Attorney-General for Australia
The Attorney-General for Australia is the First Law Officer of the Crown in right of the Commonwealth of Australia, chief law officer of the Commonwealth of Australia and a minister of the Crown. The Attorney-General is a member of the Federal Cabinet, but need not be. Under the Constitution, they are appointed by the Governor-General on the advice of the Prime Minister, serve at the Governor-General's pleasure. In practice, the Attorney-General is a party politician and their tenure is determined by political factors. By convention, but not constitutional requirement, the Attorney-General is a lawyer by training. Since 20 December 2017, the Attorney-General has been Christian Porter, a Liberal member of the House of Representatives from Western Australia; the Attorney-General is nearly always a person with legal training, eleven former Attorneys-General have received senior judicial appointments after their ministerial service. Billy Hughes was the longest-serving Attorney-General of Australia, serving for thirteen and a half years over four non-consecutive terms.
The attorney-generalship was seen as a stepping stone to higher office – Alfred Deakin, Billy Hughes, Robert Menzies all became prime minister, while John Latham, H. V. Evatt, Billy Snedden were leaders of the opposition. Lionel Bowen was deputy prime minister under Bob Hawke in the 1980s. Additionally, four former attorneys-general have won appointment to the High Court – Isaac Isaacs, H. B. Higgins, John Latham, Garfield Barwick, Lionel Murphy. Isaacs became Governor-General; the Attorney-General is the minister responsible for legal affairs and public security. The Attorney-General serves as a general legal adviser to the Cabinet, has carriage of legislation dealing with copyright, human rights and a range of other subjects; those objectives are Australian Legal Commissions as legal instrument in Constitutional Powers, ACLEI, operations Agency. Functions of the state and federal attorneys-general include the administration of the selection of persons for nomination to judicial posts and the authorizing of prosecutions.
In normal circumstances, the prosecutorial powers of the Attorney-General are exercised by the Director of Public Prosecutions and staff. Statutory criminal law provides that prosecutions for certain offences require the individual consent of the Attorney-General; this is for offences whose illegality is of a somewhat controversial nature or where there is perceived to be a significant risk that prosecutions of a political nature may be embarked upon. The Attorney-General generally has the power to issue certificates conclusive of certain facts; the Attorney-General has the power to issue a nolle prosequi with respect to a case, which authoritatively determines that the state does not wish to prosecute the case, so preventing any person from doing so. See: Australian Security Intelligence Organisation The following individuals have been appointed as Attorney-General for Australia: Notes 1 A member of the Protectionist Party, Higgins served in the Labor ministry of Chris Watson, because Labor had no suitably qualified lawyer in Parliament.
2 Hughes took silk in 1909, became a King's Counsel. 3 Whitlam served as part of a two-man ministry together with Lance Barnard for fourteen days, until the full ministry was commissioned. 4 Prime Minister Paul Keating's original choice for Attorney-General in 1993 had been Michael Lavarch, but Lavarch's re-election was delayed by the death of an opposing candidate for the seat of Dickson. Kerr served as Attorney-General for 26 days. There was no Attorney-General for the eight days between Duffy's commission ending on 24 March 1993 and Kerr's commission commencing on 1 April 1993; the Australian states each have separate attorneys-general, who are state ministers with similar responsibilities to the federal minister with respect to state law. For Attorneys-General of the various states and territories of Australia, see: Attorney-General of the Australian Capital Territory Attorney-General of New South Wales Attorney-General of the Northern Territory Attorney-General of Queensland Attorney-General of South Australia Attorney-General of Tasmania Attorney-General of Victoria Attorney-General of Western Australia Attorney general Justice ministry Official website Departmental official website
Khorasan wheat or Oriental wheat, commercially known as kamut, is a tetraploid wheat species. It is an ancient grain type; this grain is known for its rich, nutty flavor. Original botanical identifications were uncertain; the variety is a form of Triticum turgidum subsp. Turanicum called Khorasan wheat. Identifications sometimes seen as T. polonicum are incorrect as the variety, although long-grained, lacks the long glumes of this species. Recent genetic evidence from DNA fingerprinting suggests that the variety is derived from a natural hybrid between T. durum and T. polonicum, which would explain past difficulties in arriving at a certain classification. As an annual, self-fertilized grass, cultivated for its grains, Khorasan wheat looks similar to common wheat. However, its grains are twice the size of modern wheat kernel, with a Thousand-kernel Weight up to 60g, they contain more proteins, amino acids and minerals than modern wheat. The grain has a high vitreousness; the exact origin of Khorasan wheat remains unknown.
