Usage share of web browsers
The usage share of web browsers is the proportion expressed as a percentage, of visitors to a group of web sites that use a particular web browser. Measuring browser usage in the number of requests made by each user agent can be misleading. Not all requests are generated by a user, as a user agent can make requests at regular time intervals without user input. In this case, the user's activity might be overestimated; some examples: Certain anti-virus products fake their user agent string to appear to be popular browsers. This is done to trick attack sites that might display clean content to the scanner, but not to the browser; the Register reported in June 2008 that traffic from AVG Linkscanner, using an IE6 user agent string, outstripped human link clicks by nearly 10 to 1. A user who revisits a site shortly after changing or upgrading browsers may be double-counted under some methods. Websites are written in such a way that they block certain browsers. One common reason for this is that the website has been tested to work with only a limited number of browsers, so the site owners enforce that only tested browsers are allowed to view the content, while all other browsers are sent a "failure" message, instruction to use another browser.
Default user agent strings of most browsers have pieces of strings from one or more other browsers, so that if the browser is unknown to a website, it can be identified as one of those. For example, Safari has not only "Mozilla/5.0", but "KHTML" and "Gecko". Some Ubuntu Linux browsers such as Midori identify themselves as Safari in order to aid compatibility. Net Applications, in their NetMarketShare report, uses unique visitors to measure web usage; the effect is that users visiting a site ten times will only be counted once by these sources, while they are counted ten times by statistics companies that measure page hits. Net Applications uses country-level weighting as well; the goal of weighting countries based on their usage is to mitigate selection area based sampling bias. This bias is caused by the differences in the percentage of tracked hits in the sample, the percentage of global usage tracked by third party sources; this difference is caused by the heavier levels of market usage. Statistics from the United States government's Digital Analytics Program do not represent world-wide usage patterns.
DAP uses raw data from a unified Google Analytics account. According to StatCounter, as of January 2016, Chrome is the most popular browser on phones. For tablet only browsing, Safari on iPad has 58.8% share, followed by Chrome, which inherited its engine and web standard support. When counting across all platforms, Chrome is the most popular, if only desktop platforms are counted, it has more than half of that market. No desktop browser has had a clear majority for a more than a decade, since Internet Explorer lost it, with Netscape once holding the lead before that. Other statistics/analysts show similar numbers; the following tables summarize the usage share of all browsers for the indicated months. All Apple Inc.'s platforms use the Safari browser, including macOS and iOS systems with the WebKit engine. Therefore, for the "all browsers" stats, Safari's percentage is counting all these users. More detailed but outdated statistics are: According to StatCounter web use statistics, in the week from 7–13 Novembe
Erwise is a discontinued pioneering web browser, the first available with a graphical user interface. Released in April 1992, the browser was written for Unix computers running X and used the W3 common access library. Erwise was the combined master's project of four Finnish students at the Helsinki University of Technology: Kim Nyberg, Teemu Rantanen, Kati Suominen and Kari Sydänmaanlakka; the group decided to make a web browser at the suggestion of Robert Cailliau, visiting the university, were supervised by Ari Lemmke. The development of Erwise halted after the students went on to other projects. Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the World Wide Web, travelled to Finland to encourage the group to continue with the project. However, none of the project members could afford to continue with the project without proper funding; the name Erwise originates from otherwise and the name of the project group, OHT. Pre-documented. Serious coding started around March 1992. Alpha release available by anonymous FTP from info.cern.ch—binaries only as of 15 April 1992.
Source code released on www-talk August 92. The following are significant characteristics of the browser: It used a multifont text; the links of Erwise browser were underlined. To visit the links you had to double click on the links. Erwise could execute multiple window operation, though the optional single window mode was available. Erwise could open local files. Erwise had little English documentation; some of the buttons were for features. Tim Berners-Lee would have continued with the works of Erwise, he could not do. Erwise crashed on some versions of Unix. ViolaWWW Berners-Lee, Tim: Weaving the Web ISBN 0-694-52125-6; the source code at FUNET FTP archives
AOLpress is a discontinued HTML editor, available from America Online. It was developed as NaviPress by the company NaviSoft before being bought by AOL, it was discontinued in 2000. However, the last version may still be found on some Web sites for downloading. AOLpress was rather strict about enforcing legal HTML: when saving edited pages that were created outside AOLpress, code that did not conform to the HTML 3.2 standard and specifications may have been changed to do so. Today, the HTML code used is outdated and may not display more recent Web sites correctly, it does not support PNG images, this limits its support on many sites where the newer PNG format has been adopted. In February 1994, NaviSoft Inc. released NaviPress, a Web browser with an integrated HTML editor. NaviPress was similar to the first Web browser, WorldWideWeb, created by TIm Berners-Lee, for the classic Mac OS and Microsoft Windows. According to Berners-Lee, "NaviPress was a true browser and editor, which produced clean HTML."In late 1995, AOL acquired NaviSoft, the package was renamed "GNNPress" later "AOLpress", made available for downloading on AOL's Global Network Navigator site.
