Métal Hurlant Chronicles
Métal Hurlant Chronicles is an English-language Franco-Belgian television science fiction anthology series based on the popular comics anthology magazine Métal Hurlant, known in the United States as Heavy Metal and in Germany as Schwermetall. Each episode is a self-contained story taking place on a different planet with a different cast, the episodes are linked together only by the idea that an asteroid, the "Métal Hurlant", passes the planet in question during the events of the story; the show's premise originated with Guillaume Lubrano, who put together a self-financed pilot to pitch the show, broadcast as the series' third episode. Lubrano and Justine Veillot produce the show through their company WE Productions, it was filmed in Bucharest, Romania. The series premiered on French television on 27 October 2012 on France 4. Broadcast rights for various European countries such as Germany, Luxembourg were bought by Sony Pictures Television; as an anthology series, each episode is a self-contained science-fiction story taking place in a different world, with different characters played by a different cast and adapted from a story published in the Métal Hurlant magazine.
However, the show proposes that all the stories are linked together by an asteroid, called the "Métal Hurlant", passing close to the planet where the episode's story is taking place. The opening credits, narrated in French by voice actor Benoît Allemane, inform that the "Métal Hurlant" is the last fragment of what was once a living planet, led to destruction by the madness of its inhabitants and condemned to travel ceaselessly through space and time, screaming its sadness and despair. A number of notable British, French and Dutch actors have performed in various episodes of the show, including Scott Adkins, Karl E. Landler, Michael Jai White, James Marsters, Michelle Ryan, David Belle, Dominique Pinon, Kelly Brook, Joe Flanigan, Frédérique Bel and Rutger Hauer among others. After being expected for early 2012, all six episodes of season one were broadcast on France 4 in a late night time slot over the course of two nights in either default dubbed French or optional subtitled original English audio tracks, between 27 October and 3 November of the same year.
Nolife was expected to rebroadcast season one in France sometime in 2013. Sony Pictures Television has bought the broadcast rights for several European countries, where it was at least aired on Animax in Germany and Switzerland. Syfy Channel began airing the first season of the series in the U. S. on 14 April 2014 on Mondays at 8:00 and 8:30 p.m with various repeats during the week following. Broadcast on 27 October 2012 after 3 episodes of Doctor Who that gathered a 1.4% share on the night, Métal Hurlant succeeded in raising the global share for channel France 4, bringing it to a tie with W9 and beating out Gulli, NT1 & D8. The premiere episode attracted 347,000 viewers, garnering a 2.2% share at 11 p.m, but lost about 100,000 viewers for the next two episodes broadcast on the same night. Overall the night held 2.4% of 15- to 34-year-olds and 3.5% of men aged 15 to 49. When it debuted on SyFy in 2014, its viewership was below normal for a pilot in its time slot, steadily declined, its critical reception has been tepid, from the start.
The series is described as having decent visual effects, but being poorly written and produced, with inconsistent acting. A second season of six episodes has been completed, is airing alongside season one during its run on Syfy. All 12 episodes were directed by Guillaume Lubrano. Shout Factory released both seasons on 14 April 2015 on Blu-ray and DVD. Official website at France4.fr Métal Hurlant Chronicles on IMDb
Sky Deutschland GmbH, branded as Sky, is a German media company that operates a direct broadcast satellite Pay TV platform in Germany and Switzerland. It provides a collection of basic and premium digital subscription television channels of different categories via satellite and cable television, it was launched in 1991 as Premiere. The channel started as a single analogue channel on the Astra 1A satellite, showing films dubbed into German, as well as in original audio, live football matches from the German Bundesliga and Austrian Bundesliga, documentaries and TV series. After the coming of the digital age, the service has since consisted of many channels with many new ones added over the years. On 4 July 2009, the service and its channels were rebranded as "Sky". Sky Deutschland is a wholly owned subsidiary of Comcast-owned Sky; the programming service itself is provided by its subsidiary Sky Deutschland Fernsehen Co.. KG, it topped 3,000,000 subscribers by the end of 2011. As of Q2 2014, Sky Deutschland has more than 4 million subscribers.
