Ministry of General Affairs
The Ministry of General Affairs is the Dutch Ministry responsible for Government policy, Planning and the Dutch royal house. The Ministry was created in 1937 and dissolved in 1945, but in 1947 it was reinstated by Prime Minister Louis Beel; the Ministry remained small until 1967, when it was expanded by Prime Minister Piet de Jong. Since his premiership the Ministry has continued to expand to the present day; the Minister of General Affairs is the head of the Ministry, Prime Minister and a member of the Cabinet of the Netherlands. The current Minister and Prime Minister is Mark Rutte; the Ministry is comparable to the German Chancellery, the British Cabinet Office or the U. S. Executive Office of the President, but its designation as a Ministry emphasises the role of Prime Minister of the Netherlands as primus inter pares among the ministers of the government; the Ministry has three responsibilities: coordination of government policy, the Dutch Royal House, government communications about the royal house and government policy.
The Ministry houses the Secretariat of the Cabinet of the Netherlands. The main offices of the Ministry are located in the Binnenhof, the political centre of the Netherlands. With only about 400 employees, it is by far the smallest Ministry in the Netherlands; the Ministry has four Government Agencies and two Directorates: Directorate for Royal House Division Oversight Commission for the Intelligence Services There has been one State Secretary for the Ministry of General Affairs. Norbert Schmelzer served as State Secretary for General Affairs in the De Quay cabinet from 19 May 1959 until 24 July 1963. List of Prime Ministers of the Netherlands Cabinet department Ministry of General Affairs
Toyota AZ engine
The Toyota AZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The AZ series uses an aluminium engine block with cast iron cylinder liners and aluminium DOHC cylinder heads; the engine series features many advanced technologies including slant-squish combustion chambers, offset cylinder and crank centers, the VVT-i continuously variable intake valve timing system. The aluminium engine measures 626 mm long, 608 mm wide, 681 mm tall; the cylinder block is an open-deck, midi-skirt die-cast aluminium type with cast-in iron liners and a die-cast aluminium lower crankcase and a stamped oil pan. The forged steel crankshaft is balanced with eight counterweights and supported by five main bearings. A helical gear pressed in No. 3 counterweight drives twin contra-rotating balance shafts in the shaft housing within the lower crankcase. The dual overhead camshafts are driven by a single-stage roller chain of 8 mm pitch, enabling a narrow included valve angle of 27.5°. The camshafts act on four valves per cylinder via bucket tappets.
As in the recent Toyota engine practice, no clearance adjusting shim is employed. Valve diameters are 34 mm for intake and 29.5 mm for exhaust, with 8 mm lift for both intake and exhaust. The four-vane VVT-i device is fitted on the intake camshaft, altering timing by 50°; the valve cover is made of magnesium to save weight. Fuel is injected sequentially via an ultra-fine-atomization injector with twelve small injection holes, each 0.18 mm in diameter. As in the smaller NZ engine, the new AZ adopts a plastic, built-up, vibration-welded intake manifold integrating a large volume plenum chamber. Exhaust manifolds are of tubular construction with integrated catalytic converters; the AZ is the replacement for the S engine. Its successor is the AR engine; the 2AZ-FE engine in the 2007-2009 Camry is involved in this lawsuit. Other engines are affected. If this Toyota engine is burning more than 1 US quart of oil in 1,200 miles, has less than 150,000 miles, is less than 10 years old, Toyota service will perform a free oil consumption test to determine if your engine is affected.
