized that under U. S. law, a monopoly is legal as long. Delrahim has given speeches arguing that behavioral remedies in consent decrees to remedy an otherwise illegal merger are ineffective and that antitrust enforcers should instead employ structural remedies such as divestment. On November 20, 2017, Delrahim filed a lawsuit under Section 7 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 to block AT&T's $85.4 billion acquisition of Time Warner. On June 12, 2018, U. S. District Judge Richard J. Leon refused to block the merger.
Department of Justice has since appealed this outcome. On May 29, 2018, Delrahim required one of the largest structural divestitures, as a condition of approving Bayer's $66 billion acquisition of Monsanto. DOJ profile Appearances on C-SPAN Inside the Trump White House: Iranian-American Makan Delrahim is Deputy Counsel to the President
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access, always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN PSTN services. Different criteria for "broad" have been applied at different times, its origin is in physics and radio systems engineering, where it had been used with a meaning similar to "wideband". With the advent of digital telecommunications, the term was used for transmission over multiple channels. Whereas a passband signal is modulated so that it occupies higher frequencies, it is still occupying a single channel; the key difference is that what is considered a broadband signal in this sense is a signal that occupies multiple passbands, thus allowing for much higher throughput over a single medium but with additional complexity in the transmitter/receiver circuitry.
The term became popularized through the 1990s as a marketing term for Internet access, faster than dialup access, the original Internet access technology, limited to a maximum bandwidth of 56 kbit/s. This meaning is only distantly related to its original technical meaning. In telecommunications, a broadband signalling method is one. "Broadband" is a relative term, understood according to its context. The wider the bandwidth of a channel, the greater the data-carrying capacity, given the same channel quality. In radio, for example, a narrow band will carry Morse code, a broader band will carry speech, a still broader band will carry music without losing the high audio frequencies required for realistic sound reproduction; this broad band is divided into channels or "frequency bins" using passband techniques to allow frequency-division multiplexing instead of sending a higher-quality signal. In data communications, a 56k modem will transmit a data rate of 56 kilobits per second over a 4-kilohertz-wide telephone line.
In the late 1980s, the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network used the term to refer to a broad range of bit rates, independent of physical modulation details. The various forms of digital subscriber line services are broadband in the sense that digital information is sent over multiple channels; each channel is at higher frequency than the baseband voice channel, so it can support plain old telephone service on a single pair of wires at the same time. However, when that same line is converted to a non-loaded twisted-pair wire, it becomes hundreds of kilohertz wide and can carry up to 100 megabits per second using very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line techniques. Many computer networks use a simple line code to transmit one type of signal using a medium's full bandwidth using its baseband. Most versions of the popular Ethernet family are given names such as the original 1980s 10BASE5 to indicate this. Networks that use cable modems on standard cable television infrastructure are called broadband to indicate the wide range of frequencies that can include multiple data users as well as traditional television channels on the same cable.
Broadband systems use a different radio frequency modulated by the data signal for each band. The total bandwidth of the medium is larger than the bandwidth of any channel; the 10BROAD36 broadband variant of Ethernet was standardized by 1985, but was not commercially successful. The DOCSIS standard became available to consumers in the late 1990s, to provide Internet access to cable television residential customers. Matters were further confused by the fact that the 10PASS-TS standard for Ethernet ratified in 2008 used DSL technology, both cable and DSL modems have Ethernet connectors on them. A television antenna may be described as "broadband" because it is capable of receiving a wide range of channels, while a single-frequency or Lo-VHF antenna is "narrowband" since it receives only 1 to 5 channels; the U. S. federal standard FS-1037C defines "broadband" as a synonym for wideband. "Broadband" in analog video distribution is traditionally used to refer to systems such as cable television, where the individual channels are modulated on carriers at fixed frequencies.
In this context, baseband is the term's antonym, referring to a single channel of analog video in composite form with separate baseband audio. The act of demodulating converts broadband video to baseband video. Fiber optic allows the signal to be transmitted farther without being repeated. Cable companies use a hybrid system using fiber to transmit the signal to neighborhoods and changes the signal from light to radio frequency to be transmitted over coaxial cable to homes. Doing so reduces the use of having multiple head ends. A head end gathers all the information from the local cable networks and movie channels and feeds the information into the system. However, "broadband video" in the context of streaming Internet video has come to mean video files that have bit-rates high enough to require broadband Internet access for viewing. "Broadband video" is sometimes used to describe IPTV Video on demand. Power lines have been used for various types of data communication. Although some systems for remote control are based on narrowband signaling, modern high-speed systems use broadband signaling to achieve high data rates.