The German Sky has its origin in the analogue premium channel Premiere. It was owned by Kirch Group and Canal+, started broadcasting in 1991. In 1996, Kirch Media launched a digital satellite platform called DF1, which offered several different channels, including premium movie and sports channels and thematic channels. Premiere started broadcasting three digital channels in 1997, one channel mirroring the analogue channel and two showing the same content at different times. Premiere and DF1 merged to form Premiere World on 1 October 1999. Many of the channels offered on DF1 were carried over to Premiere World, others were rebranded or closed. In 2002, the service became known as Premiere. Many of the channels were rebranded and the package structure was overhauled at the same time. At the same time, KirchGroup filed for bankruptcy. In 2003, investment group Permira took control of Premiere. Exclusivity was for a long time a major selling point for Premiere, most of its channels were only available through the Premiere platform.
This changed in September 2007, when Premiere launched Premiere Star, a new satellite package made up of channels that were not exclusive to Premiere. The new package was called Sky Welt/Extra; the package included TNT Film, Sat.1 emotions, Kabel eins Classics, AXN, Kinowelt. TV, RTL Living, RTL Crime, FOX, Syfy Universal, Disney Junior, Disney XD, Cartoon Network, ESPN America, Eurosport HD, Eurosport 2, National Geographic Channel, Discovery Channel, MTV Germany, MTV Live HD and Nicktoons. On 4 July 2009, Premiere was rebranded. In conjunction with the relaunch, many channels disappeared from the platform, switched packages or were renamed. Several new channels were added; the rebrand marked the return of News Corporation's Sky brand to Germany since the encryption of the Sky Channel in 1993, apart from availability of Sky News. Sky sells it services to pubs, restaurants and other establishments; the services are marketed by Sky Business. Following News Corporation's split on 28 June 2013 to create two separate companies, 21st Century Fox, the spin-off company New News Corp, the 54.5% stake held by News Corporation in Sky Deutschland was retained by the rebranded 21st Century Fox.
Following media speculation, on 12 May 2014 Sky Deutschland's sister company, BSkyB, confirmed that it was in talks with its largest shareholder, 21st Century Fox, about acquiring Fox's 57.4% stake in Sky Deutschland and its 100% stake in Sky Italia. The enlarged company would be to be called "Sky Europe" and it will consolidate 21st Century Fox's European digital TV assets into one company; the acquisition of the 57.4% stake was formally announced on 25 July 2014. BSkyB made a required takeover offer to Sky Deutschland's minority shareholders; this resulted in BSkyB acquiring 89.71% of Sky Deutschland's share capital in total. The acquisitions were completed on 13 November. British Sky Broadcasting Group plc changed its name to Sky plc on 21 November 2014. On 27 November 2014 Sky plc increased its shareholding in Sky Deutschland to 90.04%, by 2015 had bought out the remaining shareholders, de-listing the company from the Frankfurt stock exchange. On 17 November 2016, Sky Deutschland and WWE signed a multiyear agreement to distribute WWE's premier pay-per-view events and broadcast Raw and SmackDown live on Sky Sports starting in April 2017.
