AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas. It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue; as of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880; the Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies, resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation.
In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their joint venture Cingular Wireless wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility. The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division. AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone. One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company, established in 1885, which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century.
This monopoly was known as the Bell System, during this period, AT&T was known by the nickname Ma Bell. For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company. In 1982, U. S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells. AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint. Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope; the company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business.
During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983. It retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp. In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil. In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications. AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014, two months purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings, merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.
In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt, subject to certain conditions. AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment. In an effort to increase its media holdings, on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. AT&T owns a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate. On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon. In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year. On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."
In order for AT&T to acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must
Intellectual property is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. Intellectual property encompasses two types of rights, it was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create – for a limited period of time; this gives economic incentive for their creation, because it allows people to profit from the information and intellectual goods they create. These economic incentives are expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators; the intangible nature of intellectual property presents difficulties when compared with traditional property like land or goods.
Unlike traditional property, intellectual property is "indivisible" – an unlimited number of people can "consume" an intellectual good without it being depleted. Additionally, investments in intellectual goods suffer from problems of appropriation – a landowner can surround their land with a robust fence and hire armed guards to protect it, but a producer of information or an intellectual good can do little to stop their first buyer from replicating it and selling it at a lower price. Balancing rights so that they are strong enough to encourage the creation of intellectual goods but not so strong that they prevent the goods' wide use is the primary focus of modern intellectual property law; the Statute of Monopolies and the British Statute of Anne are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property. "Literary property" was the term predominantly used in the British legal debates of the 1760s and 1770s over the extent to which authors and publishers of works had rights deriving from the common law of property.
The first known use of the term intellectual property dates to this time, when a piece published in the Monthly Review in 1769 used the phrase. The first clear example of modern usage goes back as early as 1808, when it was used as a heading title in a collection of essays; the German equivalent was used with the founding of the North German Confederation whose constitution granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property to the confederation. When the administrative secretariats established by the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention merged in 1893, they located in Berne, adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property; the organization subsequently relocated to Geneva in 1960, was succeeded in 1967 with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization by treaty as an agency of the United Nations. According to legal scholar Mark Lemley, it was only at this point that the term began to be used in the United States, it did not enter popular usage there until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980.
"The history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Queen Elizabeth I for monopoly privileges... 200 years after the end of Elizabeth's reign, however, a patent represents a legal right obtained by an inventor providing for exclusive control over the production and sale of his mechanical or scientific invention... the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to common-law doctrine." The term can be found used in an October 1845 Massachusetts Circuit Court ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. In which Justice Charles L. Woodbury wrote that "only in this way can we protect intellectual property, the labors of the mind and interests are as much a man's own...as the wheat he cultivates, or the flocks he rears." The statement that "discoveries are..property" goes back earlier. Section 1 of the French law of 1791 stated, "All new discoveries are the property of the author. In Europe, French author A. Nion mentioned propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs, artistes et inventeurs, published in 1846.
Until the purpose of intellectual property law was to give as little protection as possible in order to encourage innovation. Therefore, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time and scope; this is as a result of knowledge being traditionally viewed as a public good, in order to allow its extensive dissemination and improvement thereof. The concept's origins can be traced back further. Jewish law includes several considerations whose effects are similar to those of modern intellectual property laws, though the notion of intellectual creations as property does not seem to exist – notably the principle of Hasagat Ge'vul was used to justify limited-term publisher copyright in the 16th century. In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one year's patent "to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury". According to Jean-Frédéric Morin, "the global inte
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
GopherVR is an enhanced Internet Gopher client that includes a 3D visualization tool for viewing resource collections as 3D scenes. The 3D view was intended to be similar like Spectre. In 1995, the Gopher developers at the University of Minnesota released GopherVR. Using Gopher+ protocol extensions, spatial positions for Gopher resources are specified, GopherVR clients combine traditional gopher hierarchy browsing with 3D scene navigation, it was written by Mark P. McCahill, Paul Lindner and Neophytos Iacovou; this original version was available for Unix, using Motif and X11, the classic Mac OS. Godot was another GopherVR client, it used a Z39.50 interface to libraries, allowing you to navigate the contents of a library in 3D. The software packages for GopherVR were stored on the UMN Boombox FTP server and all Gopher software on this server over 96k in length had become corrupted, resulting in the loss of all publicly available copies of the source code until it was rediscovered and made available by Mark McCahill in June 2008.
