Kobe is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture. It is located on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, on the north shore of Osaka Bay and about 30 km west of Osaka. With a population around 1.5 million, the city is part of the Keihanshin metropolitan area along with Osaka and Kyoto. The earliest written records regarding the region come from the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. For most of its history, the area was never a single political entity during the Tokugawa period, when the port was controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate. Kobe did not exist in its current form until its founding in 1889, its name comes from kanbe. Kobe became one of Japan's designated cities in 1956. Kobe was one of the cities to open for trade with the West following the 1853 end of the policy of seclusion and has since been known as a cosmopolitan and nuclear-free zone port city. While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe's prominence as a port city, it remains Japan's fourth-busiest container port.
Companies headquartered in Kobe include ASICS, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kobe Steel, as well as over 100 international corporations with Asian or Japanese headquarters in the city, such as Eli Lilly and Company, Procter & Gamble, Boehringer Ingelheim, Nestlé. The city is the point of origin and namesake of Kobe beef, as well as the site of one of Japan's most famous hot spring resorts, Arima Onsen. Media related to History of Kobe at Wikimedia Commons Tools found in western Kobe demonstrate the area was populated at least from the Jōmon period; the natural geography of the area of Wada Cape in Hyōgo-ku, led to the development of a port, which would remain the economic center of the city. Some of the earliest written documents mentioning the region include the Nihon Shoki, which describes the founding of the Ikuta Shrine by Empress Jingū in AD 201. During the Nara and Heian periods, the port was known by the name Ōwada Anchorage and was one of the ports from which imperial embassies to China were dispatched.
The city was the capital of Japan in 1180, when Taira no Kiyomori moved his grandson Emperor Antoku to Fukuhara in present-day Hyōgo-ku. The Emperor returned to Kyoto after about five months. Shortly thereafter in 1184, the Taira fortress in Hyōgo-ku and the nearby Ikuta Shrine became the sites of the Genpei War battle of Ichi-no-Tani between the Taira and Minamoto clans; the Minamoto prevailed. As the port grew during the Kamakura period, it became an important hub for trade with China and other countries. In the 13th century, the city came to be known by the name Hyōgo Port. During this time, Hyōgo Port, along with northern Osaka, composed the province of Settsu. During the Edo period, the eastern parts of present-day Kobe came under the jurisdiction of the Amagasaki Domain and the western parts under that of the Akashi Domain, while the center was controlled directly by the Tokugawa shogunate, it was not until the abolition of the han system in 1871 and the establishment of the current prefecture system that the area became politically distinct.
Hyōgo Port was opened to foreign trade by the Shogunal government at the same time as Osaka on January 1, 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. The region has since been identified with the West and many foreign residences from the period remain in Kobe's Kitano area. Kobe, as it is known today, was founded on April 1, 1889, was designated on September 1, 1956 by government ordinance; the history of the city is tied to that of the Ikuta Shrine, the name "Kobe" derives from kamube, an archaic name for those who supported the shrine. During World War II, Kobe was bombed in the Doolittle Raid on April 18, 1942, along with Tokyo and a few other cities, it was bombed again with incendiary bombs by B-29 bombers on March 17, 1945, causing the death of 8,841 residents and destroying 21% of Kobe's urban area. This incident inspired the well-known Studio Ghibli film Grave of the Fireflies and the book by Akiyuki Nosaka on which the film was based. Following continuous pressure from citizens, on March 18, 1975, the Kobe City Council passed an ordinance banning vessels carrying nuclear weapons from Kobe Port.
This prevented any U. S. warships from entering the port, policy being not to disclose whether any warship is carrying nuclear weapons. This nonproliferation policy has been termed the "Kobe formula". On January 17, 1995, a magnitude 6.9 earthquake occurred at 5:46 am JST near the city. About 6,434 people in the city were killed, 212,443 were made homeless, large parts of the port facilities and other parts of the city were destroyed; the earthquake destroyed portions of the Hanshin Expressway, an elevated freeway that toppled over. In Japan, the earthquake is known as the Great Hanshin earthquake. To commemorate Kobe's recovery from the 1995 quake, the city holds an event every December called the Luminarie, where the city center is decorated with illuminated metal archways; the Port of Kobe was Japan's busiest port and one of Asia's top ports until the Great Hanshin earthquake. Kobe has since dropped to fourth in 49th-busiest container port worldwide. Wedged between the coast and the mountains, the city of Kobe is narrow.