In Weaving the Web, Berners-Lee attributes the death of AOLpress to the release of Netscape Navigator 2.0 in 1996. AOL's Steve Case reached an agreement with Bill Gates so that AOL users could use a version of the Explorer browser, which did not have HTML editing functionality; this agreement led to the decline of AOLpress. According to Berners-Lee, AOLpress was, at the time, "one of the few commercial browsers that provided simple online editing."In 1998, AOLpress made PC Magazine's "Best Products of the Year" issue. The editors describe it as "the only program that combines WYSIWYG Web page editing, HTML source code editing, Web site management, Web browsing in a single interface." The article goes on to say that AOLpress "isn't an editor that looks like a browser. It is a browser." AOLpress 2.0 requires 8 megabytes of RAM, with more recommended, a display capable of at least 256 colors, an Intel 80386 CPU, 8 megabytes of free disk space, either Windows NT or Windows 95 operating system. While the installer is 16-bit and will not work under 64-bit Windows to install the software, AOLpress is capable of launching under Windows 8, though it crashes within a short time after starting.
Although the program is not accepted by Windows 7, it will run in compatibility mode in Windows 10. AOLpress website AOLpress at the Wayback Machine AOLPress on the Evolt Browsers Archive
Commodore User, known to the readers as the abbreviated CU, was one of the oldest British Commodore magazines. A publishing history spanning over 15 years, mixing content with technical and video game features. Incorporating Vic Computing in 1983 by publishers EMAP, the magazine's focus moved to the emerging Commodore 64, before introducing Amiga coverage in 1986, paving the way for Amiga's dominance and a title change to CU Amiga in 1990. Covering the 16-bit computer, the magazine continued for another eight years until the last issue was published in October 1998 when EMAP opted to close the magazine due to falling sales and a change in focus for EMAP; the magazine reviewed arcade games. Carrying on from where Vic Computing left, Commodore User was launched in October 1983, with an initial preview issue in June; the magazine contained what was referred to as the serious side of computing, with programming tutorials, machine code features and business software reviews. The first issues were produced and written by a small team, consisting of editor Dennis Jarrett, a writer and editorial assistant Nicky Chapman.
Features were written by a range of contributors. The issue sizes grew from 64 to 96 pages. First 12 issues were published by Paradox Group, from October 1984 by Emap for the rest of magazine's lifetime. Games coverage began to appear during 1984, consisting of a small section called Screen Scene; this became a permanent fixture throughout the magazine's life. By 1985 the Commodore 64 became more popular and the magazine began covering the newer machine more and more, leaving the Vic-20 in the dark; the amount of technical coverage decreased as the games market took over. The circulation began to rise and CU produced more colour through the magazine. At the height of the C64's success, CU had a page count of 116. In 1986 CU began to cover the new 16-bit computer; the magazine was at an all-time high, covering all the Commodore platforms, from the C16, all the way up to the Amiga. Circulation figures were showing an all-time high of over 70,000 for the 1988 period. To establish that the magazine content was changing to cover the emerging Amiga, the magazine changed its title CU Commodore User Amiga-64, with the emphasis on the CU part.
The Commodore User part was dropped and the name remained CU Amiga-64. This period of the magazine was seen as a transitional time between transferring coverage from C64 to the Amiga. Realising that the C64 market was in an undeniable decline in 1990, CU made the decision to concentrate on the Amiga, dropping C64 coverage and relaunched their redesigned magazine as CU Amiga. A new decade had arrived and with it a successor of the C64, the Amiga 500; the A500 was the little brother of an successful A2000 and had penetrated the home computer market. In 1990 CU Amiga-64 dropped the "64" from its name and relaunched as CU Amiga with the March 1990 issue. CU Amiga dropped all coverage of the C64 and concentrated on the new popular Amiga platform, which expanded to include: A3000, A500+, A600, A1200. A4000 and CD32; the magazine gained increased circulation as a result of the changes. By 1994, it was obvious. CU Amiga had a final name change to help distinguish itself from other competing magazines in an small market, it became CU Amiga Magazine.
