Futureworld is a 1976 American science fiction thriller film directed by Richard T. Heffron and written by Mayo Simon and George Schenck, it is a sequel to the 1973 Michael Crichton film Westworld, is the second installment in the Westworld franchise. The film stars Peter Fonda, Blythe Danner, Arthur Hill, Stuart Margolin, John Ryan, Yul Brynner, who makes an appearance in a dream sequence. No other cast member from the original film appears and its writer-director, Michael Crichton, was not involved in this production; the film attempted to take the plot in a different direction from Westworld, but it was not well received by critics. It was made by American International Pictures. A short-lived television series called. Two years after the Westworld tragedy, the Delos corporation owners have reopened the park after spending $1.5 billion in safety improvements, shutting down Westworld. For publicity purposes, newspaper reporter Chuck Browning and TV reporter Tracy Ballard are invited to review the park.
Just before the junket is announced, Browning arranges to meet with a Delos employee who promises he has dirt on the corporation. During the meeting, the tipster dies after giving Browning an envelope. At the resort, guests choose from four theme parks: Spaworld, Medievalworld and Futureworld. Browning and Ballard choose Futureworld. Robots are available for sex as well as amusements like boxing, they are guided through the resort by Dr. Duffy, who shows them the marvels of Delos, demonstrating that all the problems have been fixed; the reporters are stunned to find that the Control Center is staffed by robots. That night, their dinners are drugged, while they sleep, medical tests are conducted so Delos can make clones of them. A visiting Russian general and a Japanese politician are tested for cloning. Back in her room a few hours Ballard wakes in a fright, remembering the experience as a nightmare. Ballard and Browning sneak out to explore the resort's underground areas, they end up triggering a cloning machine.
Just as they are about to be captured by the samurai, a mechanic named. He takes them back to his quarters, where he cohabits with a mechanic robot he has named Clark after Superman's alter-ego; the reporters interview Harry. The following day, while Ballard is testing out a Delos dream-recording device, Browning slips out to see Harry. Harry takes him to a locked door that he has never been able to enter, although robots enter. Realizing the key is in the robot's eyes, Harry steals its face, they open the door. Inside, they find clones of themselves, as well as clones of the Japanese leaders; the clones are being programmed through subliminal messages. Browning explains that his tipster's envelope was filled with clippings about leaders from around the world, realizing that Delos must be cloning the rich and powerful; the trio decides to flee the resort on the next plane. The reporters return to their apartment. Cloning the reporters would ensure favorable coverage, letting people forget about the Westworld tragedy.
Browning attacks Duffy but is overpowered with unnatural strength. Ballard shoots the doctor twice, Browning peels back Duffy's face to reveal that he is a robot; as Harry races to meet up with the reporters, he runs into Browning's clone. Ballard and Browning are chased by their own duplicates, all the while taunting them with details about their lives. One of each pair is killed, though which one is left unclear; when they find each other, Browning kisses Ballard. In the end, as they leave the resort with the other guests, Dr. Schneider meets them to make sure they are the clones; the reporters confirm. On the jetway, Browning tells Ballard that his editor is running the exposé on Delos, that the whole world will know what they are up to, that kissing her was his idea to figure out whether or not she was a duplicate; the film was developed by the studio who had produced Westworld. Michael Crichton did not wish to be involved in a sequel so they approached the original producer Paul Lazarus III.
He developed an idea set in a successor world to Westworld. He found a writer and developed a script MGM decided to only make one science fiction film that year, Logan's Run. Futureworld was put into turnaround. Lazarus had trouble setting up the film elsewhere because other studios were confused as to why MGM did not make it. Lazarus was approached by former MGM president James T. Aubrey who said he could get the film made, he arranged financing from Samuel Z. Arkoff's American International Pictures. Futureworld was the first major feature film. CGI was used for face; the animated hand was a digitized version of Edwin Catmull's left hand, ta
Cars 2 is a 2011 American computer-animated action-adventure comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It is the sequel to 2006's Cars, features the voices of Owen Wilson, Larry the Cable Guy, Michael Caine, Emily Mortimer, John Turturro, Eddie Izzard. In the film, race car Lightning McQueen and tow truck Mater head to Japan and Europe to compete in the World Grand Prix, but Mater becomes sidetracked with international espionage; the film was directed by John Lasseter, written by Ben Queen, produced by Denise Ream. With Lasseter's exit from Pixar in 2018, it marks the final film directed by him. Cars 2 was released in the United States on June 24, 2011; the film was presented in Disney Digital 3D and IMAX 3D, as well as traditional two-dimensional and IMAX formats. The film was first announced in 2008, alongside Up, Brave, it is the 12th animated film from the studio, it grossed $562 million worldwide. A sequel, Cars 3, was released on June 16, 2017. Finn McMissile, a British spy, infiltrates the world's largest untapped oil reserves owned by a group of lemon cars to rescue a fellow spy.