In May 2017, Sky Deutschland acquired Homedia, operator of the Swiss over-the-top streaming company Hollystar. Sky subsequently launched Sky Sport as an OTT service in Switzerland, followed by an OTT entertainment service known as Sky Show in 2018. In September 2017 Sky Deutschland extended its multi-year satellite capacity deal with satellite operator SES for seven transponders at the 19.2°E orbital position, confirming its long-term commitment to satellite delivery of services. The channels that make up the Sky package broadcast from the Astra 19.2°E satellite position, using the Astra 1H, Astra 1L, Astra 1M satellites. Channels are uplinked by Sky Italia. Between 2004 and 2016, they were uplinked by SES Platform Services. All channels are available in separate HD channels. Sky 1 Sky Atlantic Sky Cinema Sky Cinema +1 Sky Cinema +24 Sky Cinema Hits Sky Cinema Action Sky Cinema Comedy Sky Cinema Family Sky Krimi Sky Sport News Sky Sport 1-10 Sky Sport Austria Sky Sport Bundesliga 1-10 Sky Select 1-10 Sky Arts Sky 3D Sky Info Sky Sport Fanzone In mid 2013, the company considered using bone conduction via train windows to broadcast ads to train rid
Knight Rider (1982 TV series)
Knight Rider is an American television series created and produced by Glen A. Larson; the series was broadcast on NBC from 1982 to 1986. The show stars David Hasselhoff as Michael Knight, a high-tech modern crime fighter assisted by KITT, an advanced artificially intelligent, self-aware and nearly indestructible car; this was the last series Larson devised at Universal Television. Self-made billionaire Wilton Knight rescues police Detective Lieutenant Michael Arthur Long after a near fatal shot to the face, giving him a new identity and a new name: Michael Knight. Wilton selects Michael to be the primary field agent in the pilot program of his public justice organization, the Foundation for Law and Government; the other half of this pilot program is the Knight Industries Two Thousand, a modified, technologically advanced Pontiac Firebird Trans Am with numerous features including an durable shell and frame, controlled by a computer with artificial intelligence. Michael and KITT are brought in during situations where "direct action might provide the only feasible solution".
Heading FLAG is Devon Miles. Dr. Bonnie Barstow is the chief engineer in charge of KITT's care, as well as technical assistant to Devon. David Hasselhoff as Michael Knight, an undercover detective of Los Angeles Police Department who, while on a case in Las Vegas, is shot in the face and nearly killed. Wilton Knight, founder of Knight Industries and creator of FLAG, directs his doctors to save Long's life and reconstruct his face. With his new identity, "Michael Knight", Long is provided with high tech crime-fighting equipment, most notably the car named KITT. Hasselhoff played Garthe Knight, Wilton Knight's estranged son and a criminal mastermind who drives Goliath, a semi tractor trailer Peterbilt 352 Pacemaker truck armed with rockets and protected by KITT's molecular bonded shell after the formula was stolen by Elizabeth Knight, Wilton's widow. William Daniels as the voice of KITT, or Knight Industries Two Thousand, the autonomous, artificially intelligent car, with whom Michael Knight is partnered.
Daniels, who starred on St. Elsewhere, requested not to be credited for his role as KITT's voice. Edward Mulhare as Devon Miles, the leader of FLAG, who appeared in every episode to provide mission details to Knight and KITT, he was the spokesman for FLAG whenever it came under scrutiny. Patricia McPherson as Dr. Bonnie Barstow, KITT's chief technician and romantic tension for Michael; the character was dropped after the first season, but due to strong fan reaction and lobbying by Hasselhoff and Mulhare, she was returned for the third season and remained through the end of the series. Rebecca Holden as April Curtis, chief technician for KITT; the character was written out. The connection between the two was never established in any installments. Peter Parros as Reginald Cornelius III aka RC3, driver of the FLAG mobile unit and occasional sideman for Michael and KITT. Richard Basehart as Wilton Knight, the creator of FLAG, who dies in the pilot episode. Basehart's voice, however, is heard throughout the series, narrating over the outro.