Described by John Percival in 1921, this ancient grain originates from the Fertile Crescent and derives its common name from the historical province of Khorasan which included a large portion of northeastern Iran into Afghanistan and Central Asia to the river Oxus. Some Turkish scientists have suggested. Khorasan wheat was continuously cultivated at small scales and for personal use in Near East and Central Asia and in Northern Africa. However, it has not been commercially produced in modern times. In 1949, when the grain reached the USA, it did not raise a lot of interest and therefore fell into disuse. In 1977, Mack and Bob Quinn, two farmers from Montana, decided to cultivate this ancient grain. In 1990, they registered the protected cultivated turanicum variety QK-77 as the trademark Kamut. Khorasan wheat is grown in Europe for bread, in the Iranian province of Khorasan as food for camels, it is probably cultivated in small acreage and for personal use in some other regions of the Middle East.
16,000 acres of Khorasan wheat were cultivated in 2006 in north-central Montana, southern Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta. Experimental production has been made in Australia; the actual average yield of Kamut brand Khorasan wheat is 1.1–1.3 t/ha. In drier years, Khorasan wheat can sometimes yield more than durum wheat. However, in normal or wet years, it yields 1/3 less than the durum wheat. Europe represented 70% of the 2006 sales and Italy was the greater consumer. With only 16,000 acres cultivated worldwide, Khorasan wheat does not play an important role in the world food system. By capturing this niche market, Khorasan wheat counterbalances its weak agronomic traits. Between 1998 and 2006 total sales of Kamut brand wheat increased by 72%. Khorasan wheat is used as modern wheat, its grains can be either directly milled into flour. It can be found in breads, bread mixes, breakfast cereals, waffles, bulgur, baked goods, drinks and snacks. Apart from its nutritional qualities, Khorasan wheat is recognized for its smooth texture and nutty, buttery flavor.
In 100 grams, Khorasan wheat provides 337 calories and is a rich source of numerous essential nutrients, including protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and dietary minerals manganese. Khorasan wheat is 15 % protein. Khorasan wheat has high protein content which improves its vitreousness which indicates a high milling yield; as kamut contains gluten, it is unsuitable for people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others. As Khorasan wheat is an ancient cereal species, the climatic requirements still correspond well with its region of origin—i.e. The fertile crescent in the Middle East. A temperate continental climate with cold nights in the early spring, low to moderate precipitation rates, a sunny warm summer for optimal ripening are therefore the typical preferred climatic conditions of Khorasan wheat; these conditions are similar to those of durum wheat, which originates in the same region. But, because breeding efforts for Khorasan wheat have been sparse, the adaptation to other climatic conditions is still limited.