To the east is the city of Ashiya, while the city of Akashi lies to its west. Other adjacent cities include Takarazuka and Nishinomiya to the
In Japan, a junior idol, alternatively chidol or low teen idol, is defined as young child pursuing a career as a photographic model. This means gravure, or "cheesecake" clothed shots. Child actors, J-pop singers can be considered junior idols and are featured in photobooks and image DVDs. Female fashion models begin their careers at age 13–15, but are not considered junior idols. Child models, whose careers are over by their early young years, are not considered junior idols There exists no clear set of guidelines regarding the age at which an individual becomes a junior idol: Yumi Adachi, for instance, started her modeling career at age two and many other idols have starred in image DVDs at the ages of three and five; the majority of junior idols belong to specialized talent agencies, some of which offer acting and voice training and are geared towards the production of television commercials and related materials. Though sources indicate revenue is low for photographic models, a number of idols see this activity as a gateway to more mainstream media roles.
These transitions are indeed frequent, one example being the case of Saaya Irie, cast into the live action adaptation of the popular anime series Hell Girl and several other television programs. Conversely, some aspiring idols find themselves pursuing less and less mainstream work; the trend of junior idols dates back to the mid-1990s, a period marked by significant increase in the number of child models and works involving individuals in that age range. The term chidol, a neologism of the words "child" and "idol", was coined by columnist Akio Nakamori to describe this new phenomena; this term fell out of use and was replaced by "Junior Idol". Compared to chidol, the term "junior idol" plays down the association with age and lends some credibility to the industry associating it with the legitimate mainstream idol culture in Japan. Content is available in many formats physical goods such as bond photobooks, CDs and DVDs, but digital content in the form of Portable Document Format books, JPEG photo sets, high resolution movie clips, etc.
To promote a particular idol, or to celebrate the release of a specific title, certain stores hold special events where fans get to meet the idols, shake hands with them, obtain autographs or take photographs, either polaroids or pictures taken with the customers' own cameras, in accordance with the amount of money spent on related goods. Concerning the contents of the titles put on sale, these include, in general terms, pictures or footage of the idols trying out a variety of outfits, such as school uniforms, bathing suits, gym clothes, yukata or maid and anime-inspired costumes; some services providers, such as Imouto Club —a subscription-based website—also feature short radio and movie dramas, available for download and purchase on DVD. The junior idol industry is a contentious one in Japan. Many Japanese criticise such depictions including some Japanese politicians. Despite such disapproval, stores selling junior idol-related materials proliferate in prominent areas such as Oimoya, an area located in Japan's well-known Akihabara shopping district.
Internationally, the junior idol trend has been harshly criticised. In 2008, the United Nations Children's Fund launched a Say'NO' to Child Pornography campaign in Japan; as part of the campaign, four major internet portal site providers in Japan removed junior idol-related content from their services. The campaign garnered over 100,000 signatures in a petition to the Japanese government to amend its child pornography laws to criminalise procession of child pornography, including junior idol materials. Junior idol materials stand on ambiguous ground in Japan. Regulation of such materials comes under the Japanese Anti-child pornography law; the Japanese Anti-child prostitution and pornography law was enacted in November 1999—and revised in 2004 to criminalize distribution of child pornography over the Internet—defines child pornography as the depiction "in a way that can be recognized visually, such a pose of a child relating to sexual intercourse or an act similar to sexual intercourse with or by the child", of "a pose of a child relating to the act of touching genital organs, etc." or the depiction of "a pose of a child, naked or in order to arouse or stimulate the viewer's sexual desire."Despite inherent difficulties in enforcing a ban on such materials, on August 25, 2007 the Japanese branch of Amazon.com removed over 600 junior idol titles on grounds the likelihood these were produced in violation of the Japanese anti-child prostitution and pornography law was high.