The car used as KITT in the series was a customized 1982 Pontiac Firebird sports model, that cost US$100,000 to build. Nose and other interior of the car were designed by the design consultant Michael Scheffe; the "Knight Rider Theme" was composed by Glen A. Larson; the series DVD bonus material contains an interview about this lead music, where Glen A. Larson says he remembers a theme out of a classical piece from which he took pieces for the "Knight Rider Theme"; the rest of the series music was composed by Stu Phillips for 13 episodes, Don Peake for 75 episodes, Glen A. Larson co-wrote music only for the "K. I. T. T. vs. K. A. R. R." Episode and Morton Stevens who wrote music for the "Deadly Maneuvers" episode in the first season. Peake took over scoring duties at S1E14 in 1983, when Larson moved to Twentieth Century-Fox and Phillips was working there on his projects. Peake insisted as the only and main composer until the end of the series in 1986, exceptionally for the "K. I. T. T. vs. K. A. R. R." Episode in third season, which he composed together with Stu Phillips and Glen A. Larson.
In 2005 FSM released a disc of music from the series, featuring the series theme, ad bumpers and Phillips' scores for "Knight of the Phoenix", "Not a Drop to Drink", "Trust Doesn't Rust", "Forget Me Not" and the composer's final episode "Inside Out", as well as the logo music for Glen Larson Productions. Albums of Don Peake's scores have been issued; the intro throughout most of the episodes began with this narration: Knight Rider, a shadowy flight into the dangerous world of a man who does not exist. Michael Knight, a young loner on a crusade to champion the cause of the innocent, the helpless, the powerless in a world of criminals who operate above the law. During the first season, the outro was Michael and KITT driving though a road in the desert with Wilton Knight's words of "One man can make a difference, Michael." The narration goes on to say: Michael Knight, a lone crusader in a dangerous world. The world of the Knight Rider; the outro of Seasons 2 and 3 was KITT driving away from the sunset toward the camera.
Season 4's outro was the same, except with KITT in Super Pursuit Mode. Knight Rider was first syndicated in the U. S. in the Fall of 1986. Stations were offered either the o
Lost Girl is a Canadian supernatural drama television series that premiered on Showcase on September 12, 2010, ran for five seasons. It follows the life of a bisexual succubus named Bo, played by Anna Silk, as she learns to control her superhuman abilities, help those in need, discover the truth about her origins; the series was created by Michelle Lovretta and produced by Jay Firestone and Prodigy Pictures Inc. with the participation of the Canadian Television Fund, in association with Shaw Media. Following good ratings and positive reviews, it was renewed for a second season on November 12, 2010, with the episodes order afterwards increased to 22 episodes. On August 25, 2014, Showcase announced that the fifth season would be the last, with the original 13-episode order increased to 16 final episodes; the series' finale episode aired on October 25, 2015. In Australia, Lost Girl premiered on Sci Fi Australia on July 14, 2011. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, it premiered on Syfy on September 1, 2011.
In the United States, it premiered on Syfy on January 16, 2012. Episodes begin with a cold open; the show title and credits are accompanied by the Lost Girl Theme song. Over the top of the sequence and theme song is the voice-over monologue by the protagonist, Bo, summarizing her story: Life is hard when you don't know who you are. It's harder. My love carries a death sentence. I was lost for years. I won't hide anymore. I will live the life; the Lost Girl Theme song was composed by Marco DiFelice and Benjamin Pinkerton. Total episode running time is 44:00 minutes, including opening title sequence and closing credits roll. Episodes on Syfy in the United States are 90 seconds shorter to allow for more commercial advertisement time. Starting with Season 3, 30 seconds that would have otherwise been cut from the episodes for Syfy were preserved by substituting the original opening title sequence with opening credits superimposed over the first scene of each episode. Bo is a Succubus who grew up in an adopted human family, unaware of her non-human nature and of the Fae world she descended from.
She began to feel "different" when she entered puberty and didn't know she was not normal until she accidentally killed her high school boyfriend by draining his life energy during her first sexual encounter. When she told her parents what had happened, they broke the news to Bo. Not knowing what she was and what she had done, Bo hated herself and ran away from home, exchanging her previous life for one without family or friends, moving from place to place and assuming a false identity whenever she killed again. In the first episode, Bo saves a young human woman, from a rapist who had surreptitiously drugged her with a "roofie" in her drink; the two become friends and Kenzi decides they should team up to create a Fae/Human detective agency. Confronted by the Fae leaders of the local territory with a demand for her to choose a side – either "Light" or "Dark" – Bo declares herself neutral, deciding instead to side with humans after Kenzi risks her life to find out where Bo had been taken by force and what they were doing to her.