There are 1,715,200 vehicles covered by this Warranty Enhancement Program. The 1AZ-FE is a 2.0 L version. Output is 108 kW at 6000 rpm with 190 N⋅m of torque at 4000 rpm for the Camry Aurion version. Rav4 and Ipsum engines were rated at 148–150 hp at 6000 rpm and 142 lb⋅ft of torque at 4000 rpm; the 1AZ has a total displacement of 2.0 L with 86 mm × 86 mm bore and stroke, a compression ratio of 9.6:1. Applications: 2006–2009 Toyota Camry 2000–2003 Toyota RAV4 2003-2006 Toyota RAV4 Euro 2001–2009 Toyota Ipsum The 1AZ-FSE is a 2.0 L version. Bore and stroke is 86 mm × 86 mm, a compression ratio of 11.0:1. Output is 149 PS at 5700 rpm with 196 N⋅m of torque at 4000 rpm; the 1AZ-FSE features Toyota's D-4 direct injection system. The 2AZ-FE is a 2.4 L version built in Japan, at TMMK in the USA and built in China for select Scion xB models, obtains a total displacement of 2.4 L with 88.5 mm × 96 mm bore and stroke, with a compression ratio of 9.6:1. Output is 160 hp at 5600 rpm. Versions of the 2AZ-FE engine were upgraded with 9.8:1 compression ratio, a more aggressive intake cam profile, 6500 rpm redline, piston oil squirters.
These versions are rated at 161 hp in the Scion tC, 177 hp in the Rav4, 158 hp in the Camry, Corolla XRS, Scion xB. However, these latter 2AZ-FE models were the first to be rated under the new SAE J1349 standard; the new standard produces more conservative numbers, though no definitive comparison is available since the two versions were never tested by the same standard. The Rav 4 uses a different timing chain cover than the Camry, they can however be interchanged. A TRD supercharger was available for the Scion tC until Spring 2009. There have been complaints of this engine "burning oil" in North America, with the issue starting after 45,000 miles, though after 60,000–75,000 miles. Piston ring design has been identified as a potential problem. Toyota has not issued a recall. Alternative theories point to a head gasket problem: the 2AZ-FE aluminum block threads may wear out on the back 3 middle bolts. There are several class-action lawsuits underway regarding this issue. In January 2015, Toyota North America issued extended warranty notification for this issue for Toyota North America vehicles only.
The 2AZ-FSE is a 2.4 L version. Bore and stroke is 88.5 mm × 96 mm, a compression ratio of 11.0:1. Output is 163 PS at 5800 rpm with 231 N⋅m of torque at 3800 rpm; the 2AZ-FSE features Toyota's D-4 direct injection system. Applications: Toyota Avensis The 2AZ-FXE is an Atkinson cycle variant of the 2AZ-FE, it has the same bore and stroke. It has a physical compression ratio of 12.5:1. The large valve overlap leads to a reduction in cylinder charge and reduced torque and power output, but efficiency is increased; this combination makes the 2AZ-FXE suitable for use only in hybrid vehicles, where peak torque and power demands can be met by the electric motor and battery. Maximum output when used in the Camry hybrid is 211 h
AZ is a French record label established in 2002 as an affiliate of Universal with a big list of artists signed or with distribution rights for their releases in France. The founder and first president of AZ record label, Valéry Zeitoun, was born in Pantin near Paris on 13 February 1966, he ran the label from its creation in 2002 until October 2011. The label encourages many new artists. Valéry Zeitoun famously ran a campaign in 2010 on Facebook entitled Je veux signer chez AZ. Two candidates were selected to join the label, namely Victor Le Mélissa Nkonda; the campaign was so popular, Zeitoun ran a second series of casting for talent in 2011 resulting in signing of a third new artist, namely Alias Hilsum. Valéry Zeitoun appeared in film Backstage directed by Emmanuelle Bercot where he plays the role of manager of the singer Lauren Marks, he continued to run the label until October 2011, but resigned from Universal Music France and AZ to consecrate himself to other projects. Zeitoun was replaced in November 2011 by Julien Creuzard This was confirmed by Pascal Nègre in a communique.
