William Adams, known professionally as will.i.am, is an American rapper, songwriter, DJ, record producer, voice actor and philanthropist, best known as a founding and lead member of the hip hop group The Black Eyed Peas. As a solo artist, will.i.am has released four solo albums, beginning with Lost Change, released in 2001 through Atlantic Records. His second solo outing, Must B 21, was released on September 23, 2003; the track "Go!" was used as the theme for the NBA Live 2005 and Madden NFL 2005 seasons. The third album, Songs About Girls, was released on September 25, 2007, he released his fourth studio album, #willpower, in 2013. As a music producer, will.i.am has produced with other artists including Michael Jackson, Justin Bieber, Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, David Guetta, U2, Cheryl, Lady Gaga, Justin Timberlake, A. R. Rahman, Nicki Minaj, 2NE1, Baby Kaely. In collaborations and with the Black Eyed Peas, he has a total of 41 top-40 entries on the UK Singles Chart since 1998, has sold 9.4 million singles in the UK.
William James Adams Jr. was born in Eastside Los Angeles, was raised in the Estrada Courts housing projects in the Boyle Heights neighborhood, where he and his family were among the few African Americans living in a predominantly Hispanic community. Adams has never met William Adams Sr.. He was raised by his mother, who encouraged him to be unique and to avoid conforming to the tendencies of the other youths in his neighborhood on the east side of Los Angeles. To encourage his musical career, she sent him to public schools in affluent West Los Angeles. While attending John Marshall High School, he became best friends with Allan Pineda, a future member of The Black Eyed Peas. While still in high school and Pineda performed in East L. A. clubs and were soon joined by three other entertainers to form the conscious rap group, Atban Klann. Atban Klann caught the eye of Compton rapper Eazy-E and was signed to his label, Ruthless Records in 1992. Adams used to attend raves while in high school, he said his history with rave culture is why he chose a more electro sound for The Black Eyed Peas' albums The E.
N. D. and The Beginning. Despite the use of electro and house music elements, will.i.am prefers to separate the underground from pop. In an article with Los Angeles Times, he mentions that secrecy over the whereabouts of raves is what made raving special, different from the mainstream. In the summer of 1988 will.i.am began his music career when, as an eighth-grader, he met up with fellow rapper Allan Pineda and fellow student Dante Santiago. They began performing together around Los Angeles and were soon discovered by rapper/entrepreneur Eazy-E, who signed them to his label Ruthless Records in 1992. At the time, Will was known as "Will 1X". Atban Klann's first official track, "Merry Muthafuckin' Xmas", was included on Eazy-E's EP 5150: Home 4 tha Sick. After this, the trio began recording an album, "Grass Roots", with the help of producers Mookie Mook and DJ Motiv8, but the album was never released due to Eazy-E's death in 1995. After Eazy's tragic death, they changed their name to Black Eyed Pods, Will replaced Dante with Jaime Gomez, better known under his stage name of Taboo.
In 1997, they once again changed their name, this time to The Black Eyed Peas, began recording their first album, Behind the Front, with the help of soul singer Kim Hill. They were soon signed to Interscope Records, released their debut single, "Joints & Jam", in early 1998; the album was successful enough for the group's contract to be renewed, in 2000, a second album, Bridging the Gap, was released. Following the release of Bridging the Gap, Will began recording his first solo release, Lost Change, the official soundtrack to the film of the same name. Featuring collaborations with Medusa, Planet Asia and Terry Dexter, the album was a critical success. In November 2001, work began on Elephunk. Development of the album began on November 2, 2001 and was released just under two years in 2003. At the time of development, only will.i.am, apl.de.ap and Taboo were to feature on the album. During the production of "Shut Up", they realized. Nicole Scherzinger was approached to make a guest appearance on the record.
She was forced to decline because she was signed to a contract with Eden's Crush. Danté Santiago introduced Fergie to will.i.am, impressed with her vocal talents. She formed a bond with the band and became a permanent member of the Peas and her photo was printed onto the album cover. Nine out of the fourteen tracks were composed by lyricist Robbie Fisher, working with the band since the beginning stages of the album. In the United States, Elephunk reached number 14 on the Billboard Top 200 and is their first album to chart in the top 15, it gained more commercial success in the UK Album Charts where it reached number 3. It has sold over 8.5 million copies worldwide. The singles "Where Is the Love?" and "Shut Up" reached number 1. "Hey Mama" has been used for several advertisements including advertisements for iTunes. "Let's Get It Started" received universal acclaim in the media section where a cover version of the song appears in the film Hot Tub Time Machine. After the success of Elephunk, the Peas were approached by EA games to feature some of their music on the 2004 game The Urbz.