In general Khorasan wheat seems to be less susceptible to environmental stress than common wheat, a characteristic it shares with most of the ancient grains. Khorasan wheat is known for its drought tolerance, better than that of durum wheat. Too much precipitation in the end of the season leads to dramatic disease problems. Soils used for Khorasan wheat are the same as for durum wheat: deep friable black clays with a certain water storing capacity known as vertisols; the cultivation practices are quite similar to other wheat species durum. As most of the Khorasan wheat is organically produced, the nutrient supply should be granted by using an appropriate crop rotation, such as previous pasture legumes; the nutritional content of Khorasan wheat is the most important characteristic of this crop and the reason why it is cultivated. Therefore the nutrition supply is
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A corn exchange is a building where merchants traded corn. Such trade was common in towns and cities across England until the 19th century, but as the trade became centralised in the 20th century many such buildings were used for other purposes. Several have since become historical landmarks. For the history of corn exchanges, see: Corn Exchanges in England grain trade Commodity market and Commodities exchange Corn Exchange, Sydney Winnipeg Grain Exchange The Corn Exchange, Dublin, a Commedia dell'arte theatre company founded in 1995 in Dublin; the Corn Exchange, Kildare, now a court house. See also: Corn Exchanges in England The Exchange, Bristol Bishop's Stortford Corn Exchange Bury St Edmund’s Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Bedford Corn Exchange, Blandford Forum. See The Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Brighton. See Brighton Dome Corn Exchange, Camborne Cambridge Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Chichester Cimla Corn Exchange, Neath Dalkeith Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Devizes Corn Exchange, Exeter Doncaster Corn Exchange Edinburgh Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Haverhill Corn Exchange, Hitchin Corn Exchange, Ipswich Palace Theatre opened as a Corn Exchange in 1863 Corn Exchange, King's Lynn Corn Exchange, Kirkcaldy Leeds Corn Exchange Leicester Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Lewes Corn Exchange, Lichfield Lincoln Corn Exchange Liverpool Corn Exchange London Corn Exchange on Mark Lane, the UK's primary agricultural exchange, which became part of Liffe.
Corn Exchange, Maidstone Corn Exchange, Manchester Market Rasen Corn Exchange Newark-on-Trent Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Newbury Corn Exchange, Newport Corn Exchange, Preston Corn Exchange, Rochester Corn Exchange, Sheffield Corn Exchange, Sleaford St Ives Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Tonbridge Corn Exchange, Tunbridge Wells Corn Exchange, Wallingford Corn Exchange, Winchester Corn Exchange, Witney Minneapolis Grain Exchange Philadelphia Corn Exchange Corn Exchange, Lesotho
Mark Anthony James Vaile is a former Deputy Prime Minister of Australia and former leader of the National Party of Australia. Vaile is a non-executive director of a number of public listed corporations. Vaile was born in Sydney and worked as a farm machinery retailer and stock and station and real estate agent before entering politics, he was a member of the Greater Taree City Council 1985–93, including three years as Deputy Mayor. Vaile was a member of the Australian House of Representatives between March 1993 and July 2008, representing the Division of Lyne, New South Wales. In his first bid for the seat, in the 1993 election, Vaile led over the Liberals by only 233 votes on the third count, despite the seat's long history as a National stronghold. Labor had taken a large first-count lead which it held for most of the night, but Vaile won after Liberal preferences flowed overwhelmingly to him. However, had 120 votes gone the other way, the Liberals would have taken the seat. Vaile was able to revert the seat to its traditional status as a safe National seat in 1996, he would go on to hold the seat without serious difficulty from onward.
He was Assistant National Party Whip 1994–96 and National Party Whip 1996–97. In 1997 he was appointed Minister for Transport and Regional Development, in 1998 he became Minister for Agriculture and Forestry. In July 1999, following the resignation of Tim Fischer and the election of John Anderson as National Party leader, he was elected the party's Deputy Leader and became Minister for Trade; when John Anderson resigned in 2005, Vaile was elected Leader unopposed. On 6 July 2005 he was sworn in as Deputy Prime Minister; as Trade Minister, Vaile was involved in the negotiation of the U. S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement, opposed by some traditional National Party constituencies such as the sugar industry. There was much controversy over the intellectual property chapter of the U. S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement. The chapter contains elements modelled on the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 1998 In December 2003, Trade Minister Mark Vaile pledged to defend the copyright term in Australia: "It is a important issue in terms of cost to libraries, educational institutions and the like here in Australia."