Most of the Fae considered Bo an unknown entity that should either be eliminated as a risk to their secret existence or exploited for their benefit. Throughout the season, Bo learns more about the Fae world and herself while she searches for information about her origins. Along the way, Bo develops romantic relationships with both Dyson, a Light Fae wolf shapeshifter and police detective. Bo faces personal challenges with Dyson after she finds out The Norn took his ability to feel passion for her in exchange for giving her the strength to defeat Aife in the season one finale. At the same time that she is coping with these turmoils, a villainous and evil ancient enemy of the Fae, the Garuda, is awakened and reappears with the intent to destroy the truce between Light and Dark Fae, reignite the Great War between them; the new Ash, recruits Bo to be his champion in the battle against the Garuda and she agrees on the condition that he regard her as a partner, not as his servant. During this hectic time, Bo develops a no-strings-attached lustful relationship with Ryan Lambert, a Dark Fae Loki playboy that in "Fae-nted Love" became unwittingly thralled by her when, during energy-drawing healing sex, her blood came into contact with deep scratches she made on his back.
Bo learns in "Into the Dark" that she is not only Trick's maternal granddaughter, but deduces that she has inherited some of his Blood Sage powers: if her blood comes into contact with someone's open wound, it can enslave and bind the recipient to her will. She uses her blood power to unite her team of Dark in the final battle against the Garuda. With Fae society in upheaval, Bo finds herself facing further changes and challenges as former ally Hale becomes the acting Ash – trying to forge a new balance between Light and Dark by appointing a Valkyrie aligned with the Dark Fae, Tamsin, as Dyson's new detective partner. Meantime, Tamsin is a secret agent working for two separate clients: The Morrigan, who wants to build a case agai
Magnum, P. I. is an American crime drama television series starring Tom Selleck as Thomas Magnum, a private investigator living on Oahu, Hawaii. The series ran from 1980 to 1988 during its first-run broadcast on the American television network CBS. According to the Nielsen ratings, Magnum, P. I. ranked in the top twenty U. S. television programs during the first five years of its original run in the United States. A reboot series of the same name was ordered to series on May 11, 2018, premiered on September 24, 2018 on CBS. Thomas Sullivan Magnum IV is a private investigator played by Tom Selleck, he resides in the guest house of a 200-acre beachfront estate called Robin's Nest, in Hawaii, at the invitation of its owner, Robin Masters, the celebrated, but never-seen, author of several dozen lurid novels. Ostensibly this is quid pro quo for Magnum's services based upon his expertise in security; the voice of Robin Masters, heard only in five episodes, was provided by Orson Welles. Magnum lives a luxurious life on the estate and operates as a P.
I. on cases that suit him. The only thorn in the side of his near-perfect lifestyle is Jonathan Quayle Higgins III, played by John Hillerman. An ex-British Army Sergeant Major, he is on the surface a stern, "by-the-book" caretaker of Robin's Nest, whose strict ways conflict with Magnum's more easy-going methods, he patrols Robin's Nest with his two highly-trained "lads", Doberman Pinschers named Zeus and Apollo. Magnum has free use of the guest house and the car, a Ferrari 308 GTS Quattrovalvole, but as a humorous aside in various episodes has to bargain with Higgins for use of estate amenities such as the tennis courts, wine cellar and expensive cameras; the relationship between Magnum and Higgins is cool, but as the series progressed, an unspoken respect and fondness of sorts grew between the pair. Many episodes dedicated more screen time to this "odd couple" pairing after the relationship proved popular with fans. A recurrent theme throughout the last two seasons, starting in the episode "Paper War", involves Magnum's sneaking suspicion that Higgins is Robin Masters since he opens Robin's mail, calls Robin's Ferrari "his car" etc.