They remixed some of the tracks on Elephunk and translated it into Simlish and created new tracks for the gam
Freedom Writers (soundtrack)
Freedom Writers is a hip hop film score for the movie Freedom Writers. The soundtrack is composed of hip hop songs from the early 1990s, but contains new songs by will.i.am, Mark Isham and Talib Kweli amongst others
I Have a Dream
"I Have a Dream" is a public speech, delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he called for civil and economic rights and an end to racism in the United States. Delivered to over 250,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. the speech was a defining moment of the civil rights movement. Beginning with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed millions of slaves in 1863, King said "one hundred years the Negro still is not free". Toward the end of the speech, King departed from his prepared text for a improvised peroration on the theme "I have a dream", prompted by Mahalia Jackson's cry: "Tell them about the dream, Martin!" In this part of the speech, which most excited the listeners and has now become its most famous, King described his dreams of freedom and equality arising from a land of slavery and hatred. Jon Meacham writes that, "With a single phrase, Martin Luther King Jr. joined Jefferson and Lincoln in the ranks of men who've shaped modern America".
The speech was ranked the top American speech of the 20th century in a 1999 poll of scholars of public address. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was intended to demonstrate mass support for the civil rights legislation proposed by President Kennedy in June. Martin Luther King and other leaders therefore agreed to keep their speeches calm to avoid provoking the civil disobedience which had become the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement. King designed his speech as a homage to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, timed to correspond with the centennial of the Emancipation Proclamation. King had been preaching about dreams since 1960, when he gave a speech to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People called "The Negro and the American Dream"; this speech discusses the gap between the American dream and reality, saying that overt white supremacists have violated the dream, that "our federal government has scarred the dream through its apathy and hypocrisy, its betrayal of the cause of justice".
King suggests that "It may well be that the Negro is God's instrument to save the soul of America." In 1961, he spoke of the Civil Rights Movement and student activists' "dream" of equality—"the American Dream... a dream as yet unfulfilled"—in several national speeches and statements, took "the dream" as the centerpiece for these speeches. On November 27, 1962, King gave a speech at Booker T. Washington High School in Rocky Mount, North Carolina; that speech was longer than the version which he would deliver from the Lincoln Memorial. And while parts of the text had been moved around, large portions were identical, including the "I have a dream" refrain. After being rediscovered, the restored and digitized recording of the 1962 speech was presented to the public by the English department of North Carolina State University. King had delivered a "dream" speech in Detroit, in June 1963, when he marched on Woodward Avenue with Walter Reuther and the Reverend C. L. Franklin, had rehearsed other parts.
Mahalia Jackson, who sang "How I Got Over", just before the speech in Washington, knew about King's Detroit speech. The March on Washington Speech, known as "I Have a Dream Speech", has been shown to have had several versions, written at several different times, it has no single version draft, but is an amalgamation of several drafts, was called "Normalcy, Never Again". Little of this, another "Normalcy Speech", ended up in the final draft. A draft of "Normalcy, Never Again" is housed in the Morehouse College Martin Luther King Jr. Collection of the Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center and Morehouse College; the focus on "I have a dream" comes through the speech's delivery. Toward the end of its delivery, noted African American gospel singer Mahalia Jackson shouted to King from the crowd, "Tell them about the dream, Martin." King departed from his prepared remarks and started "preaching" improvisationally, punctuating his points with "I have a dream." The speech was drafted with the assistance of Stanley Levison and Clarence Benjamin Jones in Riverdale, New York City.
Jones has said that "the logistical preparations for the march were so burdensome that the speech was not a priority for us" and that, "on the evening of Tuesday, Aug. 27, Martin still didn't know what he was going to say". Leading up to the speech's rendition at the Great March on Washington, King had delivered its "I have a dream" refrains in his speech before 25,000 people in Detroit's Cobo Hall after the 125,000-strong Great Walk to Freedom in Detroit, June 23, 1963. After the Washington, D. C. March, a recording of King's Cobo Hall speech was released by Detroit's Gordy Records as an LP entitled "The Great March To Freedom". Hailed as a masterpiece of rhetoric, King's speech invokes pivotal documents in American history, including the Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States Constitution. Early in his speech, King alludes to Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address by saying "Five score years ago..." In reference to the abolition of slavery articulated in the Emancipation Proclamation, King says: "It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity."