He witnesses the lemons led by Professor Zündapp, load an electromagnetic pulse emitter, disguised as a camera onto a shipping crate. After being discovered, he fakes his death. Lightning McQueen, now a four-time Piston Cup champion, returns to Radiator Springs. However, Italian formula race car, Francesco Bernoulli, challenges McQueen to the newly created World Grand Prix, led by its creator, Sir Miles Axlerod. McQueen and his best friend Mater — along with Luigi, Guido and Sarge — depart for Tokyo for the first race of the Grand Prix. At a World Grand Prix promotional event, Mater makes a scene after leaking oil and eating a bowl of Wasabi, angering McQueen. While cleaning up, Mater interrupts a fight between American spy, Rod "Torque" Redline and lemons Grem and Acer. Redline passes his information Mater, who Holley mistakes as a spy. Meanwhile, Redline is killed by Professor Zündapp and the other lemons. Zündapp informs his superior, an unknown mastermind. At the first race, three cars are ignited by the camera.
McQueen places second in the race after Bernoulli, due to Mater accidentally giving him bad racing advice while evading Zündapp's henchmen with help from Holley and Finn. McQueen snaps at Mater, abducted by Finn while attempting to return to Radiator Springs. After traveling to Paris to collect more information from Finn's old friend Tomber, they travel to Porto Corsa, where the next race is being held. During the race, Mater infiltrates the criminals' meeting, just as the camera is used on a few more cars, causing a multi-car pileup, while McQueen finishes first. Due to increased fears over Allinol's safety, Axlerod lifts the requirement to use it for the final race. However, when McQueen decides to continue using it, the criminals plot to kill McQueen in the next race in London; this spooks Mater, causing him to blow his cover and allow him and Holley to be captured. Mater and Holley are taken to and tied up inside the clock tower of the Big Ben. Mater learns that the camera did not function on McQueen, but the criminals tell him they planted a bomb in his pits as a backup plan, spurring him to break free and escape.
Finn and Holley realize that the bomb is on Mater's air filter. Mater has arrived at the pits when they tell him this, so he flees down the race course while McQueen chases after him. Finn apprehends Professor Zündapp; the other lemons arrive and outnumber Finn, Mater, McQueen, but they are soon rescued by the arrival of the other Radiator Springs residents. Mater uses evidence he has seen to reveal that Axlerod is the mastermind of the plot who placed the bomb on Mater. Mater forces Axlerod to deactivate the bomb, he and the other lemons are arrested. Mater receives an honorary knighthood from the Queen, while Sarge reveals that he changed McQueen's fuel from Allinol to Fillmore's organic biofuel, explaining why the camera did not work on him. Finn and Holley ask if Mater can join them on another mission, but he declines, participates with the World Grand Prix competitors in a race at Radiator Springs. Much of the cast from the original Cars remained intact for the sequel, but three voice actors of the original film have died since its release.
