Atlantic Theatre Festival
The Atlantic Theatre Festival was a professional theatre company located in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Theatre Festival presented a "broad range of critically acclaimed theatre classics" during the summer in Wolfville's Festival Theatre, the former town hockey arena, converted into a 504 seat, thrust stage theatre and professional production facility by the Atlantic Theatre Festival Society. Over two million dollars was contributed by the local, Nova Scotian, Canadian governments to create the Festival Theatre. Stratford Festival veteran Michael Langham was among the directors who brought national acclaim to the festival during the Founder's Season of 1995; the reputation of the festival grew over the following seasons as it attracted the likes of Megan Follows, Christopher Plummer, area native Peter Donat to join its company. In years, despite being conceived as a classical repertory, the festival maintained its critical success as it began to include works by Canadian playwrights as well as family-friendly musicals.
Despite a strong critical reputation, mounting debts over the first five years forced the Atlantic Theatre Festival to reduce cast sizes, lay-off crew, cancel productions. The construction of the Festival Theatre came as a result of a twenty-year lease from Acadia University. In 2002, this agreement was terminated and a new lease was offered that reduced the professional theatre company to a seasonal tenant; this arrangement threatened the Atlantic Theatre Festival's existence, causing the cancellation of the 2004 season. The festival theatre stage remained dark in 2005, but had a successful renewal in 2006. With one main stage production and comedic readings to form the "Summer of Laughter" season both audiences and tourists returned; the financial success did not continue the following season as the festival returned to a multi-play format. In August 2007, artistic director Nigel Bennett was forced to resign mid-season after the Board of Directors informed him that sufficient funds were not available to continue.
One production completed its run while two others, one on stage and the other in rehearsal, were cancelled. A lack of funding from both provincial and federal levels was named as the main cause of the closure; the Festival Theatre is used for the Acadia University Performing Arts Series, which are held throughout the University school year, for conferences. Nigel Bennett Jerry Etienne Michael Bawtree 2007 Shirley Valentine by Willy Russell The Drawer Boy by Michael Healey A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare 2006 Noises Off by Michael Frayn2003 Into the Woods by Stephen Sondheim and James Lapine Blithe Spirit by Noël Coward Three Sisters by Anton Chekhov2002 Charley's Aunt by Brandon Thomas The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare The Miracle Worker by William Gibson2001 The Hobbit adapted by Kim Selody A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams Billy Bishop Goes to War by John Gray and Eric Peterson2000 Amadeus by Peter Shaffer High Notes: A Musical Revue by Jerry Etienne Private Lives by Noël Coward Macbeth by William Shakespeare Billy Bishop Goes to War by John Gray and Eric Peterson1999 Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen The Constant Wife by W. Somerset Maugham The Boar Hog and The Pregnant Pause by Georges Feydeau1998 Othello by William Shakespeare Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw The Matchmaker by Thornton Wilder Sam Slick Goes Ahead by Andrew Gillis1997 Tartuffe by Molière The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov1996 Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare She Stoops to Conquer by Oliver Goldsmith A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen1995 The Tempest by William Shakespeare The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov A Flea in Her Ear by Georges Feydeau Atlantic Theatre Festival 14 December 2006.
5 March 2007. <https://web.archive.org/web/20050127070720/http://atf.ns.ca/>
A. T. F. is a television movie produced for ABC in 1999 in which ATF agents work to infiltrate an armed militia, a group which the film describes as akin to the Branch Davidians, a religious group who were attacked by ATF agents and killed by the FBI in Waco, Texas in the Waco Massacre of 1993, It was made as a pilot for a tv series. Following the infamous tragedy in Waco, Texas, in which the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms found themselves in a battle with an armed militia, the organization, led by director Maggie Hale, finds itself in a new fight. Agent Robyn O'Brien goes undercover to infiltrate a militia selling illegal street-sweeper guns, dismissing Hale's orders to stay away; when O'Brien gets held prisoner inside the militia's compound, the A. T. F. is left with the decision to start another Waco and attack the militia, or come up with another way to save her. Kathy Baker as A. T. F. Director Maggie Hale Amy Brenneman as Agent Robin O'Brien Vincent Angell as Agent Reeve Aquilar Michael O'Neill as Asst.