Two months Australia agreed to a copyright term extension, as part of the deal with the United States. There was much criticism of the adoption of a US-style technological protection measures - as the High Court of Australia was considering the matter of Stevens v Sony. There was controversy over the evergreening of pharmaceutical drug patents and access to essential medicines under the U. S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement. During 2005 he conducted negotiations for the proposed Australia-China Free Trade Agreement. In late 2005 he had an operation to remove a malignant melanoma from his back. Since Vaile took on the leadership of the Nationals in 2005, there were increasing suggestions for Vaile to take on a domestic portfolio as the trade portfolio requires frequent overseas travel. Throughout 2006, Vaile's position in the trade portfolio came under increasing scrutiny due to his handling of the AWB kickbacks scandal and Australia's worsening trade performance, he faced the difficult task of placating his back bench, with Queensland Senator Barnaby Joyce having crossed the floor on more than one occasion.
On 24 September 2006 he switched portfolios with deputy Nationals leader Warren Truss and became Minister for Transport and Regional Services. His new position had a greater focus on the Nationals party's main constituency. Following the coalition's defeat at the 2007 federal election, Vaile resigned his position as Nationals leader and moved to the backbench. On 19 July 2008 Vaile announced his forthcoming resignation from Parliament; the ensuing by-election was won by independent Rob Oakeshott, the former state member for Port Macquarie and a former Vaile staffer. In September 2008, Vaile was appointed to the board of Virgin Australia Holdings. Vaile is the independent chairman and a non-executive director of Whitehaven Coal Limited ASX: WHC. On 1 January 2001, he was awarded the Centenary Medal for "service as Minister for Trade". In 2012 he was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia for distinguished service to the Parliament of Australia, through support for rural and regional communities, to the pursuit of global trade and investment opportunities, to the citizens of the Taree region.
A Roman Catholic, Vaile is married with three children. He lives on a 40 ha rural property outside New South Wales. Mark Vaile's Maiden Speech in the House of Tracey. "Trademark Thoughts". Aurora. Roman Catholic Diocese of Maitland-Newcastle. Archived from the original on 24 August 2006
Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of awned wheat. Emmer is a tetraploid; the domesticated types are Triticum turgidum subsp. Dicoccum and Triticum turgidum conv. durum. The wild plant is called Triticum turgidum subsp. Dicoccoides; the principal difference between the wild and the domestic is that the ripened seed head of the wild plant shatters and scatters the seed onto the ground, while in the domesticated emmer the seed head remains intact, thus making it easier for humans to harvest the grain. Along with einkorn wheat, emmer was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East, it was cultivated in the ancient world, but is now a relict crop in mountainous regions of Europe and Asia. Emmer is considered a type of farro food in Italy. Strong similarities in morphology and genetics show that wild emmer is the wild ancestor and a crop wild relative of domesticated emmer; because wild and domesticated emmer are interfertile with other tetraploid wheats, some taxonomists consider all tetraploid wheats to belong to one species, T. turgidum.
Under this scheme, the two forms are recognized at subspecies level, thus T. turgidum subsp. Dicoccoides and T. turgidum subsp. Dicoccum. Either naming system is valid. For a wider discussion, see Wheat#Genetics & Breeding and Wheat taxonomy Wild emmer grows wild in the Near East, it is a tetraploid wheat formed by the hybridization of two diploid wild grasses, Triticum urartu related to wild einkorn, an as yet unidentified Aegilops species related to A. searsii or A. speltoides. Like einkorn and spelt wheats, emmer is a hulled wheat. In other words, it has strong glumes that enclose the grains, a semibrittle rachis. On threshing, a hulled wheat spike breaks up into spikelets; these require pounding to release the grains from the glumes. Wild emmer wheat spikelets self-cultivate by propelling themselves mechanically into soils with their awns. During a period of increased humidity during the night, the awns of the spikelet become erect and draw together, in the process push the grain into the soil.