One example is the ITU-T G.hn standard, which provides a
AT&T Communications, LLC is a division of AT&T that focuses on wireline, digital television, satellite television, fixed line telephone, mobile phone, home security, IPTV, OTT services, network security, pay television offerings, as well as business solutions. This is the corporate division, created in 2017 to house all of AT&T's Telecommunications and Technology Businesses, which include AT&T Mobility, DirecTV, U-Verse, AT&T Business, AT&T Intellectual Property, AT&T Labs, Cricket Wireless, AT&T Digital Life, Vyatta, AT&T Business Solutions, AT&T Consumer Mobility, AT&T Entertainment Group, AT&T Technology & Operations Group, Technology and Operations Group; as of June 2018, it is AT&T's largest division by revenue. On July 28, 2017, AT&T announced a new AT&T Communications corporate division housing AT&T Mobility, DIRECTV, U-Verse, AT&T Business, AT&T Intellectual Property, AT&T Labs, Cricket Wireless, AT&T Digital Life, Vyatta, AT&T Adworks, Technology and Operations Group. In October 2016, AT&T announced a deal to acquire Time Warner worth $85.4 billion.
The proposed deal would give AT&T significant holdings in the media industry. If approved by federal regulators, the merger would bring Time Warner's properties under the same umbrella as AT&T's telecommunication holdings, including satellite provider DirecTV. By the end of July, the company announced that, effective August 1, a new structure was created before the acquisition would close; this structure has John Donovan take the title of CEO of the new AT&T Communications, LLC subsidiary division. AT&T named John Stankey to run Time Warner media businesses and John Donovan as CEO of AT&T Communications ahead of the Time Warner acquisition. In November 2017, the U. S. Justice Department said. On November 20, 2017, the Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit over the acquisition. AT&T asserts that this suit is a "radical and inexplicable departure from decades of antitrust precedent". On December 22, 2017, the merger agreement deadline was extended to June 21, 2018. On June 12, 2018, the AT&T-Time Warner merger was approved by a federal judge.
Two days AT&T completed the acquisition of Time Warner, a day the company was renamed WarnerMedia. On July 10, 2018, AT&T announced that it would acquire cybersecurity startup AlienVault for an undisclosed amount; the acquisition was completed on August 22, 2018. The American Telephone & Telegraph Long Lines wire and microwave radio relay network provided long-distance services to AT&T and its customers; the connection to other countries from the United States began here. By the 1970s, 95% of distance and 70% of intercity telephone calls in the United States were carried by AT&T. Before utilizing microwave relay and coaxial cables, AT&T used lines for long distance service. In 1911, the system connected New York to Denver; the introduction of repeater towers allowed such connections to reach across North America. In the 1930s the company experimented with long-distance coaxial cable; the first long-distance L-carrier coaxial link in 1936 connected New York City. With improved klystrons and other devices devised for World War II, it was determined that relay networks were easy to build over mountainous regions and rough terrain.
Coaxial systems connected all major US cities. Formal opening of the United States coast-to-coast connection was on August 17, 1951, via AT&T's network control center in New York City. A presidential address from Harry Truman at the San Francisco Peace Conference on September 4, 1951 opened the network, demonstrating coast-to-coast television service; the first scheduled show to use this was Edward R. Murrow's See It Now on November 18, 1951; the network allowed events such as American Bandstand and ABC's Monday Night Football to be broadcast live nationally and permitted distribution of regional sports events, such as Saturday football games prior to the adoption of satellite communications in the 1970s. By the 1980s, alternatives supplemented. Long Lines published a periodical, TWX, targeted to companies that used AT&T's equipment and services TeletypeWriter eXchange, from which it took its name; the periodical was discontinued in 1952. In 1950, New York City's five boroughs were dialed from various communities in New Jersey with the digits'1-1' followed by the 7 digit telephone number.