A. T. F. Director Ben Walker Keith David as F. B. I Director Richard Long Mark Boone Junior as Jake Neill William Richert as Patrick McKennan Sarah Trigger as Carol John Philbin as Randy Raphael Sbarge as Director Hale's Assistant John Beasley as Secretary Robert Edwards Coby Bell as Agent Dinko Bates Sean Bridgers as Smitty Waco Siege List of television films produced for American Broadcasting Company A. T. F. on IMDb
ATF (video game)
ATF is a computer game released in 1988 for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64 and Amstrad CPC by Digital Integration. The player takes control of Lockheed's YF-22A Advanced Tactical Fighter in a fictional war between two rival factions; the in-game world is a nameless collection of islands, randomly generated for each game. The fighter can be armed with a combination of cannon rounds, ASRAAM missiles, Maverick missiles for destroying ground targets those out of visual range; the display is a third-person view showing the player's ATF, which remains stationary on screen as the scenery scrolls past it, which takes up most of the screen. A head-up display is superimposed on the main screen; the right-hand side is devoted to the "on-board flight computer" which shows enemy positions on a world map, the status of weapon systems and the ATF itself. Above the flight computer display is a panel which shows the number of lives left. Below the main display is a panel which displays status reports, below that indicators for fuel level, enemy missile lock on, "terrain following" status, "automatic landing" availability, undercarriage status.
The "terrain following RADAR" prevents the ATF from colliding with the ground but reduces the craft's velocity. When the game was being written, the YF-22A was not completed and Lockheed were reluctant to divulge any confidential information. Despite this the developers managed to piece together information about the prototype aircraft's "electronic co-pilot" and "automatic terrain following" and decided to concentrate on creating a fast, arcade-like game, with a heavy reliance on strategy, rather than making it technically accurate; the terrain was created by calculating all the visible points for each frame. This system worked but was far too slow to pass as "arcade action". Instead, a complex co-ordinate referencing system was created, each frame was drawn into a "dummy" screen copied to the display to avoid flicker; the developers decided that strategy would play a large part in the game, with no compromises being made and that the'war model' would appear as realistic and natural as possible.
Five types of ground forces, as well as sea forces, communications emplacements and factories appear in the game, all interact with each other in ways that affect gameplay. Factories, for example, supply the military hardware and if destroyed will result in a gradual depletion of forces, since tanks and ships are destroyed but not replaced; the type of terrain affects the velocity of land forces. Each object has a unique strength value, which means that if the player does not succeed in destroying a target, allied ground forces may be able to "finish it off"; the program code for the Sinclair Spectrum version was written on an IBM AT-compatible computer using a macro assembler, while the graphics were designed on an Atari ST downloaded onto the IBM AT, before being downloaded to the Spectrum and debugged using a specially developed monitor. Reviews were overwhelmingly positive, with Your Sinclair and Commodore User rating it at 8/10,CRASH at 89%, ACE giving the game 956/1000 and Sinclair User giving top marks of 10/10.
Your Sinclair's Jonathan Davies said of the game "Flying controls are minimal, leaving your hands free for downing baddies and enjoying the flight.", Nathan Jones from CRASH decided that "...the graphics are superb and the landscapes give it a futuristic feel." And Sinclair User's Chris Jenkins called the game a "rivetting shoot-em-up with some aspects of a simulation.". A. T. F. at SpectrumComputing.co.uk
Around the Fur
Around the Fur is the second studio album by American rock band Deftones, released on October 28, 1997 by Maverick Records. The songs "My Own Summer" and "Be Quiet and Drive" were released as singles with accompanying music videos; the album was certified gold by the RIAA in June 1999, was certified platinum in 2011. Around the Fur has been described as nu metal and alternative metal. Around the Fur was the second album to feature Frank Delgado under additional personnel; the song "Headup" featured additional vocals by Max Cavalera of Soulfly. It was written by Cavalera and Deftones singer Chino Moreno as a way of venting some of their pain over the loss of Dana Wells, Cavalera's stepson and Chino's friend; the band name "Soulfly" was taken from a portmanteau invented for the song. While the album's lyrics were included in the booklet, not every single word was printed. A good example is the song "Lhabia": In the verses, Moreno whispers statements that are hard to decipher. There is one verse missing from the song "Headup".