This suspicion is neither proved nor disproved, although in at least one episode Higgins is shown alone in a room, picking up a ringing phone and talking to Robin Masters, indicating they are two different persons. Aside from Higgins, Magnum's two main companions on the islands are Theodore Calvin "T. C.", who runs a local helicopter charter service called "Island Hoppers", finds himself persuaded by Magnum to fly him during various cases, Orville Wilbur Richard "Rick" Wright, who refuses to use his given name Orville and who owns a local bar. In the pilot episode, this was "Rick's Cafe Americain" in town, inspired by Casablanca, with Rick appearing in suitable 1930s attire. After completing the pilot, executives felt that audiences would be unable to connect with this element. Instead, Rick moved to running the plush, beachside King Kamehameha Club, which has exclusive membership and Higgins on the board of directors. Magnum strolls around the club, using its facilities and running up an ever-unpaid tab, further fueling the Magnum-Higgins feud.
T. C. and Rick are both former Marines from Marine Observation Squadron 2 with whom Magnum, a former Navy SEAL and Naval Intelligence officer, served in the Vietnam War. The series was one of the first to deal with Vietnam veterans as "human beings" and not as shell-shocked killers, was praised by many ex-servicemen groups for doing so. Magnum dupes or bribes T. C. and Rick into aiding him on his cases, much to their frustration, though the deep friendship within the group, including Higgins, proved to be one of the key elements of the program over its eight-season run. Magnum comes and goes as he pleases, works only when he wants, has the unlimited use of the Ferrari and many other luxuries of the estate, he keeps a mini-refrigerator with a endless supply of beer, wears his father's treasured Rolex GMT Master wristwatch and is surrounded by countless beautiful women, who are victims of crime, his clients, or are connected in various other ways to the cases he solves. Other characteristics specific to Magnum are his thick moustache, baseball caps, a rubber chicken, a variety of colorful Aloha shirts.
Nearly every episode is narrated, by Magnum at various points. At the end of the seventh season, Magnum was to be killed off. Following an outcry from fans who demanded a more satisfactory conclusion, an eighth season was produced to bring Magnum "back to life" and to round off the series. Tom Selleck as Thomas Sullivan Magnum IV Roger E. Mosley as Theodore "T. C." Calvin Larry Manetti as Rick Wright John Hillerman as Jonathan Quayle Higgins III Zeus The Doberman Pinscher as Zeus Apollo The Doberman Pinscher as Apollo Lt. Yoshi Tanaka: A homicide-division police lieutenant with the Honolulu police department, he has a slight Lieutenant Columbo-like enigmatic quality, characterized by his casual dress and ironic sense of humor, he is like Magnum, a Detroit Tigers fan. He is murdered early in the episode Tiger's Fan and appeared in Seasons 2–8. Agatha Chumley: Higgins' quintessentially English lady friend, who seems to have a crush on Higgins, her first appearance was in the episode "Black on White."
She appeared in Seasons 3–8. Colonel "Buck" Greene: A M
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Kojak is an American action crime drama television series starring Telly Savalas as the title character, New York City Police Department Detective Lieutenant Theo Kojak. Taking the time slot of the popular Cannon series, it aired on CBS from 1973 to 1978. In 1999 TV Guide ranked Theo Kojak number 18 on its 50 Greatest TV Characters of All Time list; the show was created by Abby Mann, an Academy Award–winning film writer best known for his work on drama anthologies such as Robert Montgomery Presents and Playhouse 90. Universal Television approached him to do a story based on the 1963 Wylie-Hoffert murders, the brutal rape and murder of two young professional women in Manhattan. Owing to poor and corrupt police work and the prevailing casual attitude toward suspects' civil rights, the crimes in the Wylie-Hoffert case were pinned on a young African-American man, George Whitmore, Jr., arrested on a separate assault charge. After illegally obtaining a confession, the police had the suspect all but convicted until a second investigation by a different team of detectives exonerated the suspect and identified the real killer, a Puerto Rican drug addict named Richard Robles.
