The Sopranos is an American crime drama television series created by David Chase. The story revolves around Tony Soprano, a New Jersey-based Italian-American mobster, portrays the difficulties that he faces as he tries to balance his family life with his role as the leader of a criminal organization; these are explored during his therapy sessions with psychiatrist Jennifer Melfi. The series features Tony's family members, mafia colleagues, rivals in prominent roles—most notably his wife and his protégé/distant cousin, Christopher Moltisanti; the pilot was ordered in 1997, the show premiered on HBO on January 10, 1999. It ran for six seasons totalling 86 episodes until June 10, 2007. Broadcast syndication followed in the U. S. and internationally. The Sopranos was produced by HBO, Chase Films, Brad Grey Television, it was filmed at Silvercup Studios in New York City, on location in New Jersey. The executive producers throughout the show's run were David Chase, Brad Grey, Robin Green, Mitchell Burgess, Ilene S. Landress, Terence Winter, Matthew Weiner.
The Sopranos is regarded as one of the greatest television series of all time. The series won a multitude of awards, including Peabody Awards for its first two seasons, 21 Primetime Emmy Awards, five Golden Globe Awards, it has been the subject of critical analysis and parody, has spawned books, a video game, soundtrack albums, assorted merchandise. Several members of the show's cast and crew were unknown to the public but have since had successful careers. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America named The Sopranos the best-written TV series of all time, while TV Guide ranked it the best television series of all time. In 2016, the series ranked first in Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest TV shows of all time. In March 2018, New Line Cinema announced that they have purchased a film detailing the Sopranos background story, set in the 1960s during the Newark riots. Titled The Many Saints of Newark, it is written by David Chase and Lawrence Konner and will be directed by Alan Taylor. David Chase had worked as a television producer for more than 20 years before creating The Sopranos.
He had been employed as a staff writer or producer for several television series, including Kolchak: The Night Stalker, The Rockford Files, I'll Fly Away, Northern Exposure. He had co-created the short-lived original series Almost Grown in 1988, he made his television directorial debut in 1986 with the "Enough Rope for Two" episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents. He directed episodes of Almost Grown and I'll Fly Away in 1988 and 1992, respectively. In 1996, he directed the television film The Rockford Files: Punishment and Crime, he served as showrunner for I'll Fly Northern Exposure in the 1990s. Chase won his first Emmy Award in 1978 for his work on The Rockford Files and his second for writing the 1980 television film Off the Minnesota Strip. By 1996, he was a coveted showrunner; the story of The Sopranos was conceived as a feature film about "a mobster in therapy having problems with his mother." Chase decided to adapt it into a television series. He signed a development deal in 1995 with production company Brillstein-Grey and wrote the original pilot script.
He drew from his personal life and his experiences growing up in New Jersey, has stated that he tried to "apply family dynamic to mobsters." For instance, the tumultuous relationship between series protagonist Tony Soprano and his mother Livia is based on Chase's relationship with his own mother. He was in psychotherapy at the time and modeled the character of Dr. Jennifer Melfi after his own psychiatrist. Chase had been fascinated by organized crime and the mafia from an early age, witnessing such people growing up, he was raised on classic gangster films, such as The Public Enemy, the crime series The Untouchables. The series is inspired by the Boiardo family, a prominent New Jersey organized crime family when Chase was growing up, on New Jersey's DeCavalcante family, he has mentioned American playwrights Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams as influences on the show's writing, Italian director Federico Fellini as an important influence on the show's cinematic style. The series was named after high school friends of his.
Chase and producer Brad Grey pitched The Sopranos to several networks. They pitched the show to Chris Albrecht, president of HBO Original Programming, who decided to finance a pilot episode, shot in 1997. Chase directed it himself, they finished the pilot and showed it to HBO executives, but the show was put on hold for several months. During this time, Chase considered asking HBO for additional funding to shoot 45 more minutes of footage and release The Sopranos as a feature film. In December 1997, HBO decided to produce the series and ordered 12 more episodes for a 13-episode season; the show premiered on HBO on January 1999 with the pilot episode. The Sopranos was the second hour-long television drama series produced by HBO, the first being the prison drama Oz. North Jersey prosecutor and municipal judge Robert Baer filed a breach of contract lawsuit against Chase in Trenton, New Jersey federal court, alleging that he helped to create the show. Baer lost the suit, but he won a ruling that a jury should decide how much he should be paid for services as a location scout and story consultant.