The album cover was shot by photographer Rick Kosick during a late-night party in Seattle where the band was recording. Upon seeing the candid photo of a woman, the band decided that they wanted to use it as the album cover. Kosick was unsure who the woman was, so the band had to find and track her down to obtain permission to use the photo, which she granted. Moreno has since expressed his dislike of the cover, calling it "horrible". "When we went in to make this record, we didn't have a set idea of what we wanted to come out with," said Moreno in a 1998 interview with Chart magazine. However, he felt; the band expanded its sound, spending more time with producer Terry Date, giving more thought to the album's production. Abe Cunningham varied his drum sound and experimented by using different types of snare drums on every track; the album was praised for its loud-soft dynamics, the flow of the tracks, Moreno's unusual vocals, the strong rhythm section grooves created by Cunningham and bassist Chi Cheng.
The album was anticipated, propelled the band to fame in the alternative metal scene on the strength of radio and MTV airplay for the singles "My Own Summer" and "Be Quiet and Drive". The album's title track was released as a promotional single. Around the Fur sold 43,000 copies in its first week of release, entered the Billboard 200 at No. 29, remaining on the charts for 17 weeks. The band went back to touring, making appearances at the Warped Tour, Pinkpop Festival, Roskilde Festival and Ozzfest, as well as releasing a live EP on June 22, 1999. Around the Fur went on to reach RIAA gold status on June 24, 1999, platinum status on June 7, 2011; when the album was released on Spotify, it contained an alternate version of "Headup" running a full minute longer than the original release. The album received positive reviews from music critics. AllMusic critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote: "Deftones tap into the same alternative metal vibe as Korn and L7, while they don't have catchy riffs or a developed sound, Around the Fur suggests they're about to come into their own".
James P. Wisdom of Pitchfork described the songs from the album as "intense, harsh tunes", while Punknews.org thought that the album "showcased a band aware of their flaws and lyrical approach, thusly achieved an overall great improvement in said areas". In 2015, critic Saby Reyes-Kulkarni of Diffuser stated that "n their landmark second album, Deftones infused elements of new wave and shoegaze to define their future direction. Alt-metal would never be the same." Reyes-Kulkarni observed that the album "captures the first full blossoming of the duality that has come to define the Sacramento quintet’s musical identity" and "set a new standard for ’90s alt-metal and opened doors to what’s possible when bands find the motivation to get heavy away from the brutish impulses that drive aggressive music." He further noted that, while the album "sounds undeniably thicker and heavier" than the band's debut album Adrenaline, Chino Moreno's new wave and post-punk influences became evident: "On Around the Fur, Moreno’s love of new wave groups like Depeche Mode and The Cure began to rear its head in earnest."
All songs written except "Headup" by Deftones and Max Cavalera. Adapted credits from the liner notes of Around the Fur. Chino Moreno – lead vocals Stephen Carpenter – guitar Chi Cheng – bass, backing vocals Abe Cunningham – drums Frank Delgado – audio effects Matt Bayles – assistant to Terry Date Max Cavalera – additional vocals and guitar Annalynn Cunningham – additional vocals Terry Date – production, recording Steve Durkee – assistant to Ulrich Wild Ted Jensen – mastering Rick Kosick – photography Kevin Reagan – art direction and design Ulrich Wild – mixing, digital editing "My Own Summer" appeared on The Matrix: Music from the Motion Picture, released on March 30, 1999. A poster of the album art was visible in the 1999 film Universal Soldier: The Return. "Headup" was used in its entirety in the 2001 film Manic. "Be Quiet and Drive" was featured on the soundtracks of two extreme sports computer games: Dave Mirra Freestyle BMX and Tony Hawk: Shred. English alternative rock band Muse have cited Deftones as a root influence and sometimes use the riff to "Headup" as an outro to their song "New Born" during live performa
Automatic transmission fluid
Automatic transmission fluid known as transmission fluid or tranny fluid, is the fluid used in vehicles with self-shifting or automatic transmissions. It is coloured red or green to distinguish it from motor oil and other fluids in the vehicle; the fluid is optimized for the special requirements of a transmission, such as valve operation, brake band friction, the torque converter, as well as gear lubrication. ATF is used as a hydraulic fluid in some power-assisted steering systems, as a lubricant in some 4WD transfer cases, in some modern manual transmissions. Modern ATF consists of a base oil plus an additive package containing a wide variety of chemical compounds intended to provide the required properties of a particular ATF specification. Most ATFs contain some combination of additives that improve lubricating qualities, such as anti-wear additives and corrosion inhibitors, detergents and surfactants. All ATFs contain friction modifiers, except for those ATFs specified for some Ford transmissions and the John Deere J-21A specification.