Richard Robles, known as New York State Inmate #66A0003, has been denied parole multiple times. Mann developed the project as a gritty police procedural, but with a subtext focusing on institutionalized prejudice and the civil rights of suspects and witnesses; the result was The Marcus-Nelson Murders. The opening and closing titles of the film emphasized the point that it was a fictional account of the events that led to the creation of Miranda rights by the U. S. Supreme Court in 1966. Selwyn Raab's book Justice in the Back Room provided Mann with some of his inspiration for the story of The Marcus-Nelson Murders, the series subsequently included a credits reference to having been "suggested by a book by Selwyn Raab". Savalas starred in The Marcus-Nelson Murders as a police detective whose last name was spelled "Kojack"; the film served as a pilot for the Kojak television series. Kojak himself was a composite character, based on a number of detectives and reporters who were involved in the Wylie-Hoffert murder case.
The series was set in the New York City Police Department's Eleventh Precinct, Manhattan South Patrol Borough. The show revolved around the efforts of the tough and incorruptible Lieutenant Theodore Kojak, a bald, New York City policeman, fond of Tootsie Roll Pops and of using the catchphrases, "Who loves ya, baby?" and "Cootchie-coo!" Kojak was stubborn and tenacious in his investigation of crimes—and displayed a dark, cynical wit, along with a tendency to bend the rules if it brought a criminal to justice. He ribbed his subordinates the rotund Stavros, whom he referred to as "Fatso". Foot chase scenes involving Stavros brought on the same type of physical humor. However, Kojak was abusive toward criminals stretching the truth: in one case Kojak said he witnessed them do something he did not witness to get them to talk. Kojak was so abusive, Mad magazine carried a TV satire titled, "Kojerk". In the context of the script, Kojak's was seen as typical squad room humor, which would be picked up in the TV drama Hill Street Blues.
Savalas described Kojak as a "basically honest character, tough but with feelings—the kind of guy who might kick a hooker in the tail if he had to, but they'd understand each other because maybe they grew up on the same kind of block." Kojak's Greek American heritage, shared by actor Savalas, was featured prominently in the series. In the early episodes of the series, he is seen smoking cigarettes. Following the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on smoking, cigarette commercials were banned from American television in 1971, public awareness of the dangers of cigarette smoking increased during the 1970s. To cut down on his own habit, Kojak began using lollipops as a substitute; the lollipop made its debut in the Season 1 episode "Dark Sunday", broadcast on December 12, 1973. In the episode, Kevin Dobson's character Crocker asks about the lollipop and Kojak replies, "I'm looking to close the generation gap." Although Kojak continued to smoke, as he was seen lighting a cigarillo, the lollipop became his identifying characteristic.
His longtime supervisor was Capt. Frank McNeil, a man who never seemed to know what was going on. In the series, McNeil was promoted to Chief of Detectives in Manhattan. Kojak is the commander of the Manhattan South Precinct's detective squad, his squad includes one of his favorite employees, young plainclothes officer, Det. Bobby Crocker. Detective Stavros, played by Telly's real-life brother George Savalas, used the name "Demosthenes" as his screen credit during the first two seasons. George Savalas, under his real name received a Production Associate credit during the first season and a Production Assistant credit for the second season. Detective Saperstein, Detective Rizzo, all gave Kojak support. Roger Robinson appeared in 12 episodes as Detective Gil Weaver. Although the show focused on Kojak's police work, it veered into other areas of the character's lives, such as the first-season episode "Knockover" which included a subplot involving Kojak romancing a female police officer. In 1