During the daytime, the humidity the awns slacken back again. During the course of alternating stages of daytime drying and nighttime humidity, the awns' pumping movements, which resemble a swimming frog kick, will drill the spikelet an inch or more into the soil. First use: 1908 Origin: species of wheat, from German Emmer, variant of Amelkorn, from amel, "starch", from Latin amylum. Wild emmer is native to the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, growing in the grass and woodland of hill country from modern-day Israel to Iran; the origin of wild emmer has been suggested, without universal agreement among scholars, to be the Karaca Dag mountain region of southeastern Turkey. In 1906, Aaron Aaronsohn's discovery of wild emmer wheat growing in Rosh Pinna created a stir in the botanical world. Emmer wheat has been found in ancient tombs. Emmer was collected from the wild and eaten by hunter gatherers for thousands of years before its domestication. Grains of wild emmer discovered at Ohalo II had a radiocarbon dating of 17,000 BC and at the Pre Pottery Neolithic A site of Netiv Hagdud are 10,000-9,400 years old.
The location of the earliest site of emmer domestication is still under debate. Some of the earliest sites with possible indirect evidence for emmer domestication during the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B include Tell Aswad, Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Aşıklı Höyük, Kissonerga-Mylouthkia and Shillourokambos. Definitive evidence for the full domestication of emmer wheat is not found until the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, at sites such as Beidha, Tell Ghoraifé, Abu Hureyra, Tell Halula, Tell Aswad and Cafer Höyük. Emmer is found in a large number of Neolithic sites scattered around the fertile crescent. From its earliest days of cultivation, emmer was a more prominent crop than its cereal contemporaries and competitors, einkorn wheat and barley. Small quantities of emmer are present during Period 1 at Mehrgharh on the Indian subcontinent, showing that emmer was cultivated there by 7000-5000 BC. In the Near East, in southern Mesopotamia in particular, cultivation of emmer wheat began to decline in the Early Bronze Age, from about 3000 BC, barley became the standard cereal crop.
This has been related to increased salinization of irrigated alluvial soils, of which barley is more tolerant, although this study has been challenged. Emmer had a special place in ancient Egypt, where it was the main wheat cultivated in Pharaonic times, although cultivated einkorn wheat was grown in great abundance during the Third Dynasty, large quantities of it were found preserved, along with cultivated emmer wheat and barleys, in the subterranean chambers beneath the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Neighbouring countries cultivated einkorn and common wheat. In the absence of any obvious functional explanation, the greater prevalence of emmer wheat in the diet of ancient Egypt may reflect a marked culinary or cultural preference, or may reflect growing conditions having changed after the Third Dynasty. Emmer and barley were the primary ingredients in beer. Emmer recovered from the Phoenician settlement at Volubilis has been dated to the middle of the first millennium BC. Emmer wheat may be one of the grains mentioned in ancient rabbinic literature as one of the five grains to be used by Jews during Passover as matzah.
Orica Limited is an Australian-based multinational corporation, one of the world's largest providers of commercial explosives and blasting systems to the mining, quarrying and gas and construction markets, a supplier of sodium cyanide for gold extraction, a specialist provider of ground support services in mining and tunnelling. Orica has a workforce of around 11,500 employees and contractors, servicing customers across more than 100 countries. Orica is listed on the Australian Securities Exchange, it has in recent years been subject to a number of fatalities. Founded in 1874 as Jones, Scott and Co. a supplier of explosives during the Victorian gold rush, the company was bought by Nobel Industries. Nobel merged with several British chemical manufacturers to form Imperial Chemical Industries. In 1928, Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand was incorporated to acquire and coordinate all the Australasian interests of ICI Plc. In July 1997, ICI Australia became an independent Australasian company after its parent company, ICI Plc, divested its 62.4 per cent shareholding in the company.