Joe Ranft died in an automobile accident on August 2005, ten months before Cars was released. The first film was dedicated in memoriam to him. Red appears in this film. George Carlin died of heart failure on June 22, 2008. Paul Newman died of cancer on September 26, 2008. After Newman's death, Lasseter said they would "see how the story goes with Doc Hudson." Doc was written out, with a few references to the character, where he is thought to have died before the events of the movie, as Mater says that he would have been proud for McQueen's Piston Cups, which have been renamed after Doc. In international versions of the film, the character Jeff Gorvette is replaced with race car drivers better known in the specific countries in his dialogue scenes. Mark Winterbottom as Frosty Fernando Alonso as Fernando Alonso Vitaly Petrov as Vitaly Petrov (Russian relea
Walt Disney World
The Walt Disney World Resort called Walt Disney World and Disney World, is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, in the United States, near the cities Orlando and Kissimmee. Opened on October 1, 1971, the resort is owned and operated by Disney Parks and Products, a division of The Walt Disney Company, it was first operated by Walt Disney World Company. The property, which covers nearly 25,000 acres, only half of, used, comprises four theme parks, two water parks, twenty-seven themed resort hotels, nine non-Disney hotels, several golf courses, a camping resort, other entertainment venues, including the outdoor shopping center Disney Springs. Designed to supplement Disneyland, in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955, the complex was developed by Walt Disney in the 1960s. "The Florida Project", as it was known, was intended to present a distinct vision with its own diverse set of attractions. Walt Disney's original plans called for the inclusion of an "Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow", a planned community intended to serve as a test bed for new city-living innovations.
Walt Disney died on December 1966, during construction of the complex. Without him spearheading the construction, the company built a resort similar to Disneyland, abandoning the experimental concepts for a planned community. Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex, in 1971, followed by Epcot, Disney's Hollywood Studios, Disney's Animal Kingdom. Today, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, with average annual attendance of more than 52 million; the resort is the flagship destination of Disney's worldwide corporate enterprise and has become a popular staple in American culture. In 1959, Walt Disney Productions began looking for land to house a second resort to supplement Disneyland in Anaheim, which had opened in 1955. Market surveys at the time revealed that only 5% of Disneyland's visitors came from east of the Mississippi River, where 75% of the population of the United States lived. Additionally, Walt Disney disliked the businesses that had sprung up around Disneyland and wanted more control over a larger area of land in the next project.
Walt Disney flew over a potential site in Orlando, Florida – one of many – in November 1963. After witnessing the well-developed network of roads and taking the planned construction of both Interstate 4 and Florida's Turnpike into account, with McCoy Air Force Base to the east, Disney selected a centrally-located site near Bay Lake. To avoid a burst of land speculation, Walt Disney World Company used various dummy corporations to acquire 30,500 acres of land. In May 1965, some of these major land transactions were recorded a few miles southwest of Orlando in Osceola County. In addition, two large tracts totaling $1.5 million were sold, smaller tracts of flatlands and cattle pastures were purchased by exotically-named companies such as the "Ayefour Corporation", "Latin-American Development and Management Corporation" and the "Reedy Creek Ranch Corporation". Some are now memorialized on a window above Main Street, U. S. A. in Magic Kingdom. The smaller parcels of land acquired were called "outs".
They were 5-acre lots sold to investors. Most of the owners in the 1960s were happy to get rid of the land, swamp at the time. Another issue was the mineral rights to the land. Without the transfer of these rights, Tufts could come in at any time and demand the removal of buildings to obtain minerals. Disney's team negotiated a deal with Tufts to buy the mineral rights for $15,000. Working in secrecy, real estate agents unaware of their client's identity began making offers to landowners in April 1964 in parts of southwest Orange and northwest Osceola counties; the agents were careful not to reveal the extent of their intentions, they were able to negotiate numerous land contracts with some including large tracts of land for as little as $100 an acre. With the understanding that the recording of the first deeds would trigger intense public scrutiny, Disney delayed the filing of paperwork until a large portion of the land was under contract. Early rumors and speculation about the land purchases assumed possible development by NASA in support of the nearby Kennedy Space Center, as well as references to other famous investors such as Ford, the Rockefellers, Howard Hughes.