Baer argued that he had introduced Chase to Tony Spirito and Thomas Koczur (a hom
The Division is an American police procedural drama television series created by Deborah Joy LeVine starring Bonnie Bedelia. The series focuses on a team of women detectives and officers in the San Francisco Police Department; the series ended on June 28, 2004 after 88 episodes. The show focused on the lives of five policewomen in the felony division headed by Captain Kate McCafferty. Storylines revolved around the women's personal and professional lives, their attempts to balance both; the series tackled such topics as alcoholism, drug addiction and sexual abuse. The series premiered on January 7, 2001, earning a 3.1 rating and the "largest audience of any basic cable original series" that year. After four seasons, the show was canceled on June 28, 2004, it was the network's second "longest-running scripted series". After its cancellation, The Division was rebroadcast on the Lifetime network in various timeslots until 2007. In 2008, reruns aired on Lifetime Real Women. Starting in September 2018, the syndication became available on Start TV.
Jose Yenque as Gabriel'Gabe' Herrera Jacob Urrutia as Benjamin Ramirez Alex Rocco as John Exstead Sr. Allen Cutler as Casey Exstead Tanya Vidal as Lily Ramirez Jay Harrington as Theodore Blumenthal Michael MacRae as Steven D. B. Woodside as Daniel Reide Morgan Brayton as Amanda McCafferty James Avery as Charles Haysbert Troy Evans as Dusty Robin Thomas as Louis Perillo Lauren Tom as Nora Chen Dean Cain as Insp. Jack Ellis Linda Gehringer as Dolores David Sutcliffe as Dr. Michaelson/Jonah Jon Tenney as Hank Riley Peter Coyote as Ross Sara Rue as Amanda McCafferty Paige Hurd as Chloe Newland Daniel Morton as Detective Lawson Roma Downey as Reagan Gilancy Kim Fields as Principal Ogden Rebecca Gayheart as Suzanne Richland Nia Peeples as Sandra Prestiss Zachary Levi as Todd The DVD set containing all four seasons including the pilot was released by Visual Entertainment in Region 1 on March 19, 2018. Gracie Allen AwardsWon: Outstanding Entertainment Program Drama Imagen Foundation AwardsNominated: Best Actress in a Television Drama, Lisa Vidal ALMA AwardsNominated: Outstanding Actress in a Television Series, Lisa Vidal BMI Film & TV AwardsWon: BMI Cable Award, Jeff Eden Fair Won: BMI Cable Award, Starr Parodi Won: BMI Cable Award, Jeff Eden Fair Won: BMI Cable Award, Starr Parodi Young Artist AwardsNominated: Best Performance in a TV Drama Series - Guest Starring Young Actress, Joy Lauren Nominated: Best Performance in a TV Drama Series - Guest Starring Young Actor, Shawn Pyfrom PRISM AwardsWon: TV Drama Series Episode Nominated: Performance in a Drama Series Episode, Nancy McKeon Nominated: Performance in a Drama Series, Nancy McKeon Nominated: Performance in a Drama Series Multi Episode Storyline, Nancy McKeon List of police television dramas Official website The Division on IMDb The Division at TV.com The Division at epguides.com
Streaming media is multimedia, received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of obtaining media in this manner. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing digital video or digital audio content before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming or inherently non-streaming. For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popular music available as streaming media; the term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio, such as live closed captioning, ticker tape, real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". Live streaming is the delivery of Internet content in real-time much as live television broadcasts content over the airwaves via a television signal. Live internet streaming requires a form of source media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
Live streaming does not need to be recorded at the origination point, although it is. There are challenges with streaming content on the Internet. If the user does not have enough bandwidth in their Internet connection, they may experience stops, lags, or slow buffering of the content; some users may not be able to stream certain content due to not having compatible computer or software systems. Some popular streaming services include the video sharing website YouTube and Mixer, which live stream the playing of video games. Netflix and Amazon Video stream movies and TV shows, Spotify, Apple Music and TIDAL stream music. In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines, the technical basis for what became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio. Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century.