Nègre wants the label to be more involved in development of young artists, whereas more established AZ artists will change label and be more integrated in other labels like Mercury. Creuzard had joined Universal Music France in 2007, was until his new assignment head of another affiliate, Universal Music Publishing. Musique Info says he had been instrumental in signing Féfé, Inna and Tom Frager, he has experience running an independent production house. A complete list of artists: Valéry Zeitoun Blog
The Abendzeitung, sometimes abbreviated to AZ, is a liberal morning tabloid newspaper from Munich, Germany. A localized edition is published in Nuremberg; the paper is published six days a week. Rivals on the Munich tabloid market are tz and a localized edition of the national mass circulation phenomenon Bild-Zeitung. AZ was founded by Werner Friedmann on 16 June 1948 as a street selling newspaper. Friedmann's goal was to provide Munich with a tabloid newspaper appealing to the intellectual circles of society. Munich and environs are the main distribution areas of the paper. Friedmann was one of the founders of the Munich broadsheet Süddeutsche Zeitung, in which the Friedmann family still holds a financial stake as minority shareholder with 18.75% of the capital of the publishing company. In the 1980s the paper had a daily circulation of 300,000 copies; the newspaper lost 16.5 percent of sales, compared to the fourth quarter of 1998. Based on 2006 figures the AZ has an estimated weekday readership of 320 000.
Based on 225 000 printed copies. Its 2013 circulation was 107,634 copies; until 2008, the Abendzeitung missed out on developments in the newspaper industry. The takeover of the editorial board by Arno Makowsky, an experienced local journalist from Munich, should help change that; the newspaper was converted back to a local newspaper focusing on sports and culture. At the same time significant improvements to the newspaper's website were made. In September 2008, AZ moved from its former headquarters in the Sendlinger Straße to the Hopfenpost; the shopping arcade. Because of "economic difficulties" the management decided, in March 2010, to reduce the number of employees in editorial and publishing areas considerably. Concluding in a reduction of 22 from the 80 positions in the newsroom; the Süddeutsche Zeitung reported that a total of 40 out of the 90 employees were affected by the job cuts. In November 2010, the AZ reinforced its Munich city desk. Michael Schilling was appointed city editor, to which his deputies were Timo Lokoschat and Thomas Müller.
Tina Angerer took over the newly created position of local section's chief reporter. On March 5, 2014, the Abendzeitung filed for bankruptcy. Since 2004/2005 the publisher had losses of around €70 million, of which €10 million alone were in 2013; the income from the sales of the former headquarters in Sendlinger Straße and of Nürnberger Abendzeitung were depleted because of this. The owner's family was not able to continue to bear the losses; as a first measure, the liquidator raised the sale price on weekdays from 60 cents to 1 euro. The magazine Der Spiegel cited, as the reason for the decline of AZ, that it had a expensive and long-term contract with the printing plant and a reduction of the newspaper’s content, of which only a good sports section remained; the Nuremberg edition of the evening paper came about in the 1960s through the acquisition of the 8-Uhr-Blatt from Nuremberg. The 8-o'clock-journal was first published in 1918. In 2010 the Abendzeitung sold the Nuremberg edition and the advertising journal Der Frankenreport to "media-regional", a company of the Nuremberg publisher and radio operator Gunther Oschmann.
