A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
Bud Jamison was an American film actor. He appeared in 450 films between 1915 and 1944. Born in Vallejo, Jamison joined the ranks of stage and vaudeville performers making movies in California. Jamison's husky build and willingness to participate in messy slapstick and rowdy action guaranteed him work in silent comedies. In 1915 he was a member of Charlie Chaplin's stock company at the Essanay studio. From there he moved to the Hal Roach studio, playing hot-tempered comic foils for Harold Lloyd, Snub Pollard, Stan Laurel. In the 1920s he joined Universal Pictures' short-comedy contingent, worked in Mack Sennett comedies. In his earliest films Jamison looked too young to be convincing in heavy makeup as a veteran policeman, detective, or authority figure; as the years progressed, he grew into these roles, by the time sound films arrived he was well established as a reliable character comedian. Jamison had a superb tenor singing voice, loved to sing when not filming. Sound movies gave producers a chance to exploit his singing, for the rest of his career he would be called upon to vocalize in films.
A brief series of color travelogues filmed in 1930, featured Jamison and comic Jimmie Adams as "The Rolling Stones", two singing vagabonds seeing the country. Jamison would be hired just for his singing, as in Pot o' Gold where he plays a vagrant who harmonizes in jail, he sings "You'll Never Know Just What Tears Are" in The Three Stooges 1939 film A Ducking They Did Go. Jamison continued to play cops, bosses and various professional men who clash with comedy stars, he appeared opposite Bing Crosby, W. C. Fields, Andy Clyde in Sennett's talkies. Like other members of the two-reel-comedy community, he found work at various studios: Hal Roach, Educational Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, Columbia Pictures. Jamison is best known for his Columbia Stooge shorts. Including their debut, Woman Haters. Moe Howard of the Stooges fondly recalled singing barbershop harmony with Charley Chase, actor Vernon Dent, Jamison many times on movie sets. Jamison was a Type 2 diabetic in his years. A devout Christian Scientist, he died on September 30, 1944 at age 50 after refusing treatment for kidney cancer.
He is buried in Inglewood Park Cemetery in California. Bud Jamison on IMDb Bud Jamison at Find a Grave Bud Jamison at threestooges.net
Granville Richard Seymour Redmond was an American landscape painter and exponent of Tonalism and California Impressionism. He was an occasional actor for his friend Charlie Chaplin. Redmond was born in Pennsylvania, on March 9, 1871 to a hearing family, he contracted Scarlet Fever at around 2½ to the age of 3. This may have prompted his family's decision to move from the East Coast to San Jose, California: the possibility for his education at the Berkeley School for the Deaf. Granville attended the California School for the Deaf in Berkeley from 1879 to 1890 where his artistic talents were recognized and encouraged. There his teacher Theophilus d'Estrella taught him painting and pantomime; when he graduated from CSD, Redmond enrolled at another CSD: the California School of Design in San Francisco, where he worked for three years with teachers such as Arthur Frank Mathews and Amédée Joullin. He famously won the W. E. Brown Medal of Excellence, he associated including Gottardo Piazzoni and Giuseppe Cadenasso.
Piazzoni learned American Sign Language, he and Redmond became lifelong friends. They lived together in Tiburon, California. In 1893 Redmond won a scholarship from the California School of the Deaf which made it possible for him to study in Paris at the Académie Julian under teachers Jean-Paul Laurens and Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant, he roomed with another graduate of the California School for the Deaf. In 1895 in Paris his painting Matin d'Hiver was accepted for the Paris Salon. In 1898, he settled in Los Angeles, he was married in 1899 to a former student of the Illinois School for the Deaf. Together they had three children. While living in Los Angeles, he became friends with Charles Chaplin, who admired the natural expressiveness of a deaf person using American Sign Language. Chaplin asked Redmond to help him develop the techniques Chaplin used in his silent films. Chaplin, impressed with Redmond's skill, gave Redmond a studio on the movie lot, collected his paintings, sponsored him in silent acting roles, including the sculptor in City Lights.
Chaplin told a writer for The Silent Worker of a Redmond painting, "I could look at it for hours. It means. During this time Redmond did not neglect his painting. Through Chaplin he met Los Angeles neighbor artists Norman St. Clair, they showed works at the Spring Exhibition held in San Francisco in 1904. By 1905 Redmond was receiving considerable recognition as a leading landscape painter and bold colorist, he died on May 1935 in Los Angeles. Granville Redmond Fine Art Galley of images, California. Irvine Museum, California. Laguna Art Museum, California. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Huntington Library, California. Cantor Arts Center, Stanford University. De Young Museum, San Francisco. Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. California School for the Deaf, Fremont. New York City Museum, New York. Oakland Museum, California. K. Nathan Gallery, La Jolla, California. Gold Medal, W. E. Brown Award, California School of Design, 1891. Medal, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. Silver Medal, Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition, Washington, 1909.
Biographical information at AskART.com Artcyclopedia list of galleries where Redmond's works are shown Redmond Biography Granville Redmond on IMDb Collections at AllPainter.com
Henry Bergman was an American actor of stage and film, known for his long association with Charlie Chaplin. Born in San Francisco, Bergman acted in live theatre, appearing in Henrietta in 1888 at the Hollis Street Theatre in Boston and in the touring production of The Senator in 1892 and 1893, he made his Broadway debut in 1899 appearing with Anna Held in Papa's Wife, the musical hit of the year. He made his first film appearance with the L-KO Kompany in 1914 at the age of forty-six. In 1916, Bergman started working with Charlie Chaplin, beginning with The Floorwalker. For the rest of his career, Bergman remained a character actor for Chaplin and worked as a studio assistant, including Assistant Director, he played in many Chaplin shorts and features, including The Pawnshop, The Immigrant, A Dog's Life, The Gold Rush, The Circus, City Lights. Bergman's last on-screen appearance was in Modern Times as a restaurant manager, his final offscreen contribution was for The Great Dictator in 1940. Chaplin helped Bergman finance a restaurant in Hollywood, named "Henry's", which became a popular spot for celebrities as a precursor to the Brown Derby restaurant.
Henry Bergman continued to be associated with the Chaplin Studios until his death from a heart attack in 1946. He is interred in the Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in California. Henry Bergman on IMDb Henry Bergman at the Internet Broadway Database Henry Bergman at AllMovie Henry Bergman at Find a Grave