However, little progress was made for several decades due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media; the primary technical issues related to streaming were having enough CPU power bus bandwidth to support the required data rates, creating low-latency interrupt paths in the operating system to prevent buffer underrun, enabling skip-free streaming of the content. However, computer networks were still limited in the mid-1990s, audio and video media were delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs. In 1991 the first commercial Ethernet Switch was introduced, which enabled more powerful computer networks leading to the first streaming video solutions used by schools and corporations such as expanding Bloomberg Television worldwide.
In the mid 1990s the World Wide Web was established, but streaming audio would not be practical until years later. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, users had increased access to computer networks the Internet. During the early 2000s, users had access to increased network bandwidth in the "last mile"; these technological improvements facilitated the streaming of audio and video content to computer users in their homes and workplaces. There was an increasing use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, HTML as the Internet became commercialized, which led to an infusion of investment into the sector; the band Severe Tire Damage was the first group to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting; as proof of PARC's technology, the band's performance was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
In a March 2017 interview, band member Russ Haines stated that the band had used "half of the total bandwidth of the internet" to stream the performance, a 152-by-76 pixel video, updated eight to twelve times per second, with audio quality, "at best, a bad telephone connection". Microsoft Research developed a Microsoft TV application, compiled under MS Windows Studio Suite and tested in conjunction with Connectix QuickCam. RealNetworks was a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcast a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995; the first symphonic concert on the Internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995. The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash, Matt Cameron, Barrett Martin; when Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Metro
Bates Motel (TV series)
Bates Motel is an American psychological horror drama television series that aired from March 18, 2013 to April 24, 2017. It was developed by Carlton Cuse, Kerry Ehrin, Anthony Cipriano, is produced by Universal Television and American Genre for the cable network A&E; the series, a contemporary prequel to Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 film Psycho. However, the final season loosely adapts the plot of Psycho. Max Thieriot and Olivia Cooke both starred as part of the main cast throughout the series' run. After recurring in the first season, Nestor Carbonell was added to the main cast from season two onward; the series begins in Arizona with the death of Norma's husband, after which Norma purchases the Seafairer motel located in a coastal Oregon town so that she and Norman can start a new life. Subsequent seasons follow Norman as his mental illness becomes dangerous, Norma as she struggles to protect her son, those around him, from himself; the series was filmed outside Vancouver in Aldergrove, British Columbia, along with other locations within the Fraser Valley of British Columbia.
A&E chose to skip a pilot of the series, opting to go straight-to-series by ordering a 10-episode first season. On June 15, 2015, the series was renewed for a fourth and fifth season, making Bates Motel A&E's longest-running original scripted drama series in the channel's history; the series' lead actors, Vera Farmiga and Freddie Highmore, received particular praise for their performances in the series, with the former receiving a Primetime Emmy Award nomination and winning a Saturn Award for Best Actress on Television. Bates Motel won three People's Choice Awards for Favorite Cable TV Drama, for Favorite Cable TV Actress and Actor; the first season follows Norman Bates as they buy a motel after Norman's father dies. On one of the first nights of the two owning the motel, the former owner breaks in and sexually assaults Norma. Norman knocks the attacker out, Norma stabs him to death, she decides it's best not to cover up the murder. She and Norman dispose of the body, he complicates the cover-up by keeping a belt.
When the town sheriff and his deputy notice that a man has gone missing and Norman must keep them from digging too far. The second season follows the aftermath of Norman's teacher's murder, as her mysterious past comes to light. Meanwhile, Norma finds herself making dangerous decisions in order to keep the motel running and preventing the impending bypass. Bradley's search for her father's killer leads to the extremes, Dylan learns the disturbing truth about his parentage; the third season focuses on Norman's waning deniability about what's happening to him, the lengths he will go to gain control of his fragile psyche. The dramatic events of last season leave Norma more aware of her son's mental fragility and fearful of what he is capable of. Meanwhile, Sheriff Romero begins to distance himself from the Bates family after he suspects Norma is lying to him about her husband's death; the fourth season follows Norma as she becomes fearful of Norman, going to great lengths to find him the professional help he needs.