A close cooperation between the two editions in Munich and Nuremberg was preserved, as well as the title. The out of region section of the newspaper continued to be based in Munich; the Federal Cartel Office approved the acquisition on 1 March 2010. The circulation sales of the Abendzeitung Nürnberg went below 14,000 copies per day in the third quarter of 2012. On September 27, 2012, Managing Director Roland Finn announced the end of the Nuremberg edition to be 29 September 2012, to which 35 employees lost their jobs. In addition, the Abendzeitung tried to establish local publications for Stuttgart and Augsburg, to which the attempts were unsuccessful. Arno Makowsky Michael Radtke Kurt Röttgen Uwe Zimmer Udo Flade Rudolf Heizler Walter Tschuppik Abendzeitung online
A is a letter of the Cyrillic script. It represents an open central unrounded vowel /ä/, like the pronunciation of ⟨a⟩ in "father"; the Cyrillic letter А is romanized using the Latin letter A. The Cyrillic letter А was derived directly from the Greek letter Alpha. In the Early Cyrillic alphabet its name was азъ, meaning "I". In the Cyrillic numeral system, the Cyrillic letter А had a value of 1. Through history the Cyrillic letter A has had various shapes, but today is standardised on one that looks like the Latin letter A, including the italic and lower case forms. In most languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet – such as Ukrainian, Russian, Serbian and Bulgarian – the Cyrillic letter А represents the open central unrounded vowel /a/. In Ingush and Chechen the Cyrillic letter А represents both the open back unrounded vowel /ɑ/ and the mid-central vowel /ə/. In Tuvan the letter can be written as a double vowel. A a: Latin letter A Α α: Greek letter Alpha Cyrillic characters in Unicode The dictionary definition of А at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of а at Wiktionary
An azimuth is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system. The vector from an observer to a point of interest is projected perpendicularly onto a reference plane; when used as a celestial coordinate, the azimuth is the horizontal direction of a star or other astronomical object in the sky. The star is the point of interest, the reference plane is the local area around an observer on Earth's surface, the reference vector points to true north; the azimuth is the star's vector on the horizontal plane. Azimuth is measured in degrees; the concept is used in navigation, engineering, mapping and ballistics. In land navigation, azimuth is denoted alpha, α, defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line or meridian. Azimuth has been more defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from any fixed reference plane or established base direction line. Today, the reference plane for an azimuth is true north, measured as a 0° azimuth, though other angular units can be used.
Moving clockwise on a 360 degree circle, east has azimuth 90°, south 180°, west 270°. There are exceptions: some navigation systems use south as the reference vector. Any direction can be the reference vector, as long as it is defined. Quite azimuths or compass bearings are stated in a system in which either north or south can be the zero, the angle may be measured clockwise or anticlockwise from the zero. For example, a bearing might be described as " south, thirty degrees east", abbreviated "S30°E", the bearing 30 degrees in the eastward direction from south, i.e. the bearing 150 degrees clockwise from north. The reference direction, stated first, is always north or south, the turning direction, stated last, is east or west; the directions are chosen so that the angle, stated between them, is positive, between zero and 90 degrees. If the bearing happens to be in the direction of one of the cardinal points, a different notation, e.g. "due east", is used instead. The cartographical azimuth can be calculated when the coordinates of 2 points are known in a flat plane: α = 180 π atan2 Remark that the reference axes are swapped relative to the mathematical polar coordinate system and that the azimuth is clockwise relative to the north.
This is the reason why the Y axis in the above formula are swapped. If the azimuth becomes negative, one can always add 360°; the formula in radians would be easier: α = atan2 Caveat: Most computer libraries reverse the order of the atan2 parameters. When the coordinates of one point, the distance L, the azimuth α to another point are known, one can calculate its coordinates: X 2 = X 1 + L sin α Y 2 = Y 1 + L cos α This is used in triangulation. We are standing at latitude φ 1, longitude zero. We can get a fair approximation by assuming the Earth is a sphere, in which case the azimuth α is given by tan α = sin L cos φ 1 tan φ 2 − sin φ 1 cos L A better approximation assumes the Earth is a slightly-squashed sphere. Normal-section azimuth is the angle measured at our viewpoint by a theodolite whose axis is perpendicular to the surface of the spheroid; the difference is immeasurably small. Various websites will calculate geodetic azimuth. Formulas for calculating geodetic azimuth are linked in the distance
AstraZeneca plc is a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical company. In 2013, it moved its headquarters to Cambridge, UK, concentrated its R&D in three sites: Cambridge. AstraZeneca has a portfolio of products for major disease areas including cancer, gastrointestinal, neuroscience and inflammation; the company was founded in 1999 through the merger of the Swedish Astra AB and the English Zeneca Group. Since the merger it has been among the world's largest pharmaceutical companies and has made numerous corporate acquisitions, including Cambridge Antibody Technology, MedImmune and Definiens. AstraZeneca has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it has secondary listings on the OMX exchange. Astra AB was founded in 1913 in Sweden, by 400 doctors and apothecaries. In 1993 the British chemicals company ICI demerged its pharmaceuticals businesses and its agrochemicals and specialities businesses, to form Zeneca Group plc.
