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Rhodoprasina callantha

Rhodoprasina callantha, the small olive hawkmoth, is a species of moth of the family Sphingidae. It is found from north-eastern India across south-western China and northern Thailand to northern Vietnam; the wingspan is 90–120 mm. It is a sexually dimorphic species, with females being larger than males. Adults have pointed, olive-green or tawny-olive forewings crossed by diagonal dark lines and diffuse white bands; the hindwing is carmine above with the anal margins olive-green. The body is darker below; the antennae are pink and the tibiae and tarsi are blackish and grey. Adults are on wing from January to April and again from August to November in Thailand; the larvae have been recorded feeding on Quercus species, including Quercus fenestrata in India

German submarine U-553

German submarine U-553 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-553 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-553 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun.

The boat had a complement of between sixty. Her keel was laid down 21 November 1939, by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg as yard number 529, she was launched on 7 November 1940 and commissioned on 23 December, with Kapitänleutnant Karl Thurmann in command. He was captain for her entire career, her service began with training under the 7th U-boat Flotilla and moved on to operations on 1 April 1941. She transferred to the 3rd flotilla on 1 December 1942, she was a member of ten wolfpacks. She moved from Kiel in Germany to Bergen in Norway in April 1941; the boat departed Bergen on 19 April 1941 and headed for the Atlantic via the gap between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands. She arrived at her new base of St. Nazaire in occupied France on 2 May 1941 after suffering serious engine trouble. Departing St. Nazaire on 7 June, she achieved success north of the Azores, by sinking the Susan Maersk and the Ranella both on 12 June 1941, her next three sorties met with mixed fortune. U-553's next foray saw her attack merchantmen such as the Silvercedar, HMS Gladiolus.

The boat's fifth patrol took her toward the eastern Canadian/US coast where she succeeded in damaging the Diala on 15 January 1942 and sinking the Innerøy on 22 January. The boat's sixth patrol took her from St. Nazaire as far north as the Faeroe Islands, it was unsuccessful. Outing number seven saw the submarine penetrate the Gulf of St. Lawrence; the Mattawin was sent to the bottom of the Atlantic. The boat's eighth patrol began with her departure from St. Nazaire on 19 July and to which she returned on 17 September after 61 days at sea, her longest. In that time, she damaged the Belgian Soldier off Newfoundland and attacked three other ships near Cuba. One of which, the Empire Bede, was sunk by gunfire from HMS Pimpernel, her last full patrol commenced on 23 November 1942. She returned to France, her tenth and final sortie began with her departure from La Pallice on 16 January 1943. On the 20th, she sent a radio message: "Sehrohr unklar", was never heard from again, she had suffered no casualties to her crew.

She most sank because of technical problems and was declared missing on 28 January 1943. U-553 took part in ten wolfpacks, namely. West Grönland Kurfürst Seewolf Zieten Westwall York Pirat Draufgänger Landsknecht Neal Stephenson's novel Cryptonomicon includes a fictitious U-553 which runs aground about ten miles north of Qwghlm, a fictional pair of islands, Inner Qwghlm and Outer Qwghlm, off the northwestern coast of Great Britain. Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-553". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 28 December 2014

Crypto-anarchism

Crypto-anarchism is a form of anarchy accomplished through computer technology. Crypto-anarchists employ cryptographic software for confidentiality and security while sending and receiving information over computer networks, in an effort to protect their privacy, their political freedom, their economic freedom. By using cryptographic software, the association between the identity of a certain user or organization and the pseudonym they use is made difficult to find, unless the user reveals the association, it is difficult to say which country's laws will be ignored, as the location of a certain participant is unknown. However, participants may in theory voluntarily create new laws using smart contracts or, if the user is pseudonymous, depend on online reputation. In his 1988 "Crypto Anarchist Manifesto", Timothy C. May introduced the basic principles of crypto-anarchism, encrypted exchanges ensuring total anonymity, total freedom of speech, total freedom to trade – with foreseeable hostility coming from States.

"Crypto-" comes from the Ancient Greek κρυπτός kruptós, meaning "hidden" or "secret". Crypto-anarchism refers to anarchist politics founded on cryptographic methods, as well as a form of anarchism that operates in secret. One motive of crypto-anarchists is to defend against surveillance of computer networks communication. Crypto-anarchists try to protect against government mass surveillance, such as PRISM, telecommunications data retention, the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, Room 641A, the FRA and so on. Crypto-anarchists consider the development and use of cryptography to be the main defense against such problems, as opposed to political action. A second concern is evasion of censorship Internet censorship, on the grounds of freedom of expression; the programs used by crypto-anarchists make it possible to both publish and read information off the internet or other computer networks anonymously. For example, Tor, I2P, Freenet and many similar networks allow for anonymous "hidden" webpages accessible only by users of these programs, while projects like Bitmessage allow for anonymous messaging system intended to be a substitute for email.