According to the same oil distributor, the M2C-33 G specification requires fluids which provide improved shear resistance and oxidation protection, better low-temperature fluidity, better EP properties and additional seal tests over and above M2C-33 F quality fluids. There are many specifications for ATF, such as the General Motors DEXRON and the Ford MERCON series, the vehicle manufacturer will identify the ATF specification appropriate for each vehicle; the vehicle's owner's manual will list the ATF specification that are recommended by the manufacturer. Automatic transmission fluids have many performance-enhancing chemicals added to the fluid to meet the demands of each transmission; some ATF specifications are open to competing brands, such as the common DEXRON specification, where different manufacturers use different chemicals to meet the same performance specification. These products are sold under license from the OEM responsible for establishing the specification; some vehicle manufacturers will require "genuine" or Original Equipment Manufacturer ATF.
Most ATF formulations are open 3rd party licensing, certification by the automobile manufacturer. Each manufacturer has specific ATF requirements. Incorrect transmission fluid may result in severe damage. DEXRON ULV - 2017 and above GM 10L90 10-Speed automatic transmissions MERCON ULV - 2017 and above Ford 10R80 10-Speed automatic transmissions DEXRON HP - 2013 and above GM 8L90 8-Speed RWD automatic transmissions Mopar ATF+4 - Most Dodge, Jeep and Plymouth replaces ATF+3, ATF+2, ATF+ DEXRON III/MERCON - Most pre-2006 GM and Ford, Lincoln, pre-2004 Toyota products, many Asian vehicles, some Asian power steering fluid applications, some Ford/Mazda manual transmissions, it is less expensive than DEXRON VI/MERCON V. DEXRON VI - Most after 2006 GM, some Ford applications, replaces DEXRON III in GM automatic transmissions. MERCON V - Most Ford, Lincoln, Mazda B-Series, 2001-08 Mazda Tribute, Tribute Hybrid. MERCON LV - Some Ford, 2009-11 Mazda Tribute, Mazda in Europe or Asia. Mercon SP - For the Ford 6R transmission Toyota ATF Type T-IV - Some older Toyota, Lexus including "Gen 1" hybrid CVT), some Mazda.
Replaces Type T, Type T-II. Toyota ATF WS - Most new models introduced with model year 2004 Toyota and Lexus including "Gen 2" and hybrid CVT, it is not applicable in applications requiring ATF Type T-IV. DW-1 - All Honda and Acura, replaces Z1 specification fluid Diamond SP-III - Older Mitsubishi Motors. Diamond SP-IV - All Hyundai and Kia 6-speed automatic transmission. DiaQueen ATF-J3 - Most Mitsubishi Motors 6-speed automatic transmissions. Nissan Matic fluids - For Nissan and Infiniti vehicles: Matic D is for 3- and 4-speed transmissions, Matic K is for 6-speed front-wheel-drive transmissions, Matic J is for 5-speed rear-wheel-drive transmissions, Matic-S fluid supersedes Matic-J fluid. ATF-HP - For 2005 and Subaru vehicles, except CVT transmissions. 2004 and earlier Subaru vehicles use DEXRON III. Mazda M5 fluid - For the Mazda FN4A-EL/Ford 4F27E and Mazda FS5A-EL/Ford FNR5. Sold as Ford FNR5 fluid. Genuine Mazda M5 is made by Idemitsu Kosan, available as Idemitsu Type-M; this fluid is NOT MERCON V.