This incident was followed by the arrest—on October 16—of 34-year-old Jisei Arigane, chief producer of Shinkosha and three associates over the production of an "obscene" DVD shot earlier in 2007 in the Indonesian island of Bali, starring a girl, seventeen at the time. The prolonged filming of the girl's genitalia was in violation of Japanese law. Following the incident, the release date of several photobooks and DVDs slated for publication in November 2007 was postponed and idol events cancell
A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.
However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950s were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.
It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.
With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies b
An idol is a young starlet manufactured and marketed for image and personality in Japanese pop culture. In entertainment, idols are singers, but they are trained in a wide range of roles, such as acting and appearing in variety shows. An idol's main objective is to offer an escapism from daily life. Talent agencies commercialize idols by recruiting boys and girls with little or no prior experience in the entertainment industry as aspiring starlets with the intent of creating a passionate following. Many fans of idols see them as siblings or girl/boy next door types and empathize with the idols and enthusiastically follow their growth from ordinary, inexperienced amateurs to famous, experienced artists; the term "idol" is used to describe manufactured starlets and is used to refer to singers, but it can be used to refer colloquially to young celebrities in general. Agencies commercialize idols by recruiting pre-teens and teenagers with little or no prior experience in the entertainment industry and market them aspiring starlets with the intent to cultivate a dedicated fan following.
Idols are predominantly singers, but they are trained in other skill sets in entertainment, such as acting and modeling. Some talent agencies in Japan do not offer rigorous training, idols debut with the impression that they will gain more experience during their career, with fans brought into the narrative of supporting them throughout their journey. Many idol singers find success as groups rather than individually. Most idol singers work across genres of Japanese pop music in the genre, most popular at the moment, but they have their own subculture of music; because of this, idols are not considered "serious" musicians or actors, young stars interested in directly pursuing those entertainment fields reject the idol label in their desire to be seen as professionals. Many idols are expected to change career paths with most women changing careers at age 25 and men at ages 30–45. Unlike television personalities, idols are marketed for their image and personalities. An idol's main objective is to "sell dreams", offer an escapism from daily life.
As such, they are seen as role models to the public, both their personal lives and image are controlled by their talent agencies. Common restrictions include not being allowed to smoke or drink in public as well as pursue romantic relationships. Most idols spend time isolated from family and friends while enduring busy work schedules, with some agencies withholding job assignments from their talents and notifying them at the last minute to prevent them from taking time off. Subcategories of idols include gravure idols, female models in "cheesecake" photographs intended for the male audience. In November 1964, the 1963 French film Cherchez l'idole was released in Japan under the title Aidoru o Sagase. Many Japanese audiences took interest in Sylvie Vartan, whose song "La plus belle pour aller danser" from the film sold more than a million copies in Japan. Vartan was heralded for her youthful, adorable looks and musical talent, leading the Japanese entertainment industry to assign the word "idol" to singers who shared a similar aesthetic.
Television impacted the popularity of the idol phenomenon, as beginning in the 1970s, many idols were recruited through audition programs. Momoe Yamaguchi, Junko Sakurada, Saori Minami, Mari Amachi, some of the idols recruited through television, were iconic figures of this era, along with groups such as Candies and Pink Lady. Music was produced by a shared climate of songwriters and art directors seeking a step towards a depoliticized youth culture. Idols grew in popularity over the 1970s, as they offered audiences escapism from political violence and radical student movements. In the 1970s, idols had an aura of mystique, their public and "private" lives were orchestrated—they always appeared perfect in all situations and seemed to enjoy a lavish lifestyle that most Japanese could only dream about. In reality, they were placed under continuous surveillance by their promoters and were unable to enjoy the private lives invented for them, their pay is considered to have been low. They were overworked and if their songs sold well most of the money went to the musicians and writers.