While New York City was assigned area code 212 at the beginning of the Area Code format in October 1947, it wouldn't be until in the 1950s when Englewood, New Jersey, customers would dial their calls to New York City using the digits 2-1-2. The use of the'11+' code from Englewood to call New York City had been in place for a while prior to 1951. New York City's five boroughs had been dialing northeastern New Jersey as 11+ the two letters and five digits of the New Jersey number as well for a while prior to 1951 and until the latter 1950s; the use of area code 201 to call New Jersey from New York City didn't begin until the latter 1950s. Other cities in northeastern New Jersey were dialable in 1951 from Englewood by dialing the two letters of the exchange name and remaining five digits. In addition to New York City, the Nassau County part of Long Island was dialable from Englewood and Te
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter. A satellite receiver decodes the desired television programme for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be a built-in television tuner. Satellite television provides a wide range of services, it is the only television available in many remote geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television service. Modern systems signals are relayed from a communications satellite on the Ku band frequencies requiring only a small dish less than a meter in diameter; the first satellite TV systems were an obsolete type now known as television receive-only. These systems received weaker analog signals transmitted in the C-band from FSS type satellites, requiring the use of large 2–3-meter dishes.
These systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, were more expensive and less popular. Early systems used analog signals, but modern ones use digital signals which allow transmission of the modern television standard high-definition television, due to the improved spectral efficiency of digital broadcasting; as of 2018, Star One C2 from Brazil is the only remaining satellite broadcasting in analog signals, as well as one channel on AMC-11 from the United States. Different receivers are required for the two types; some transmissions and channels are unencrypted and therefore free-to-air or free-to-view, while many other channels are transmitted with encryption, requiring the viewer to subscribe and pay a monthly fee to receive the programming. The satellites used for broadcasting television are in a geostationary orbit 37,000 km above the earth's equator; the advantage of this orbit is that the satellite's orbital period equals the rotation rate of the Earth, so the satellite appears at a fixed position in the sky.
Thus the satellite dish antenna which receives the signal can be aimed permanently at the location of the satellite, does not have to track a moving satellite. A few systems instead use a elliptical orbit with inclination of +/−63.4 degrees and orbital period of about twelve hours, known as a Molniya orbit. Satellite television, like other communications relayed by satellite, starts with a transmitting antenna located at an uplink facility. Uplink satellite dishes are large, as much as 9 to 12 meters in diameter; the increased diameter results in more accurate aiming and increased signal strength at the satellite. The uplink dish is pointed toward a specific satellite and the uplinked signals are transmitted within a specific frequency range, so as to be received by one of the transponders tuned to that frequency range aboard that satellite; the transponder re-transmits the signals back to Earth at a different frequency in the 10.7-12.7 GHz band, but some still transmit in the C-band, Ku-band, or both.
The leg of the signal path from the satellite to the receiving Earth station is called the downlink. A typical satellite has up to 32 Ku-band or 24 C-band transponders, or more for Ku/C hybrid satellites. Typical transponders each have a bandwidth between 50 MHz; each geostationary C-band satellite needs to be spaced 2° longitude from the next satellite to avoid interference. This means that there is an upper limit of 360/2 = 180 geostationary C-band satellites or 360/1 = 360 geostationary Ku-band satellites. C-band transmission is susceptible to terrestrial interference while Ku-band transmission is affected by rain; the latter is more adversely affected by ice crystals in thunder clouds. On occasion, sun outage will occur when the sun lines up directly behind the geostationary satellite to which the receiving antenna is pointed; the downlink satellite signal, quite weak after traveling the great distance, is collected with a parabolic receiving dish, which reflects the weak signal to the dish's focal point.
Mounted on brackets at the dish's focal point is a device called a feedhorn or collector. The feedhorn is a section of waveguide with a flared front-end that gathers the signals at or near the focal point and conducts them to a probe or pickup connected to a low-noise block downconverter; the LNB amplifies the signals and downconverts them to a lower block of intermediate frequencies in the L-band. The original C-band satellite television systems used a low-noise amplifier connected to the feedhorn at the focal point of the dish; the amplified signal, still at the higher microwave frequencies, had to be fed via expensive low-loss 50-ohm impedance gas filled hardline coaxial cable with complex N-connectors to an indoor receiver or, in other designs, a downconverter for downconversion to an intermediate frequency. The channel selection was controlled by a voltage tuned oscillator with the tuning voltage being fed via a separate cable to the headend, but this design evolved. Designs for microstrip-based converters for amateur radio frequencies were adapted for the 4 GHz C-band.
Central to these designs was concept of block downconversion of a range of frequencies to a lower, more handled IF. The advantages of using an LNB are that cheaper cable can be used to connect the indoor receiver to the satellite te