Mazda FZ fluid - For the SKYACTIV-Drive. Color of this fluid is blue. Synthetic ATF is available in modern OEM and aftermarket brands, offering better performance and service life for certain applications; the use of a lint-free white rag to wipe the dipstick on automatic transmissions is advised so that the color of the fluid can be checked. Dark brown or black ATF can be an indicator of a transmission problem, vehicle abuse, or fluid that has far exceeded its useful life. Over-used ATF has reduced lubrication properties and abrasive friction materials
American Type Founders
American Type Founders was a business trust created in 1892 by the merger of 23 type foundries, representing about 85% of all type manufactured in the United States. The new company, consisting of a consolidation of firms from throughout the United States, was incorporated in New Jersey. ATF was the dominant American manufacturer of metal type from its creation in 1892 until at least the 1940s. Many fonts developed by American Type Founders in its period of dominance, including News Gothic, Century Schoolbook, Franklin Gothic and Bank Gothic, are still in everyday use. By the beginning of the final decade of the nineteenth century, type founding was in a state of crisis. With the introduction of the Linotype, which could cast whole lines of body type in-house, demand for hand-set type was down. Throughout the late 1880s prices had been maintained by an informal cartel of foundries, but as the number of foundries increased, with the invention of hot metal type, prices dropped dramatically. Additionally, type at this time was not standardized, either to body size or to base line, printers resented the incompatibility of types from different foundries.
Leaders in the industry, notably Joseph W. Phinney of the Dickinson Type Foundry in Boston, set up a committee to address these problems recommending consolidation. By the late 1880s, there were some 34 foundries in the United States. In 1892, 23 foundries were brought together to form the American Type Founders Company. Key to the success of this merger was the inclusion of MacKellar, Smiths, & Jordan Co. of Philadelphia, with assets of over $6 million, the Cincinnati Type Foundry of Henry Barth, which brought with it the patents to his Barth Typecaster, Benton, Waldo Foundry of Milwaukee, which included Linn Boyd Benton and his all-important Benton Pantograph which engraved type matrices directly instead of using punches and allowed the optical scaling of type. With the inclusion of the Barth Caster and the Benton Pantograph, ATF became the largest and the most technologically advanced foundry in the world. Conditions for the first few years were chaotic: while 12 foundries ceased separate operations member foundries continued to operate as if they were independent firms.
Real consolidation did not begin until 1894, when Robert Wickham Nelson, principal owner of the Throne Typesetting Machine Company and a new stockholder in ATF, became general manager. He began to liquidate unprofitable ventures, eliminate duplications, force the various branches to do business under the ATF name instead of retaining their former ones. Linn Boyd Benton's son, Morris Fuller Benton, was given the job of purging obsolete and duplicated type faces from the catalogs, standardizing the point size and base-line of the types made. Nelson, realizing that display and advertising type would be the mainstay of the foundry type business began an extensive advertising campaign and commissioned the production of new type designs. Joseph W. Phinney was put in charge of the design department and he supervised the introduction of Cushing, Howland and the William Morris inspired Satanick and Jenson Oldstyle, the last of these being hugely successful. Young Benton was commissioned to finish Lewis Buddy's Elbert Hubbard inspired Roycroft, another successful introduction.
While Phinney used free-lance designers, like Will Bradley, T. M. Cleland, Walter Dorwin Teague, Frederic Goudy, Oz Cooper, the bulk of ATF's catalog through the 1930s was the creation of Morris Fuller Benton. Though he never became well known within the printing industry, Benton enjoyed a record of successful type introductions unparalleled by anyone, much to the profit of ATF. Benton, though he did not invent either idea, was the most successful designer of revivals of historical type designs and he perfected the creation of "type families" where a basic face would be offered in italic, bold and condensed variations. Another key player at ATF at this time was the advertising manager Henry Lewis Bullen, who created a typographic library of historical examples for designers to draw upon; this collection was turned over to Columbia University's Rare Book and Manuscript Library in 1936. The books form the core of the book arts collection at Columbia. There is an archive of ATF materials in Columbia's special collections.