As a result of the selldown ICI Australia was required to change its name and on 2 February 1998 became known as Orica. In 2010, Orica demerged Dulux Group leaving the company to focus on the provision of services to the mining and infrastructure industries. In November 2014, Orica Limited announced the sale of its Chemicals business to the Blackstone Group; the sale was completed on 2 March 2015, the Chemicals business now operates under the name'Ixom'. Orica's revenue in 2016 was AUD$5.1 billion and statutory net profit after tax attributable to the shareholders of Orica for the full year ended 30 September 2016 was $343 million. Orica is a member of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, the Australian SAM Sustainability Index and the FTSE4Good Index; these Indexes provide a benchmark for the performance of investments in sustainable companies and funds. Orica releases an annual Sustainability Report that outlines performance against key sustainability metrics. In 2014, Orica was identified as a global leader in Natural Capital Decoupling, which shows the ability of organisations to'decouple' financial growth from environmental impact, by increasing revenue whilst decreasing their absolute impact.
Orica operates across the following markets and industries: Surface Metal Surface Coal Underground Mining Underground Construction Construction Quarrying Oil and Gas Orica operates three primary business areas: Orica is the world's largest provider of commercial explosives and blasting systems to the mining, quarrying and gas and construction markets. Contracted Services Initiators Boosters Bulk Explosives Packaged Explosives Data, Reporting & Analytics Supplementary Services Seismic SystemsTrade names used for packaged explosives include: Senatel™, Fortel™, Apex™, Amex™, Impact™, Simex™, Powergel™ and Eurodyn™. "Power Gel" was a U. S. Registered Trademark for Hercules Inc. in 1967, but it is now owned by Orica Explosives Technology Pty Ltd. Minova is a member of the Orica Group. Products and services include: Steel Bolts and Plates Glassfibre Reinforced Polymer bolts Injectable Chemicals and Foams Mesh Resin Capsules Cementitious Grouts & Coatings Pumps Soil Anchoring Systems Ballast Bonding Polymers Accessories and Engineering Services Orica is a supplier of sodium cyanide for gold extraction.
Products and services include: Analysers PRO Service Data, Reporting & Analytics Sparge Training Orica is co-naming sponsor of the Orica–Scott men's and women's professional cycling team. In June 2016, Orica announced that it would be exiting its sponsorship of the men's and women's cycling teams at the end of the 2017 calendar year. Once Australia's tallest building, the former ICI Building in East Melbourne, now Orica House, was Australia's tallest during the 1950s and was one of the first high-rise buildings in Australia's cities, it is one of the few post-war office buildings to be found on the Victorian Heritage Register. In March 2015 CEO Ian Smith was ousted from the business due to bullying of a female employee. During Smiths tenure as CEO, the majority of the senior leadership within the organization left for other companies. Remediation began in 2005 after production of chlorinated solvents by ICI over many years resulted in significant contamination of the Botany aquifer, a high quality sand aquifer located below the eastern suburbs of Sydney, New South Wales.
The main chemical contaminant found in groundwater around the old ICI site is EDC, a persistent organic pollutant and byproduct of the manufacture of PVC. Orica has built an A$167 million Groundwater Treatment Plant to achieve containment of this contamination and provide high quality industrial water to Botany Industrial Park. Water produced by Orica's GTP saves Sydney's potable water supply around 5 megalitres per day. Residents in the area were banned from accessing the groundwater. Orica estimated in 2012 that the GTP had been in operation for seven years of its 30–year design life cycle; the Botany chemical plant released mercury vapour into the atmosphere on 27 September 2011, breaching environmental standards for nine hours. An air monitor located near residents at Banksmeadow detected the mercury vapour and the Office of Environment and Heritage was notified. Dr Mariann Lloyd Smith, said the length of time the emissions last was extraordinary, "Mercury is toxic, it is recognised as one of the most important and most hazardous toxins that we deal with, there is a UN negotiation for a global treaty on mercury to address this," sh