An Orlando Sentinel news article published weeks on May 20, 1965, acknowledged a popular rumor that Disney was building an "East Coast" version of Disneyland. However, the publication denied its accuracy based on an earlier interview with Disney at Kennedy Space Center, in which he claimed a $50 million investment was in the works for Disneyland, that he had no interest in building a new park. In October 1965, editor Emily Bavar from the Sentinel visited Disneyland during the park's 10th-anniversary celebration. In an interview with Disney, she asked him if he was behind recent land purchases in Central Florida, his reaction, combined with other research obtained during her Anaheim visit, led Bavar to author a story on October 21, 1965, where she predicted that Disney was building a second theme park in Florida. Three days after gathering more information from various sources, the Sentinel published another article headlined, "We Say:'Mystery Industry' Is Disney". Walt Disney had planned to publicly reveal Disney World on November 15, 1965, but in light of the Sentinel story, Disney asked
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
Space Mountain is the name of a space-themed indoor roller coaster attraction located at five of the six Disneyland-style Disney Parks. Although all five versions of the attraction are different in nature, all have a similar conical exterior façade, a landmark for the respective park; the original Space Mountain coaster opened in 1975 at Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. There are two tracks within this attraction and Omega, which passengers can choose from. Other versions of the attraction were built at the other Disney parks; the Space Mountain concept was a descendant of the first Disney "mountain" attraction, the Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, which opened in 1959. The Matterhorn's success had convinced Walt Disney that thrilling rides did have a place in his park. WED partnered with Arrow Development Company, the same company that had helped design the Matterhorn's roller coaster systems years before; the initial concept was to have four separate tracks, but the technology available at the time, combined with the amount of space required versus that, available within Disneyland, made such a design impossible.
Walt Disney's death in December 1966 and the new emphasis on preparing for the newly announced Disney World project forced WED to put aside the design of Space Mountain indefinitely. The Magic Kingdom's early success, its unexpected popularity with teens and young adults, prompted WED to begin planning thrill rides for the new park shortly after its opening in October 1971. A new Matterhorn Bobsleds attraction was considered, but it wouldn't fit within Florida's Fantasyland. Designers returned to designing Space Mountain; the Magic Kingdom's Tomorrowland had the right amount of available land, computing technology had improved since the initial design phases. However, it was decided the mountain would be built outside the park, on the opposite side of the train tracks that act as the perimeter of the park. To help cover the cost of developing and building Space Mountain, Card Walker, the CEO of Walt Disney Productions, convinced RCA chairman Robert Sarnoff to sponsor the new attraction. Space Mountain opened on January 15, 1975.
The success of Walt Disney World's Space Mountain prompted designers to revisit their original plan to build one for Disneyland. After two years of construction, the $20 million complex opened on May 27, 1977, including the roller coaster, 1,100-seat Space Stage, 670-seat Space Place and Starcade. Six of the original seven Mercury astronauts attended Space Mountain's opening — Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, Senator John Glenn, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, Deke Slayton; the lone exception was Gus Grissom. Due in part to the opening of Space Mountain, the Memorial Day day attendance record was set, with 185,500 guests over the three-day period. Space Mountain at Disneyland was designed by Bill Watkins of Walt Disney Imagineering, including a tubular steel track design awarded U. S. Patent 4,029,019. Due to space limitations, Disneyland's Space Mountain consists of only one track as opposed to the Magic Kingdom's two, is of a different layout than either track of the latter park's. Space Mountain at Tokyo Disneyland opened with the park on April 15, 1983.
It was the first version of Space Mountain to open concurrently with the park. From its opening in 1983 and until late 2006, Tokyo Disneyland's Space Mountain was an exact clone of Disneyland's Space Mountain; the ride was redesigned to have a more sci-fi futuristic look to it similar to refurbished Walt Disney World version, with new effects, a new spaceport which features a futuristic spaceship hanging from the ceiling. Like its Walt Disney World counterpart, there is no ride audio to the seats; the version at Disneyland Paris opened on June 1995, three years after the opening of the park. It was called De la Terre à la Lune, was designed as a view on space travel from a Jules Verne-era perspective, based on the novel From the Earth to the Moon; the track is different from the other four, as it's the only one to include a launch and 3 inversions. It underwent modifications in 2005 and became Space Mountain: Mission 2; this journey was different to the first as it took riders beyond the Moon, to the edge of the universe.
In January 2015 the ride closed for yet another refurbishment and was reopened in August 2015. The ride temporarily closed in 2017 on January 8 and was replaced with Star Wars: Hyperspace Mountain on May 7. Mission 2 will return sometime in 2019. Space Mountain at Hong Kong Disneyland is based on the refurbished Space Mountain at Disneyland, with a similar soundtrack and the same layout, it features new show elements not presented in the refurbished California version. It will not feature the Rockin' Space Mountain configuration, featured in Disneyland's Space Mountain in 2007. Unlike most Space Mountains, the boarding area for the attraction is quite small. Not present is a Space Station of its two most similar counterparts at Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland. Instead, a dark queue featuring neon earth-tone colored planets along with star patterns decorate the area. Lining the walls of the station are colored neon light bars that are used for lighting and decoration. 1964: Walt Disney planned a roller coaster for Disneyland called Space Port, which would have featured four separate tracks.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Instant film is a type of photographic film introduced by Polaroid to be used in an instant camera. The film contains the chemicals needed for developing and fixing the photograph, the instant camera exposes and initiates the developing process after a photo has been taken. In earlier Polaroid instant cameras the film is pulled through rollers which breaks open a pod containing a reagent, spread between the exposed negative and receiving positive sheet; this film sandwich develops for some time after which the positive sheet is peeled away from the negative to reveal the developed photo. In 1972, Polaroid introduced integral film, which incorporated timing and receiving layers to automatically develop and fix the photo without any intervention from the photographer. Instant film is available in sizes from 24 mm × 36 mm up to 50.8 cm × 61 cm size, with the most popular film sizes for consumer snapshots being 83 mm × 108 mm. Early instant film was distributed on rolls and current films are supplied in packs of 8 or 10 sheets, single sheet films for use in large format cameras with a compatible back.
Though the quality of integral instant film is not as good as conventional film, peel apart black and white film, to a lesser extent color film approached the quality of traditional film types. Instant film was used where it was undesirable to have to wait for a roll of conventional film to be finished and processed, e.g. documenting evidence in law enforcement, in health care and scientific applications, producing photographs for passports and other identity documents, or for snapshots to be seen immediately. Some photographers use instant film for test shots, to see how a subject or setup looks before using conventional film for the final exposure. Instant film is used by artists to achieve effects that are impossible to accomplish with traditional photography, by manipulating the emulsion during the developing process, or separating the image emulsion from the film base. Instant film has been supplanted for most purposes by digital photography, which allows the result to be viewed on a display screen or printed with dye sublimation, inkjet, or laser home or professional printers.
Instant film is notable for having had a wider range of film speeds available than other negative films of the same era, having been produced in ISO 4 to ISO 20,000. Current instant film formats have an ISO between 100 and 1000. Two companies manufacture instant film: Fujifilm, Polaroid Originals for older Polaroid cameras and its I-Type cameras. Instant positive film uses diffusion transfer to move the dyes from the negative to the positive via a reagent; the process varies according to the film type. In 1947 Edwin H. Land introduced the Polaroid-Land process; the first instant films produced sepia tone photos. A negative sheet is exposed inside the camera lined up with a positive sheet and squeezed through a set of rollers which spread a reagent between the two layers, creating a developing film "sandwich"; the negative develops after which some of the unexposed silver halide grains are solubilized by the reagent and transferred by diffusion from the negative to the positive. After a minute, depending on film type and ambient temperature, the negative is peeled away to reveal the picture, transferred to the positive receiving sheet.
True black and white films were released in 1950 after problems with chemistry stabilization were overcome. Color film is much more complex due to multiple layers of dye; the negative consists of three emulsion layers sensitive to the primary colors each with a layer of developing dye beneath it of the complementary color. Once light exposed the negative, the reagent is spread between the negative and positive and the developing dye layer migrates to the positive surface where it forms the photo. Emulsion layers exposed to their respective color block the complementary dye below it, reproducing the original color. For example, a photo of a blue sky would expose the blue emulsion, blocking all the yellow dye beneath it and allowing the magenta and cyan dye layers to migrate to the positive to form blue; this process is similar to subtractive color instant film with added receiving layers. Land's solution was to incorporate an opacifier, which would darken when ejected from the camera, become clear to reveal the photograph.
The film itself integrates all the layers to expose and fix the photo into a plastic envelope and frame associated with a Polaroid photo. Additive film uses a color mask of microscopically thin transparent red and blue lines and a black and white emulsion layer to reproduce color images in transparency film; the resulting dye developers block the colors not needed and project the color or combination of colors which form in the resulting image. Since the lines are so close to each other, the human eye blended the primary colors together to form the correct color, much like an LCD display or television. For instance, a photo of a yellow flower would expose the emulsion beneath the red and green masks and not the blue mask; the developing process removed the exposed emulsion and diffused the unexposed dye developer to its rec