In December 2009, GopherVR was re-released by Cameron Kaiser in an updated form for Mac OS X, Linux and other platforms. It is still considered incomplete. Floodgap GopherVR project gopherspace includes source code and Mac OS X binaries Paper - A Preliminary Design for a 3-D Spatial User Interface for Internet Gopher Paper - Announcing GopherVR Rediscovered source code GopherVR in Launchpad Paper - Customizing Unix Servers For 3D TurboGopherVR Client for Mac at Sunet GopherVR Client for Irix at Sunet Godot http://www.botik.ru/~znamensk/CTAN/tools/gopher/Unix/Godot/GODOT%20v0.1
SDF Public Access Unix System
Super Dimension Fortress is a non-profit public access UNIX shell provider on the Internet. It has been in continual operation since 1987 as a non-profit social club; the name is derived from the Japanese anime series The Super Dimension Fortress Macross. From its BBS roots, which have been well documented as part of the BBS: The Documentary project, SDF has grown into a feature-rich provider serving members around the world; the SDF network of systems includes NetBSD servers for regular use as well as a TWENEX system running the Panda Distribution TOPS-20 MONITOR 7.1, a Symbolics Genera system. Besides offering free Unix shell access and web hosting to its users, SDF provides rare services such as dial-up internet access and Gopher hosting. SDF is one of few organizations in the world still promoting the gopher protocol, an alternate protocol that existed at the introduction of the modern worldwide web; the system contains thousands of programs and utilities, including a command-line BBS called BBOARD, a chat program called COMMODE, email programs, social networking programs, developer tools.
Nearly all of the applications hosted at SDF are accessed via the command-line. SDF provides classrooms with the use of computing resources for Unix education. In 1987, Ted Uhlemann started SDF on an Apple IIe microcomputer running "Magic City Micro-BBS" under ProDOS; the system was run as a "Japanese Anime SIG" known as the SDF-1. In 1989, Uhlemann and Stephen Jones operated SDF briefly as a DragCit Citadel BBS before attempting to use an Intel x86 UNIX clone called Coherent. Unhappy with the restrictive menu driven structure of existing BBS systems, Uhlemann and Daniel Finster created a UNIX System V BBS in 1990 running on an i386 system, which became an AT&T 3B2/400 and 500, joined the lonestar.org UUCP network. Three additional phone lines were installed in late 1991. In the fall of 1992, Uhlemann and Finster left SDF to start one of the first commercial Internet companies in Texas, Texas Metronet. SDF continued to grow, expanding to ten lines in 1993 along with a SLIP connection provided by cirr.com.
UUCP was still relied upon for Usenet news and email. In 1997, SDF migrated to Linux; the migration to Linux marked a turning point, as the system started coming under attack like it never had before in its history. Jones calls the Linux period the dark age. In part due to the number of attacks undertaken by malicious users against SDF, the years 2000 and 2001 saw SDF migrate from Linux to NetBSD and from Intel x86 to DEC Alpha; this migration included relocation of the servers from Texas to Seattle, Washington. The Linux system was decommissioned on August 17, 2001; the occasion was captured in a COMMODE Log preserved by one of SDF's users. Although SDF Public Access UNIX System was registered as an operating business in 1993 according to the Dallas County Records Office, it wasn't until October 1, 2001, that the SDF Public Access UNIX System was formed as a Delaware not-for-profit corporation and subsequently granted 501 non-profit membership club status by the IRS. SDF had operated under the auspice of the MALR corporation between 1995 and 2001.
As of May 2016, SDF was composed of 47,572 users from around the world. SDF users include engineers, computer programmers, students and professionals. Sterling, Bruce; the Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier. New York: Bantam Books. Official website @sdf_pubnix on twitter Interview with Stephen Jones at bsdtalk Vintage Computer Festival SDF Exhibit at the Wayback Machine 2012 Feature Story on NPR, "In Noisy Digital Era,'Elegant' Internet Still Thrives"
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
WebPositive is a web browser included with the Haiku operating system. It was created to replace the aging BeZillaBrowser with a WebKit-based browser. One part of its name is a tip of the hat to BeOS' simple NetPositive, while the other points to its modern foundation: WebKit, the open source HTML rendering library at the heart of many other mainstream browsers, like Apple's Safari. By making use of WebKit as its engine, WebPositive is able to keep up with the latest web technologies. In the Google Summer of Code 2009, Maxime Simon, mentored by Ryan Leavengood, was commissioned to work on a WebKit port for Haiku, initiated by the work Leavengood had done for a bounty on the Haikuware website; this led to the development of the HaikuLauncher prototype browser, which demonstrated the functionality of the WebKit rendering engine but did little else. In February 2010, Stephan Aßmus took on the task of improving the HaikuLauncher web browser to make it more usable; this led to many preview releases before a stable version was integrated into Haiku R1 / Alpha 2.
In that same year, Ryan Leavengood took over as the lead developer of WebPositive. Earlier versions of WebPositive used cURL services but they were slow and had many other bugs, one of the majors bugs being that cookies overloaded at times, it became clear. It was that Adrien Destugues, or PulkoMandy, was given a contract in October 2013 to work on WebPositive so that he could fix the bugs; this led to Destugues becoming the lead developer for HaikuWebKit. Destugues replaced cURL with Haiku's Service Kit in the core of the application, earlier worked upon by Stephan Aßmus and Christophe Huriaux in the Google Summer of Code 2010, Alexandre Deckner in 2011. Destugues has made big improvements to WebPositive's HTML5 support in WebKit, such as implementing support for datalists and color input. Destugues' constant work on HaikuWebKit and WebPositive results in a faster WebPositive with fewer bugs. WebPositive User Guide WebPositive tag on Haiku-OS.org Destugues' talk on HaikuWebKit and Web+ at BeGeistert 028