In 1999 Astra and Zeneca Group merged to form AstraZeneca plc, with its headquarters in London. In 1999, AstraZeneca identified as a new location for the company's US base the "Fairfax-plus" site in North Wilmington, Delaware. In 2002, its drug Iressa was approved in Japan as monotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. On 3 January 2004 Dr Robert Nolan, a former director of AstraZeneca, formed the management team of ZI Medical. In 2005, the company acquired KuDOS Pharmaceuticals, a UK biotech company, for £120m and entered into an anti-cancer collaboration agreement with Astex, it announced that it had become a Diamond Member of the Pennsylvania Bio commerce organisation. In 2006, following a collaborative relationship begun in 2004, AstraZeneca acquired Cambridge Antibody Technology for £702 million. In February 2007, AstraZeneca agreed to buy Arrow Therapeutics, a company focused on the discovery and development of anti-viral therapies, for $150 million. AstraZeneca's pipeline, "patent cliff", was the subject of much speculation in April 2007 leading to pipeline-boosting collaboration and acquisition activities.
A few days AstraZeneca acquired US company MedImmune for about $15.2 billion to gain flu vaccines and an anti-viral treatment for infants. In 2010, AstraZeneca acquired Novexel Corp, an antiobiotics discovery company formed in 2004 as a spin-off of the Sanofi-Aventis anti-infectives division. Astra acquired the experimental antibiotic NXL-104 through this acquisition. In 2011, AstraZeneca acquired a Chinese generics business. In February 2012, AstraZeneca and Amgen announced a collaboration on treatments for inflammatory diseases. In April 2012, AstraZeneca acquired Ardea Biosciences, another biotechnology company, for $1.26 billion. In June 2012, AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb announced a two-stage deal for the joint acquisition of the biotechnology company Amylin Pharmaceuticals, it was agreed that Bristol-Myers Squibb would acquire Amylin for $5.3 billion in cash and the assumption of $1.7 billion in debt, with AstraZeneca paying $3.4 billion in cash to Bristol-Myers Squibb, Amylin being folded into an existing diabetes joint venture between AstraZeneca and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
In March 2013 AstraZeneca announced plans for a major corporate restructuring, including the closure of its research and development activities at Alderley Park, investment of $500 million in the construction of a new research and development facility in Cambridge and the concentration of R&D in three locations: Cambridge, Maryland, Mölndal in Sweden, for research on traditional chemical drugs. AstraZeneca announced that it would move its corporate headquarters from London to Cambridge in 2016; that announcement included the announcement. It announced that it would focus on three therapeutic areas: Respiratory, Inflammation & Autoimmunity. In October 2013, AstraZeneca announced it would acquire biotech oncology company Spirogen for around $440 million. On 19 May 2014 AstraZeneca rejected a "final offer" from Pfizer of £55 per share, which valued the company at £69.4 billion. The companies had been meeting since January 2014. If the takeover had proceeded Pfizer would have become the world's biggest drug maker.
The transaction would have been the biggest foreign takeover of a British company. Many in Britain, including politicians and scientists, had opposed the deal. In July 2014 the company entered into a deal with Almirall to acquire its subsidiary Almirall Sofotec and its lung treatments including the COPD drug, Eklira; the $2.1 billion deal included an allocation of $1.2 billion for development in the respiratory franchise, one of AstraZeneca's three target therapeutic areas announced the year before. In August 2014 the company announced it had entered into a three-year collaboration with Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma on diabetic nephropathy. In September 2014 the company would join forces with Eli Lilly in developing and commercialising its candidate BACE inhibitor – AZD3292 – used for the treatment