In 1901, Nelson consolidated casting operations in a purpose-built factory in Jersey City and the branches remained only as distribution centers. By the 1920s, ATF had offices in 27 American cities and Vancouver, British Columbia, where it sold not only type, but pressroom supplies and printing presses as well, it printed large specimen books, with many examples of good layout as examples for the advertising market. In 1923, at a cost of $300,000, ATF produced its largest and most superlative type catalog. Sixty thousand of these opulent books, printed extensively in color, were distributed, to this day they are considered to be masterpieces of the art of letterpress printing; the first paragraph of its preface boasted: The printing of 1923 is superior to that of 1900. It has better style, more attractiveness and greater power and dignity... This great improvement has not come to pass without direction. There has been, in fact deliberate direction. There has been constant and forward thinking on behalf of the printing industry by the American Type Founders Company, which has a well defined policy with regard to the typ
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel, or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance; the most used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons; because the exact composition of jet fuel varies based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound. Furthermore, the range of molecular mass between hydrocarbons is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16. Jet fuels are sometimes classified as naphtha-type.
Kerosene-type fuels include Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5 and JP-8. Naphtha-type jet fuels, sometimes referred to as "wide-cut" jet fuel, include Jet B and JP-4. Fuel for piston-engine powered aircraft has a high volatility to improve its carburetion characteristics and high autoignition temperature to prevent preignition in high compression aircraft engines. Turbine engines can operate with a wide range of fuels because fuel is injected into the hot combustion chamber. Jet and gas turbine aircraft engines use lower cost fuels with higher flash points, which are less flammable and therefore safer to transport and handle; the first axial compressor jet engine in widespread production and combat service, the Junkers Jumo 004 used on the Messerschmitt Me 262A fighter and the Arado Ar 234B jet recon-bomber, burned either a special synthetic "J2" fuel or diesel fuel. Gasoline was a third option but unattractive due to high fuel consumption. Other fuels used were kerosene and gasoline mixtures. Most jet fuels in use since the end of World War II are kerosene-based.
Both British and American standards for jet fuels were first established at the end of World War II. British standards derived from standards for kerosene use for lamps—known as paraffin in the UK—whereas American standards derived from aviation gasoline practices. Over the subsequent years, details of specifications were adjusted, such as minimum freezing point, to balance performance requirements and availability of fuels. Low temperature freezing points reduce the availability of fuel. Higher flash point products required for use on aircraft carriers are more expensive to produce. In the United States, ASTM International produces standards for civilian fuel types, the U. S. Department of Defense produces standards for military use; the British Ministry of Defence establishes standards for both military jet fuels. For reasons of inter-operational ability and United States military standards are harmonized to a degree. In Russia and former Soviet Union countries, grades of jet fuels are covered by the State Standard number, or a Technical Condition number, with the principal grade available in Russia and members of the CIS being TS-1.
Jet A specification fuel has been used in the United States since the 1950s and is not available outside the United States and a few Canadian airports such as Toronto and Vancouver, whereas Jet A-1 is the standard specification fuel used in the rest of the world other than the former Soviet states where TS-1 is the most common standard. Both Jet A and Jet A-1 have a flash point higher than 38 °C, with an autoignition temperature of 210 °C; the primary difference is the lower freezing point of A-1: Jet A's is −40 °C Jet A-1's is −47 °C The other difference is the mandatory addition of an anti-static additive to Jet A-1. Jet A trucks, storage tanks, plumbing that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with "Jet A" in white printed on it, adjacent to another black stripe. Jet A-1 fuel must meet: DEF STAN 91-91, ASTM specification D1655, IATA Guidance Material, NATO Code F-35. Jet A fuel must reach ASTM specification D1655 Typical physical properties for Jet A / Jet A-1 Jet B is a fuel in the naphtha-kerosene region, used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
However, Jet B's lighter composition makes it more dangerous to handle. For this reason, it is used, except in cold climates. A blend of 30% kerosene and 70% gasoline, it is known as wide-cut fuel, it has a low freezing point of −60 °C, a low flash point as well. It is used in some military aircraft, it is used in Northern Canada and sometimes Russia, because of its low freezing point. The DEF STAN 91-91 and ASTM D1655 specifications allow for certain additives to be added to jet fuel, including: Antioxidants to prevent gumming based on alkylated phenols, e.g. AO-30, AO-31, or AO-37. Biocides are to remediate microbial (i.e. bacterial a