This complicates their once unbreakable trust. Meanwhile, Sheriff Romero once again finds himself drawn into Norman's lives, he agrees to marry Norma because his insurance will enable her to place Norman in an expensive psychiatric hospital. His generosity backfires, when Norman learns of the marriage. Norman bitterly resents Romero for coming between him and his mother and at one point threatens the sheriff with an axe; the fifth season begins two years after the death of Norma. Publicly happy and well-adjusted, Norman struggles at home, where his blackouts are increasing and "Mother" threatens to take him over completely. Meanwhile and Emma find themselves drawn back into Norman's world, Romero hungers for revenge against his stepson, Norman. Vera Farmiga as Norma Louise Bates Freddie Highmore as Norman Bates Max Thieriot as Dylan Massett Olivia Cooke as Emma Decody Nicola Peltz as Bradley Martin Nestor Carbonell as Sheriff Alex Romero Kenny Johnson as Caleb Calhoun On January 12, 2012, it was reported that A&E were developing a television series titled Bates Motel that would serve as a prequel to the Alfred Hitchcock film Psycho.
The first script was written by Anthony Cipriano. In March 2012, Carlton Cuse and Kerry Ehrin joined the project as executive producers and head writers. Cuse has cited the drama series Twin Peaks as a key inspiration for Bates Motel, stating, "We pretty much ripped off Twin Peaks... If you wanted to get that confession, the answer is yes. I loved that show, they only did 30 episodes. Kerry and I thought we'd do the 70 that are missing." On July 2, 2012, A&E gave Bates Motel a straight-to-series order. Chris Bacon was hired to score the music for the series in January 2013. On August 27, 2012, Vera Farmiga was the first to be cast in the leading role of Norma Louise Bates. On September 14, 2012, Freddie Highmore was cast as Norman Bates; that same day, Max Thieriot was cast as Dylan Massett. Shortly after, on September 19, 2012, Nicola Peltz was cast as Bradley Martin, a possible love interest for Norman. On September 20, 2012, Olivia Cooke was the final main cas
The Avengers (TV series)
The Avengers is an espionage British television series created in 1961. It focused on Dr. David Keel, aided by John Steed. Hendry left after the first series, his most famous assistants were intelligent and assertive women: Cathy Gale, Emma Peel and Tara King. The series ran from 1961 until 1969; the pilot episode, "Hot Snow", aired on 7 January 1961. The final episode, "Bizarre", aired on 21 April 1969 in the United States, on 21 May 1969 in the United Kingdom; the Avengers was produced by a contractor within the ITV network. After a merger with Rediffusion London in July 1968, ABC Television became Thames Television, which continued production of the series, though it was still broadcast under the ABC name. By 1969, The Avengers was shown in more than 90 countries. ITV produced a sequel series The New Avengers with Patrick Macnee returning as John Steed, two new partners. In 2007, The Avengers was ranked; the Avengers was marked by different eras as co-stars went. The only constant was John Steed, played by Patrick Macnee.
Associated British Corporation produced a single series of Police Surgeon, in which Ian Hendry played police surgeon Geoffrey Brent, from September through to December 1960. While Police Surgeon did not last long, viewers praised Hendry, ABC Television cast him in its new series The Avengers, which replaced Police Surgeon in January 1961; the Avengers began with episode "Hot Snow", in which medical doctor David Keel investigates the murder of his fiancée and office receptionist Peggy by a drug ring. A stranger named John Steed, investigating the ring and together they set out to avenge her death in the first two episodes. Steed afterward asked Keel to partner him, as needed, to solve crimes. Hendry was considered the star of the new series, receiving top billing over Macnee, Steed did not appear in two episodes; as the first series of The Avengers progressed, Steed's importance increased, he carried the final episode solo. While Steed and Keel used wit while discussing crimes and dangers, the series depicted the interplay—and tension—between Keel's idealism and Steed's professionalism.
As seen in one of the three surviving episodes from the first series, "The Frighteners", Steed had helpers among the population who provided information, similar to the "Baker Street Irregulars" of Sherlock Holmes. The other regular in the first series was Carol Wilson, the nurse and receptionist who replaced the slain Peggy. Carol assisted Keel and Steed in cases, in at least one episode was much in the thick of the action, but without being part of Steed's inner circle. Hafner had played opposite Hendry as a nurse in one episode of Police Surgeon; the series was shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup. There was little provision for editing and no location footage; as was standard practice at the time, videotapes of early episodes of The Avengers were reused. At present, only three complete Season 1 episodes are known to exist and are held in archives as 16 mm film telerecordings: "Girl on the Trapeze", "The Frighteners" and "Tunnel of Fear". Additionally, the first 15 minutes of the first episode, "Hot Snow" exist as a telerecording.
The missing television episodes are being re-created for audio by Big Finish Productions under the title of The Avengers - The Lost Episodes and star Julian Wadham as Steed, Anthony Howell as Dr. Keel and Lucy Briggs-Owen as Carol Wilson. Production of the first series was cut short by a strike. By the time production could begin on the second series, Hendry had quit to pursue a film career. Macnee was promoted to star and Steed became the focus of the series working with a rotation of three different partners. Dr Martin King, a thinly disguised rewriting of Keel, saw action in only three episodes produced from scripts written for the first series. King was intended to be a transitional character between Keel and Steed's two new female partners, but while the Dr. King episodes were shot first, they were shown out of production order in the middle of the season; the character was thereafter and dropped. Nightclub singer Venus Smith appeared in six episodes, she was a complete "amateur", meaning that she did not have any professional crime-fighting skills as did the two doctors.
She was excited to be participating in a "spy" adventure alongside secret agent Steed. Nonetheless, she appears to be attracted to him and their relationship is somewhat similar to that portrayed between Steed and Tara King, her episodes featured musical interludes showcasing her singing performances. The character of Venus underwent some revision during her run, adopting more youthful demeanor and dress; the first episode broadcast in the second series had introduced the partner who would change the show into the format for which it is most remembered. Honor Blackman played Dr Cathy Gale, a self-assured, quick-witted anthropologist, skilled in judo and had a passion for leather clothes. Widowed during the Mau Mau years in Kenya, she was the "talented amateur" who saw her aid to Steed's cases as a service to her nation, she was said to have bee
Murder Call is an Australian television series, created by Hal McElroy for the Southern Star Entertainment and broadcast on the Nine Network between 1997 and 2000. The idea to the series was born from books of the Tessa Vance series by Jennifer Rowe: Suspect/Deadline and Something Wicked. Both books were integrated as episodes in the TV series. With a young high-tech 1990s feel and just a touch of 1940s retro charm, Murder Call follows a classic clue–puzzle plot, combining mystery and suspense, spiked with humour, romance and a touch of the bizarre; the series deals with the cases confronted by an unconventional team of homicide detectives, Tessa Vance and Steve Hayden. Backing them up are: The boss – Inspector Malcolm Thorne Pathologist – Dr Imogen Soames Forensic officer – Dr Lance Fisk Crime scene photographer – Constable Dee Suzeraine Murder Call was filmed in Sydney and unlike a lot of shows based in Sydney shot the less spectacular side of the city; the exterior of the Homicide station was filmed on O'Connell Street in Sydney.
Detective Tessa Vance Detective Steve Hayden Dr. Imogen "Tootsie" Soames Sergeant Lance Fisk Constable Dee Suzeraine Detective Inspector Malcolm Thorne Jeremy Callaghan – Ezra Simms Kieran Darcy-Smith – Filix Kiver Judith Wright – Laurie Baker Jessica Napier – Brodie Cochrane Melissa George – Petra Salinis Paula Forrest – Susan Frickberge David Franklin – Jonah Balzan Dee Smart – Malena Soeteman Norman Kaye – Vic Popov Anne Tenney – Nerida Hertzberg Elizabeth Alexander – Hilary Windsor Essie Davis – Judy St. John Barry Otto – Otis Farrow Christine Stephen-Daly – Sonia Black Kate Fischer – Gabby Minogue Rose Byrne – Sarah Watson Matt Doran – Joel Douglas Hedge – Dr. Edgar Travers Zoe Carides – Dr. Constance Young Michala Banas – Kylie McDonald Nicholas Bishop – Marshall Bowdon Kimberley Joseph – Andrea Thatcher Bridie Carter – Jessica Millay Ling-Hsueh Tang – Emma Trimble Murder Call ran for three seasons and produced 56 episodes. For more information see List of Murder Call episodes, it was announced by Via Vision Entertainment in March 2019 that they would be releasing the collection of Murder Call on DVD.