In its remaining years under the control of editor Tony Horgan, the magazine became technical but gained a professional edge. The final issue featured a memorable upside down cover with a foot imprinting on the logo, intended to be reminiscent of the imagery used by Monty Python; the magazine came to an end without the preceding page, staff or quality cuts that had afflicted some other Amiga magazines. CU Amiga Magazine's closure meant that the only remaining monthly Amiga newsstand magazine was its closest rival, Amiga Format. A year after CU's closure, in October 1999, the magazine Amiga Active was launched, which had several of the same staff and was competition for Amiga Format, which it outlived. CU Amiga Magazine Online Amiga History: CU Amiga Short History and full scans of the magazine Home page of EMAP Computer magazine history including CU
GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor. It was created by GNU Project founder Richard Stallman. In common with other varieties of Emacs, GNU Emacs is extensible using a Turing complete programming language. GNU Emacs has been called "the most powerful text editor available today". With proper support from the underlying system, GNU Emacs is able to display files in multiple character sets, has been able to display most human languages since at least 1999. Throughout its history, GNU Emacs has been a central component of the GNU project, a flagship of the free software movement. GNU Emacs is sometimes abbreviated as GNUMACS to differentiate it from other EMACS variants; the tag line for GNU Emacs is "the extensible self-documenting text editor". In 1976, Stallman wrote the first Emacs, in 1984, began work on GNU Emacs, to produce a free software alternative to the proprietary Gosling Emacs. GNU Emacs was based on Gosling Emacs, but Stallman's replacement of its Mocklisp interpreter with a true Lisp interpreter required that nearly all of its code be rewritten.
This became the first program released by the nascent GNU Project. GNU Emacs is written in C and provides Emacs Lisp implemented in C, as an extension language. Version 13, the first public release, was made on March 20, 1985; the first distributed version of GNU Emacs was version 15.34, released in 1985. Early versions of GNU Emacs were numbered as "1.x.x," with the initial digit denoting the version of the C core. The "1" was dropped after version 1.12 as it was thought that the major number would never change, thus the major version skipped from "1" to "13". A new third version number was added to represent changes made by user sites. In the current numbering scheme, a number with two components signifies a release version, with development versions having three components. GNU Emacs was ported to Unix, it offered more features than Gosling Emacs, in particular a full-featured Lisp as its extension language, soon replaced Gosling Emacs as the de facto Unix Emacs editor. Markus Hess exploited a security flaw in GNU Emacs' email subsystem in his 1986 cracking spree, in which he gained superuser access to Unix computers.
Although users submitted patches and Elisp code to the net.emacs newsgroup, participation in GNU Emacs development was restricted until 1999, was used as an example of the "Cathedral" development style in The Cathedral and the Bazaar. The project has since adopted anonymous CVS access. Development took place in a single CVS trunk until 2008, today uses the Git DVCS. Richard Stallman has remained the principal maintainer of GNU Emacs, but he has stepped back from the role at times. Stefan Monnier and Chong Yidong have overseen maintenance since 2008. On September 21, 2015 Monnier announced that he would be stepping down as maintainer effective with the feature freeze of Emacs 25. Longtime contributor John Wiegley was announced as the new maintainer on November 5, 2015; the terms of the GNU General Public License state that the Emacs source code, including both the C and Emacs Lisp components, are available for examination and redistribution. Older versions of the GNU Emacs documentation appeared under an ad-hoc license that required the inclusion of certain text in any modified copy.
In the GNU Emacs user's manual, for example, this included instructions for obtaining GNU Emacs and Richard Stallman's essay The GNU Manifesto. The XEmacs manuals, which were inherited from older GNU Emacs manuals when the fork occurred, have the same license. Newer versions of the documentation use the GNU Free Documentation License with "invariant sections" that require the inclusion of the same documents and that the manuals proclaim themselves as GNU Manuals. For GNU Emacs, like many other GNU packages, it remains policy to accept significant code contributions only if the copyright holder executes a suitable disclaimer or assignment of their copyright interest to the Free Software Foundation. Bug fixes and minor code contributions of fewer than 10 lines are exempt; this policy is in place so that the FSF can defend the software in court if its copyleft license is violated. In 2011, it was noticed that GNU Emacs had been accidentally releasing some binaries without corresponding source code for two years, in opposition to the intended spirit of the GPL, resulting in a copyright violation.
Richard Stallman described this incident as "a bad mistake", promptly fixed. The FSF didn't sue any downstream redistributors who unknowingly violated the GPL by distributing these binaries. In its normal editing mode, GNU Emacs behaves like other text editors and allows the user to insert characters with the corresponding keys and to move the editing point with the arrow keys. Escape key sequences or pressing the control key and/or the meta key, alt key or super keys in conjunction with a regular key produces modified keystrokes that invoke functions from the Emacs Lisp environment. Commands such as save-buffer and save-buffers-kill-emacs combine multiple modified keystrokes; some GNU Emacs commands work by invoking an external program, such as ispell for spell-checking or GNU Compiler Collection for program compilation, parsing the program's output, displaying the result in GNU Emacs. Emacs supports "inferior processes"—long-lived processes that interact with an Emacs buffer; this is used to implement shell-mode, running a Unix shell as inferior process, as well as read–eval–print loop modes for various programming languages.
Emacs' support for external processes makes it an attractive environment for interactive programming along the lines of Interlisp or Smalltalk. Users who prefer
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform