Sarah Gadon is a Canadian actress. She first gained recognition with roles in David Cronenbergs A Dangerous Method and she has guest starred in a number of notable television series including Are You Afraid of the Dark. Dark Oracle, Doc, In a Heartbeat, La Femme Nikita, Life with Derek and she does voice-acting, lending her voice to Mattimeo, My Dad the Rock Star, Ruby Gloom, Total Drama and Wayside. In 2015, she co-starred in Miramaxs supernatural thriller The 9th Life of Louis Drax, in 2016, she starred in the Hulu adaptation of Stephen Kings miniseries 11.22.63, in which she portrayed James Francos love interest, Sadie. Gadon was born in Toronto, Ontario, to a psychologist father and teacher mother and she has an older brother named James. Gadon has British and Italian ancestry and she graduated high school as an Ontario Scholar from Vaughan Road Academy in 2005. By 2014, she had completed her studies in the University of Torontos Cinema Studies Institute at Innis College, Gadon started acting at the age of 10 with her first acting role as Julia in an episode of La Femme Nikita.
For the next few years, she took roles in various television series. Young Laura Burnham in Twice in a Lifetime, Catherine Hartman in Mutant X, Vicki in Life with Derek and she has a number of television films to her credit. She was nominated for the Young Artist Award for Best Ensemble in a TV movie for her first film, The Other Me, portraying Heather. Other roles include Samantha in What Girls Learn, Amanda in Cadet Kelly, Julia Norton in Code Breakers and Celeste Mercier in The Cutting Edge, Chasing the Dream. Gadon had a role in many television series, Zoe Kessler in The Border, Katie Atkins in Being Erica, Georgia Bravin in Happy Town. She is behind the voice of the character in the animated series Ruby Gloom, Beth in Total Drama and Portia in Friends. Gadon was nominated for a Gemini Award in 2008 for Best Individual or Ensemble Performance in an Animated Program or Series for her work in Ruby Gloom and she shared in this nomination with Emily Hampshire. In 2005, she filmed for Where Love Reigns, a promotional film co-starring Douglas Henshall and her filmography includes both feature length and short films.
Her first feature film was Fast Food High where she portrayed Zoe and she portrayed Margaret in the dark comedy Siblings, Priscilla in Charlie Bartlett and Laura in Leslie, My Name is Evil. Her short film work includes Haley in Burgeon and Fade, Julia in Grange Avenue and Fade won the Special Jury Award at the WorldFest Houston Festival for original dramatic short film. She starred in the indie film, The Origin of Teddy Bears
Jeremy Jack Thomas, CBE is a British film producer and chairman of Recorded Picture Company. He produced Bernardo Bertoluccis The Last Emperor, which won the 1988 Academy Award for Best Picture, in 2006 he received a European Film Award for Outstanding European Achievement in World Cinema. His father was director Ralph Thomas, while his uncle Gerald Thomas directed all of the films in the Carry on franchise, Cinema has always been a part of Thomas life. He was born in London, England into a family with his father, Ralph Philip Thomas. His childhood ambition was to work in cinema, after editing Philippe Moras Brother, Can You Spare a Dime. He produced his first film Mad Dog Morgan in 1974 in Australia and he returned to England to produce Jerzy Skolimowskis The Shout, which won the Grand Prix de Jury at the Cannes Film Festival. Thomas films are all individual and his independence of spirit has paid off both artistically and commercially. Lawrence, and The Hit directed by Stephen Frears, in 1986, Thomas produced Bernardo Bertoluccis epic, The Last Emperor, an independently financed project that was three years in the making.
A commercial and critical triumph, the film swept the board at the 1987 Academy Awards, burroughs Naked Lunch, J. G. Ballards Crash and Christopher Hamptons A Dangerous Method. In 1997 Thomas directed All the Little Animals, starring John Hurt and Christian Bale and his film, Jon Amiels Creation, about the life of Charles Darwin, with Paul Bettany and Jennifer Connelly in the leads, was the Opening Gala of the 2009 Toronto International Film Festival. In 2010, Thomas premiered Jerzy Skolimowskis Essential Killing and Takashi Miikes 13 Assassins at the Venice Film Festival, Essential Killing went on to win the Jury Prize and two others, a triple win unprecedented in the Festivals history. He executive-produced Wim Wenders 3D dance film Pina, which premiered at the 2011 Berlinale, at Cannes 2011, Thomas premiered Takashi Miikes new film, Hara-Kiri, Death of a Samurai, the first 3D film to show in Competition. Grant, Demian Bichir and Emilia Clarke, recent releases include an adaptation of J. G.
Thomas has said of his ethos, In 1998, Thomas founded his international sales arm, HanWay Films, HanWay has since expanded to sell third party projects as well as handling the libraries of many of the worlds best-known filmmakers. He has been President of the Jury at Tokyo Film Festival, San Sebastian Film Festival, Berlin Film Festival and he was made a Life Fellow of the British Film Institute in 2000. Thomas was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours, Mad Dog Morgan The Shout The Great Rock n Roll Swindle Bad Timing Eureka Merry Christmas, Mr
Sabina Nikolayevna Spielrein was a Russian physician and one of the first female psychoanalysts. She met and had a relationship with Sigmund Freud. One of her more famous analysands was the Swiss developmental psychologist and she worked as a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and paediatrician in Switzerland and Russia. In a thirty-year professional career, she published over 35 papers in three languages, covering psychoanalysis, developmental psychology, psycholinguistics and educational psychology. Her best known and perhaps most influential published work in the field of psychoanalysis is the essay titled Destruction as the Cause of Coming Into Being and she was born in 1885 into a wealthy Jewish family in Rostov-on-Don, Russian Empire. Her mother Eva Lublinskaya was the daughter and granddaughter of rabbis from Yekaterinoslav, Eva trained as a dentist, but did not practise. Sabinas father Nikolai Spielrein was an agronomist, after moving from Warsaw to Rostov, he became a successful merchant. On her birth certificate, Sabina appeared as Sheyve Naftulovna, but throughout her life and she was the eldest of five children.
All three of her brothers became eminent scientists, one of them, Isaac Spielrein, was a Soviet psychologist, a pioneer of work psychology. From her early childhood, Sabina was highly imaginative and believed that she had a calling to achieve greatness. However, her parents marriage was turbulent and she experienced physical violence from both of them and she suffered from multiple somatic symptoms and obsessions. Some commentators believe she may have sexually abused by someone in the family. She attended a Froebel school followed by the Yekaterinskaya Gymnasium in Rostov and she learned to speak three languages fluently. During her teens, she continued to be troubled emotionally and became infatuated first with her history teacher, while at school, she resolved to go abroad to train as a doctor, with the approval of her rabbinic grandfather. At the end of her schooling she was awarded a gold medal, after an unsuccessful stay in a Swiss sanatorium, where she developed another infatuation with one of the doctors, she was admitted to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zurich in August 1904.
Its director was Eugen Bleuler, who ran it as a community with social activities for the patients including gardening, drama. One of Bleulers assistants was Carl Jung, afterwards appointed as deputy director, in the days following her admission, Spielrein disclosed to Jung that her father had often beaten her, and that she was troubled by masochistic fantasies of being beaten. Bleuler ensured that she was separated from her family, requiring her father and she made a rapid recovery, and by October was able to apply for medical school and to start assisting Jung with word association tests in his laboratory
Crash (1996 film)
Crash is a 1996 British-Canadian psychological thriller film written and directed by David Cronenberg based on J. G. Ballards 1973 novel of the same name. It tells the story of a group of people who take pleasure from car crashes. The film stars James Spader, Deborah Kara Unger, Elias Koteas, Holly Hunter, the film generated considerable controversy upon its release and opened to mixed and highly divergent reactions from critics. While some praised the film for its premise and originality, others criticized its combination of graphic sexuality. It premiered at the Cannes Film Festival, where it won the Special Jury Prize, Film producer James Ballard and his wife, are in an open marriage. The couple engage in various infidelities but, between them, have unenthusiastic sex and their arousal is heightened by discussing the intimate details of their extramarital sex. While driving home from work one night, Ballards car collides head-on with another. While trapped in the wreckage, the driver, Dr. Helen Remington, wife of the dead passenger.
While recovering, Ballard meets Remington again, as well as a man named Vaughan, while leaving the hospital and Ballard begin an affair, one primarily fueled by their shared experience of the car crash. When Transport Ministry officials break up the event, Ballard flees with Remington, Ballard becomes one of Vaughans followers who fetishize car crashes, obsessively watching car safety test videos and photographing traffic collisions. Ballard drives Vaughans Lincoln convertible around the city while Vaughan picks up and uses street prostitutes and, the films sexual couplings in cars are not restricted to heterosexual experiences. While watching videos of car crashes, Remington becomes extremely aroused, later and Ballard eventually turn towards each other and have sex while, later and Remington have sex with each other. The films climax begins with Vaughans death and ends with Ballard being involved in another car crash. Their fetish for car crashes has, ironically enough, had a bonding effect on the Ballards marriage.
James Spader as James Ballard Deborah Kara Unger as Catherine Ballard Elias Koteas as Vaughan Holly Hunter as Dr, the film was extremely controversial, as was the book, because of its vivid depictions of graphic sexual acts instigated by violence. In the United States, the film was released in both NC-17 and R versions, the ratings controversy has now subsided and the film is readily available on DVD. In Australia, a cut version rated R18+ was given a limited release due to controversy, it was released uncut on VHS in early 1997. The American NC-17 version was branded with the tagline The most controversial film in years, the movie was denounced by the Municipality of Naples and the environmental association Legambiente, but it was eventually distributed
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg and he qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna. Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology, Freud lived and worked in Vienna, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud left Austria to escape the Nazis and he died in exile in the United Kingdom in 1939. In creating psychoanalysis, Freud developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association and discovered transference, Freuds redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory. His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the analysis of symptom formation. On this basis Freud elaborated his theory of the unconscious and went on to develop a model of psychic structure comprising id, in his work Freud developed a wide-ranging interpretation and critique of religion and culture.
Though in overall decline as a diagnostic and clinical practice, psychoanalysis remains influential within psychology and psychotherapy, Freuds work has suffused contemporary Western thought and popular culture. In the words of W. H. Audens 1940 poetic tribute, by the time of Freuds death, Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the first of eight children. Both of his parents were from Galicia, in modern-day Ukraine and his father, Jakob Freud, a wool merchant, had two sons and Philipp, by his first marriage. Jakobs family were Hasidic Jews, and although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition and he and Freuds mother, Amalia Nathansohn, who was 20 years younger and his third wife, were married by Rabbi Isaac Noah Mannheimer on 29 July 1855. They were struggling financially and living in a room, in a locksmiths house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born. He was born with a caul, which his mother saw as an omen for the boys future.
In 1859, the Freud family left Freiberg, Freuds half brothers emigrated to Manchester, parting him from the inseparable playmate of his early childhood, Emanuels son, John. Jakob Freud took his wife and two children firstly to Leipzig and in 1860 to Vienna where four sisters and a brother were born, Marie, Paula, in 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school. He proved an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors and he loved literature and was proficient in German, Italian, English, Hebrew and Greek. Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17, in 1876, Freud spent four weeks at Clauss zoological research station in Trieste, dissecting hundreds of eels in an inconclusive search for their male reproductive organs. He graduated with an MD in 1881, in 1882, Freud began his medical career at the Vienna General Hospital
William S. Burroughs
William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer. Burroughs was a figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories, five books have been published of his interviews and correspondences. He collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians and he was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. He was born into a family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence, but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties and he left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, and anthropology as a postgraduate, and attended medical school in Vienna. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy.
In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, J. G. Burroughs had one child, William S. Burroughs, Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering an attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee. His was a prominent family of English ancestry in St. Louis and his grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughss mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee and his maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran an antique and gift shop, Cobblestone Gardens, first in St. Louis, in Palm Beach, as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Ave. in St. Louiss Central West End. He attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay and he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, which was stressful for him.
The school was a school for the wealthy, where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens. Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy, according to his own account, he destroyed these later, ashamed of their content. He became a well-known homosexual writer after the publication of Naked Lunch in 1959, some say that he was expelled from Los Alamos after taking chloral hydrate in Santa Fe with a fellow student. Yet, according to his own account, he left voluntarily, Burroughs finished high school at Taylor School in Clayton, and in 1932, left home to pursue an arts degree at Harvard University, where he was affiliated with Adams House
David Paul Cronenberg, CC OOnt FRSC is a Canadian filmmaker and author. Cronenberg is one of the originators of what is commonly known as the body horror or visceral horror genre. This style of filmmaking explores peoples fears of bodily transformation and infection, in his films, the psychological is typically intertwined with the physical. In the first half of his career, he explored these themes mostly through horror and science fiction and his films have won numerous awards, including the Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival for his film Crash. The Village Voice called him the most audacious and challenging narrative director in the English-speaking world, born in Toronto, Cronenberg is the son of Esther, a musician, and Milton Cronenberg, a writer and editor. He was raised in a middle-class progressive Jewish family and his father was born in Baltimore and his mother was born in Toronto, all of his grandparents were from Lithuania. He began writing as a child and wrote constantly and he attended high school at Harbord Collegiate Institute and North Toronto Collegiate Institute.
Cronenbergs fascination with the film Winter Kept Us Warm, by classmate David Secter and he began frequenting film camera rental houses, learning the art of filmmaking, and made two 16mm films. Inspired by the New York underground film scene, he founded the Toronto Film Co-op with Iain Ewing, after taking a year off to travel in Europe, he returned to Canada in 1967 and graduated from University College at the top of his class. After two short films and two short art-house features Cronenberg went into partnership with Ivan Reitman. The Canadian government provided financing for his films throughout the 1970s and he alternated his signature body horror films such as Shivers with projects reflecting his interest in car racing and bike gangs. Rabid exploited the unexpected acting talents of pornographic actress Marilyn Chambers, Rabid was a breakthrough with international distributors and his next two horror features gained stronger support. Cronenbergs films follow a progression, a movement from the social world to the inner life.
In his early films, scientists modify human bodies, which results in the breakdown of social order, in his middle period, the chaos wrought by the scientist is more personal. In the period, the scientist himself is altered by his experiment and this trajectory culminates in Dead Ringers in which a twin pair of gynecologists spiral into codependency and drug addiction. His films tend more to the psychological, often contrasting subjective and objective realities, Cronenberg has cited William S. Burroughs and Vladimir Nabokov as influences. The novel was considered unfilmable, and Cronenberg acknowledged that a translation into film would cost 400 million dollars. Some of the moments are presented in this manner within the film
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. His work has been not only in psychiatry but in anthropology, literature, philosophy. As a notable research scientist based at the famous Burghölzli hospital, under Eugen Bleuler, he came to the attention of the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated on an initially joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw in the man the potential heir he had been seeking to carry on his new science of psychoanalysis. Jungs researches and personal vision, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleagues dogma and this break was to have historic as well as painful personal repercussions that have lasted to this day. Jung was an artist and builder as well as a prolific writer, many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the out of each individuals conscious and unconscious elements.
Jung considered it to be the task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the unconscious, the psychological complex. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and their first child, born in 1873 was a boy named Paul who survived only a few days. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, and his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes, the given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist and editor. When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a prosperous parish in Laufen. Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman, she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night, although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious.
He reported that one night he saw a luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck. Jung had a relationship with his father. Jungs mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for a physical ailment. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jungs unmarried sister in Basel, Emilie Jungs continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her sons attitude towards women — one of innate unreliability
Vincent Cassel is a French actor best known to English-speaking audiences through his film performances in Oceans Twelve and Oceans Thirteen, as well as Black Swan. Cassel is renowned for playing the infamous French bank-robber Jacques Mesrine in Mesrine, Killer Instinct and Mesrine, Cassel was born on 23 November 1966 in Paris, France, to Sabine Litique, and French actor Jean-Pierre Cassel. Cassels brother, Mathias, is a rapper with the group Assassin under the name Rockin Squat and his half-sister, Cécile Cassel, is an actress. Cassels breakthrough role was in Mathieu Kassovitzs critically acclaimed film La Haine where he played a youth from the deprived outskirts of Paris. In 2006, he appeared in Sheitan, in which he played a shepherd who carries out satanic rituals, in 2008, he appeared in two movies about Jacques Mesrine, who was Frances public enemy number one in the seventies. Cassel received the 2009 Cesar award for best actor for his performance in Mesrine directed by Jean-Francois Richet, an early appearance on British television was as Nicoles boyfriend in the 1994 Renault Clio advert which was used in the UK.
In October 2008, Cassel was signed to be the face of a new Yves Saint Laurent mens fragrance, the new fragrance, La Nuit de lHomme, was launched worldwide in March 2009. In 2009, he made his debut as a singer on Zap Mamas album ReCreation, singing alongside them on the singles Paroles, Paroles and he played Thomas Leroy in Darren Aronofskys critically acclaimed Black Swan, alongside Natalie Portman and Mila Kunis. He will play Zumi in Rupert Sanderss samurai adventure fantasy film The Lost Sea Horizon, opposite Sandra Bullock, Cassel met Italian actress Monica Bellucci on the set of their 1996 film The Apartment. They married in 1999, and have two daughters, Deva and Léonie and Bellucci announced their divorce on 26 August 2013. Cassel has a passion for the art of capoeira and displayed his talent in the movie Oceans Twelve. He trains in wing chun, since 2013, Cassel lives in Rio de Janeiro, initially in Arpoador and after their divorce, in Morro do Vidigal. He is known for having great identification with Brazil, being a specialist in capoeira, besides his native French, Cassel speaks English, Portuguese and basic conversational Russian which he learned for his role in Eastern Promises.
Vincent Cassels Films at subtitledonline. com Vincent Cassel at the Internet Movie Database CNN interview with Vincent Cassel
Venice Film Festival
The film festival is part of the Venice Biennale, which was founded by the Venetian City Council in 1895. The film festival has taken place in late August or early September on the island of the Lido, Venice. Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi, since its inception the Venice Film Festival has grown into one of the most prestigious film festivals in the world. The 74th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled to be held from 30 August to 9 September 2017, the first edition of the Venice Film Festival was carried out from the 6 to the 21 of August in 1932. The festival began with an idea of the president of the Venice Biennale Count Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata and Luciano De Feo, with good reason, the festival was considered the first international event of its type, receiving strong support from authorities. This first edition was held on the terrace of the Hotel Excelsior on the Venice Lido, and at that stage it was not a competitive event.
The very first film to be shown in the history of the Festival was Rouben Mamoulians Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the second edition was held two years later, from 1 to 20 of August in 1934. For the first time it included a competition, at least 19 countries took part with over 300 accredited journalists. The Mussolini Cup was introduced for best foreign film and best Italian film, other awards were the Great Gold Medals of the National Fascist Association for Entertainment to best actor and actress. The prize for best foreign film went to Robert J. Flahertys Man of Aran and was a confirmation of the taste of the time for auteur documentaries, starting in 1935, the Festival became a yearly event under the direction of Ottavio Croze. The actors award was renamed Volpi Cup, in 1936 an international jury was nominated for the first time and in 1937 the new Cinema Palace, designed by the architect Luigi Quagliata, was inaugurated. The 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the review, the conclusion of the Second World War divides the decade in two.
Before 1938 political pressures distorted and ruined the festival, in addition, few countries participated and there was an absolute monopoly of institutions and directors that were members of the Rome-Berlin Axis. The festival resumed full speed in 1946, after the war, with the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held at the Doges Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants, surely it can be considered one of the greatest editions in the history of the festival. For the next twenty years the festival continued its development and expansion in accordance with the plan set in motion after the war. In 1963 the winds of change blow strongly during Luigi Chiarini’s directorship of the festival, during the years of his presidency, Chiarini aspired to renew the spirit and the structures of the festival, pushing for a total reorganization of the entire system. The social and political unrest of 1968 had strong repercussions on the Venice Bienniale, from 1969 to 1979 no prizes were awarded and the festival returned to the non-competitiveness of the first edition
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government