This helps whistleblowers and political opposition in oppressive nations to spread their information. A third reason is to build and participate in counter economics, which includes development of viable alternatives to banking systems, development of alternative financial systems which provide the user with options for greater privacy or anonymity. Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and services like Silk Road and Black Market Reloaded made it possible to trade goods and services with little interference from the law; these are examples of centralized, thus vulnerable, marketplaces, or tools. Web wallets employed by Bitcoin users are centralized and vulnerable. Decentralized and distributed marketplaces and currency exchanges are more difficult to target by law enforcement agencies and may provide more security to its end-users. A decentralized and distributed marketplace in development is OpenBazaar; the technical challenge in developing and maintaining these cryptographic systems is tremendous, which causes some programmers to be interested in joining such projects.

Crypto-anarchists argue that without encryption abilities, personal information, private life would be damaged. They argue, they argue. It is illegal to use it in some countries, export laws are restrictive in others. Citizens in the United Kingdom must, upon request, give keys for decryption of personal systems to authorities. Failing to do this can result in imprisonment for up to two years, without evidence of other criminal activity; this legislative key-surrender tactic can be circumvented using automatic rekeying of secure channels through rapid generation of new, unrelated public and private keys at short intervals. Following rekeying, the old keys can be deleted, rendering used keys inaccessible to the end-user, thus removing the user's ability to disclose the old key if they are willing to do so. Technologies enabling this sort of rekeyed encryption include public-key cryptography, hardware PRNGs, perfect forward secrecy, opportunistic encryption. Many apps in use today on mobile devices around the world employ such encryption.

The only ways to stop this sort of cryptography is to ban it or otherwise raise barriers to its practical use. Such barriers represent a difficulty and risk to the users of such cryptographic technology which would limit and prevent its widespread adoption, it is the threat of prosecution which limits the use and proliferation of a technology more so than the ease-of-use of a technology in and of itself. Crypto-anarchism is an ideology that seeks to create and deploy information infrastructure that, by design, is unable to comply with authoritarian requests to break the participating individuals' secrecy of correspondence. Crypto-anarchism relies on plausible deniability to avoid censorship. Crypto-anarchists create this deniability by sending encrypted messages to interlinked proxies in computer networks. A payload of routing information is bundled with the message; each node can only decrypt its own part of the message, only obtain the information

Church of St Giles, Hawkridge

The Anglican Church of St Giles in Hawkridge, England was built in the 14th century. It is a Grade II* listed building; the oldest part of the church is the north door, Norman. The chancel and the base of the tower are from the 14th century; the church underwent Victorian restoration in 1878 when the coat of arms of Queen Victoria was added to the chancel arch wall. The parish is part of Exmoor benefice within the Diocese of Wells; the stone building has a slate roof. It has a three-bay nave with a wagon roof; the two-stage tower is supported by diagonal buttresses. Inside the church are a Norman font and a 13th century stone coffin lid; the font stem on a cuboid step. In the churchyard the stump of a medieval cross can be seen. List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells

Fayette City, Pennsylvania

Fayette City is a borough in Fayette County, United States. The population was 596 at the 2010 census, down from 714 at the 2000 census, it is served by the Belle Vernon Area School District. Some buildings in the town date to before 1820. Like many towns around it, Fayette City has been home to many coal miners supporting the coal industry in the region, it was the site of the Naomi Mine explosion, December 7, 1907. It was the location of an explosion in the Apollo Mine in January 1926 Fayette City is located in northwestern Fayette County at 40°6′2″N 79°50′20″W, it sits on the east bank of the Monongahela River. The borough of Allenport is directly across the river, but the closest river crossing is the I-70 bridge 3 miles north at Belle Vernon. Pennsylvania Route 201 passes through Fayette City as Second Street. Uniontown, the Fayette County seat, is 17 miles to the southeast via PA 201 and PA 51. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.25 square miles, of which 0.19 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles, or 24.33%, is water.

Fayette City's low elevation and location along the Monongahela River make it susceptible to flooding after heavy rains. Lamb Lick Run and Downers Run enter the Monongahela within the borough's boundaries; as of the census of 2000, there were 714 people, 286 households, 193 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,769.2 people per square mile. There were 321 housing units at an average density of 1,245.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.30% White, 0.14% African American, 0.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.14% of the population. There were 286 households, out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the borough the population was spread out, with 27.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $29,375, the median income for a family was $38,542. Males had a median income of $35,357 versus $23,250 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $13,058. About 20.2% of families and 26.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.8% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over. Jim Russell, baseball player