Fans had little opportunity to see them beyond a few minutes on TV or radio and it was difficult to share their interests. Magazines were the best source for information and many idols had an official fan club that periodically mailed what little information would be released; the rapid growth of idols appearing in the pop music scene led the 1980s to be known as the "Golden Age of Idols", defined by Seiko Matsuda, Akina Nakamori, Kyoko Koizumi, Onyanko Club. Popularized through Onyanko Club, the visual component became important to the overall enjoyment of idol music, leading to the music to become associated with television. Dentsu created the "CM idol" business model, where idols were able to gain fame by singing and appearing in commercials. In a single year, as many as 40 or 50 new idols could appear, only to disappear from the public spotlight shortly afterwards. At the same time, male idols began appearing, but soon became unpopular after 1985 after the public became disillusioned with the i
Akari Asahina is a Japanese actress. In 2009, Asahina played Elina Kanzaki in the second season of the TV Tokyo television drama Jyouou Virgin, an adaptation of the manga Jōō. Asahina co-hosted the TV Saitama variety show Beach 9 from January 2009 to December 2010. In 2011, she appeared in the Android application Delusion Phone App. In 2012, Asahina was featured in the application Akari Asahina sexy AV alarm 2; that same year, she starred in the sixth episode of the TV Asahi series Friday Night Drama. Asahina was a member of the idol group "BRW 108". Official website
Time Out (magazine)
Time Out is a global magazine published by Time Out Group. Time Out started its publication in 1968 and has expanded its editorial recommendations to 315 cities in 58 countries worldwide. In 2012, the magazine became a free publication with a weekly readership of over 307,000. Time Out's global market presence includes partnerships with Nokia and mobile apps for iOS and Android operating systems, it was the recipient of the International Consumer Magazine of the Year award in both 2010 and 2011 and the renamed International Consumer Media Brand of the Year in 2013 and 2014. Time Out was first published in 1968 as a London listings magazine by Tony Elliott, who used birthday money to produce a one-sheet pamphlet. With Bob Harris as co-editor; the first product was titled "Where It's At", before being inspired by Dave Brubeck's album Time Out. Time Out began as an alternative magazine alongside other members of the underground press in the UK, but by 1980 it had abandoned its original collective decision-making structure and its commitment to equal pay for all its workers, leading to a strike and the foundation of a competing magazine, City Limits, by former staffers.
By now its former radicalism has all but vanished. As one example of its early editorial stance, in 1976 London's Time Out published the names of 60 purported CIA agents stationed in England. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000 and would evolve to a weekly circulation of 110,000 as it shed its radical roots; the flavour of the magazine was wholly the responsibility of its designer, Pearce Marchbank. Marchbank was invited by Tony Elliott to join the embryonic Time Out in 1971. Turning it into a weekly, he produced its classic logo, established its strong identity and its editorial structure—all still used worldwide to this day, he conceived and designed the first of the Time Out guide books.... He continued to design for Time Out for many years; each week, his witty Time Out covers became an essential part of London life. Elliott launched Time Out New York, his North American magazine debut, in 1995; the magazine procured young and upcoming talent to provide cultural reviews for young New Yorkers at the time.
The success of TONY led to the introduction of Time Out New York Kids, a quarterly magazine aimed at families. The expansion continued with Elliott licensing the Time Out brand worldwide spreading the magazine to 40 cities including Istanbul, Beijing, Hong Kong and Lisbon. Additional Time Out products included travel magazines, city guides, books. In 2010, Time Out became the official publisher of travel guides and tourist books for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Time Out's need to expand to digital platforms led to Elliott, sole owner of the group until November 2010, to sell half of Time Out London and 66 percent of TONY to private equity group Oakley Capital, valuing the company at £20million; the group, founded by Peter Dubens, was owned by Tony Elliott and Oakley Capital until 2016, the agreement provided capital for investment to expand the brand. Time Out has subsequently launched websites for an additional 33 cities including Delhi, Washington D. C. Boston and Bristol; when it was listed on London's AIM stock exchange.