Australian Television's Murder Call section A Murder Call review Murder Call at the National Film and Sound Archive Murder Call on IMDb Murder Call – "Black Friday" at Australian Screen Online
Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company that produces and distributes filmed entertainment through multiple platforms. Through an intermediate holding company called Sony Film Holding Inc. it is operated as a subsidiary of Sony Entertainment Inc., itself a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, a wholly owned subsidiary and the US headquarters of the Tokyo-based multinational technology and media conglomerate Sony Corporation. Based in Culver City, California, it encompasses Sony's motion picture, television production and distribution units, its group sales in the fiscal year 2017 has been reported to be $9.133 billion. SPE is the Motion Picture Association of America. Sony Pictures' film franchises include The Karate Kid, Spider-Man, Stuart Little, Men in Black, Robert Langdon, The Smurfs, Hotel Transylvania, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, many more. On September 1, 1987, The Coca-Cola Company announced plans to spin off its assets of Columbia Pictures, which it had owned since 1982.
Under this arrangement, Coca-Cola would sell its entertainment assets to TriStar Pictures, of which it owned 39.6%. Tri-Star would be renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. with Coca-Cola owning 49%, its shareholders owning 31%, Tri-Star's shareholders owning 20%. A new company was formed in early 1988 with the Tri-Star name to take over the studio's operations. On September 28, 1989, Sony obtained an option to purchase all of The Coca-Cola Company's stock in CPE for $27 per share; the next day, Sony announced that it reached an agreement with Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, Inc. to acquire CPE for $200 million when Sony hired Peter Guber and Jon Peters to be its co-chairmen. This was all led by Norio Ohga, the president and CEO of Sony during that time; the hiring of Guber and Peters by Sony to run Columbia was conflicted by a previous contract the producers had signed at Warner Bros. Time Warner's chairman, Steve Ross, threatened Sony with a lawsuit for breach of contract; the lawsuit would be subsequently dropped when Sony sold half-interest in Columbia House and cable distribution rights to Columbia's feature films, TV movies, miniseries to Warner Bros.
That same agreement saw Columbia sell its 35% interest in the Burbank Studios and acquired Lorimar Studios the MGM lot, from Warner Bros. On October 31, 1989, Sony completed a friendly takeover bid for the rest of shares of CPE, a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, acquired 99.3% of the common stock of the company. On November 8, 1989, Sony completed the acquisition by a "short-form" merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Sony Columbia Acquisition Corporation into CPE under Delaware law. Sony completed a tender offer for shares of common stock of the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company on November 6, 1989 and acquired the company 3 days later; the acquisition cost Sony $4.9 billion and was backed by five major Japanese banks Mitsui, Fuji and Industrial Bank of Japan. The company was renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment on August 7, 1991. Sony has since created numerous other film production and distribution units, such as creating Sony Pictures Classics for art-house fare, by forming Columbia TriStar Pictures by merging Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures in 1998, revitalizing Columbia's former television division Screen Gems.
It expanded its operations on April 8, 2005, when a Sony-led consortium acquired the legendary Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in a US$4.8 billion leveraged buyout, through the holding company MGM Holdings Inc. This in effect re-united the MGM studio name, with the MGM main studio lot, although somewhat confusingly, the bulk of the pre-1986 original MGM library ended up at Warner Bros. via the Ted Turner-Kirk Kerkovian "Turner Entertainment Company" transactions. The post-1986 MGM library consists of acquisitions of various third-party libraries, such as the Orion Pictures catalogue, leading to the MGM version of "Robocop". On June 4, 2008, SPE's wholly owned group 2JS Productions B. V. acquired Dutch production company 2waytraffic N. V. famous for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, acquired from the original production company Celador, You Are What You Eat for £114.3 million. In 2011, the Sony Pictures computer network was breached and one million user accounts associated with the SonyPictures.com website were leaked.
On November 18, 2012, Sony Pictures announced it has passed $4 billion with the success of releases: Skyfall, The Amazing Spider-Man, 21 Jump Street, Men in Black 3, Hotel Transylvania, Underworld: Awakening, The Vow, Resident Evil: Retribution. On November 21, 2013, SPE and Sony Entertainment's CEO Michael Lynton announced that SPE will shift emphasis from movies to television by cutting its 2014 film slate, it was announced on the same day, that there will be more Spider-Man sequels and spin-offs, though in February 10, 2015, Sony Pictures signed a deal with Disney's Marvel Studios to allow Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Captain America: Civil War, before appearing in Spider-Man: Homecoming, released on July 7, 2017. The deal allowed Sony to distribute and have creative control on any MCU film where Spider-Man is the main chara