In June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an IPO and is listed on London's AIM stock exchange trading under the ticker symbol'TMO'. The London edition of Time Out became a free magazine in September 2012. Time Out's London magazine was hand distributed at central London stations, received its first official ABC Certificate for October 2012 showing distribution of over 305,000 copies per week, the largest distribution in the history of the brand; this strategy increased revenue by 80 percent with continued upsurge. Time Out has invited a number of guest columnists to write for the magazine; the columnist as of 2014 was Giles Coren. In April 2015, Time Out switched its New York magazine to the free distribution model to increase the reader base and grow brand awareness; this transition doubled circulation by increasing its Web audience, estimated around 3.5 million unique visitors a month. Time Out increased its weekly magazine circulation to over 305,000 copies complementing millions of digital users of Time Out New York.
Time Out New York is now available for free every other Wednesday in vending boxes and newsstands across New York City. In addition to magazines and travel books and websites, Time Out launched Time Out Market, a food and cultural market experience based wholly on editorial creation, starting with the Time Out Market Lisboa in Lisbon, Portugal. New Time Out Markets are set to open in Miami, New York, Boston and Montreal in 2019 and in London-Waterloo and Prague in 2021 – all featuring the cities’ best and most celebrated chefs, restaurateurs and cultural experiences. Time Out Global Homepage "Time Out to cut about 40 staff in UK and US" Time Out Time Out Dubai Time Out Time Out Abu Dhabi Time Out Time Out Bahrain Time Out Time Out Doha
Rin Aoki born February 28, 1985 is a Japanese gravure model, AV idol and erotic dancer. She began as a gravure idol and moved to hardcore video work where she became an award-winning AV idol. Aoki was born in Yamagata Prefecture on February 28, 1985, she was first scouted in Harajuku as a gravure model in 2002 at the age of 17. Her first gravure video, appeared in 2003 and she soon became a popular gravure idol. After two years as a gravure model, Aoki decided to enter the adult video scene and signed with the major Japanese AV company S1 No. 1 Style, one of the Hokuto Corporation group of companies. It is reported that her contract guaranteed her an estimated 13,000,000 yen per movie, a sum above the average for top AV idols, her first AV production with S1, K-cup Active Idol Risky Mosaic, appeared in May 2006 and was directed by Hideto Aki who directed most of her subsequent videos with S1. She says she was comfortable with her first AV work but was embarrassed about showing her nipples because they were small and pale colored.
After making ten original videos with S1 in a year, she left the studio along with Maria Ozawa and other fellow S1 actresses to join the startup company DAS. In contrast to S1 which specializes in the "softer" type of pornography with straightforward boy-girl sex scenes, DAS videos ventured into more extreme areas such as simulated rape and watersports. Aoki starred in the first video of the DAS series DASD-001, 20 Shots Creampie!, released on April 25, 2007. She has made several more movies for DAS including her first inter-racial role in the DAS "Black Gang Rape" series. By August 2008, Aoki was with a new start-up studio, OPPAI, which publicized her first video for them, 108 cm Kcup Rin, with a signing and modeling event. Although continuing to make movies for OPPAI, she has appeared in videos for Attackers and yet another new studio, Ranmaru. Aoki is one of the latest examples of the popular genre of "Big-Bust" models in the Japanese AV industry going back to Kimiko Matsuzaka; as a measure of her popularity in Japan, the listing of the top 100 actresses by sales from the DMM website shows Aoki ranked #3 in 2006 and #9 in 2007.
Aoki had a small preview appearance in the S1 compilation video Hyper – Barely There Mosaic with AV idols Sora Aoi, Yua Aida, Yuma Asami, Maria Ozawa and Honoka which won the 2006 AV Open competition among Japanese porn studios. At the 7th annual Takeshi Kitano Entertainment Awards for 2006 sponsored by the Japanese tabloid newspaper Tokyo Sports, Aoki was honored with the Star AV Actress Award. Rin's I Land — — March 2003 Eat Me — — June 2005 Pineapple — — May 2006 "S1 Profile & Filmography". Www.s1s1s1.com. Retrieved 2008-09-25. "Attackers Profile & Filmography". Www.attackers.net. Retrieved 2008-09-29. "Moodyz Profile & Filmography". Www.moodyz.com. Retrieved 2008-09-29