Anaphora is employed throughout the speech. Early in his speech, King urges his audience to seize the moment; the most cited example of anaphora is found in the quoted phrase "I have a dream", repeated eight times as King paints a picture of an integrated and unified Americ
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte
The 6th Sense
For the 1999 M. Night Shyamalan film, see The Sixth Sense."The 6th Sense" is the first single from Common's 2000 album Like Water for Chocolate and is a b-side of "The Light." It is produced by DJ Premier making it the only song on Common's 2000 album not produced by a member of the Soulquarians. It features Premier's trademark chorus with scratched samples; the chorus features singing by neo-soul artist Bilal. The song's lyrics discuss hip hop culture and various social issues. "The 6th Sense" begins with an introduction in which Common states "the revolution will not be televised, the revolution is here" referencing the famous Gil-Scott Heron song named "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised." A music video directed by Andrew Dosunmu was made for "The 6th Sense." The video features Common rapping in a stationary car alongside Bilal, while chaos ensues outside of the car. "The 6th Sense" has received positive recognition from multiple sources: Mark Anthony Neal of PopMatters considers it to be a classic song and Common's best single besides "I Used to Love H.
E. R.." Allmusic writer Steve Huey considers "The 6th Sense" as well as "The Light" as "quintessential Common and thoughtful helped bring him a whole new audience." Rashaun Hall of BarnesAndNoble.com says that "he freestyle-sounding lead single showcases Common's fluid flow backed by a dense, DJ Premier beat that knocks harder than the NYPD." Pitchfork Media writer Taylor Clark declares that on "The 6th Sense," "Common gets iller than Syphilis over an addictive track supplied by Gang Starr's DJ Premier."These positive remarks may have contributed to its chart positions: #87 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart and #14 on the Hot Rap Singles chart. There is a popular remix of the song produced by 9th Wonder, which utilizes the same scratches by DJ Premier, can be found on many P2P networks as a free download; the remix was featured on some of 9th Wonder's remix compilations as well. "The 6th Sense" "The 6th Sense" "The 6th Sense" "Dooinit" "Dooinit" List of Common songs
Civil rights movement
The civil rights movement in the United States was a decades-long struggle with the goal of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans that other Americans enjoyed. With roots that dated back to the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement achieved its largest legislative gains in the mid-1960s, after years of direct actions and grassroots protests that were organized from the mid-1950s until 1968. Encompassing strategies, various groups, organized social movements to accomplish the goals of ending legalized racial segregation, disenfranchisement, discrimination in the United States, the movement, using major nonviolent campaigns secured new recognition in federal law and federal protection for all Americans. After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the 1860s, the Reconstruction Amendments to the United States Constitution granted emancipation and constitutional rights of citizenship to all African Americans, most of whom had been enslaved.
For a period, African Americans voted and held political office, but they were deprived of civil rights under Jim Crow laws, subjected to discrimination and sustained violence by whites in the South. Over the following century, various efforts were made by African Americans to secure their legal rights. Between 1955 and 1968, acts of nonviolent protest and civil disobedience produced crisis situations and productive dialogues between activists and government authorities. Federal and local governments and communities had to respond to these situations, which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans across the country; the lynching of Chicago teenager Emmett Till in Mississippi, the outrage generated by seeing how he had been abused, when his mother decided to have an open-casket funeral, mobilized the African-American community nationwide. Forms of protest and/or civil disobedience included boycotts, such as the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama. Moderates in the movement worked with Congress to achieve the passage of several significant pieces of federal legislation that overturned discriminatory practices and authorized oversight and enforcement by the federal government.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 expressly banned discrimination based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in employment practices. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 restored and protected voting rights for minorities by authorizing federal oversight of registration and elections in areas with historic under-representation of minorities as voters; the Fair Housing Act of 1968 banned discrimination in the rental of housing. African Americans re-entered politics in the South, across the country young people were inspired to take action. From 1964 through 1970, a wave of inner-city riots in black communities undercut support from the white middle class, but increased support from private foundations; the emergence of the Black Power movement, which lasted from about 1965 to 1975, challenged the established black leadership for its cooperative attitude and its practice of nonviolence. Instead, its leaders demanded that, in addition to the new laws gained through the nonviolent movement and economic self-sufficiency had to be developed in the black community.
Many popular representations of the movement are centered on the charismatic leadership and philosophy of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. who won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in non-violent, moral leadership. However, some scholars note that the movement was too diverse to be credited to any one person, organization, or strategy. Before the American Civil War four million blacks were enslaved in the South, only white men of property could vote, the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. But some free states of the North extended the franchise and other rights of citizenship to African Americans. Following the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were passed, including the 13th Amendment that ended slavery. From 1865 to 1877, the United States underwent a turbulent Reconstruction Era trying to establish free labor and civil rights of freedmen in the South after the end of slavery. Many whites resisted the social changes, leading to insurgent movements such as the Ku Klux Klan, whose members attacked black and white Republicans to maintain white supremacy.
In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant, the U. S. Army, U. S. Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, initiated a campaign to repress the KKK under the Enforcement Acts; some states were reluctant to enforce the federal measures of the act. In addition, by the early 1870s, other white supremacist and insurgent paramilitary groups arose that violently opposed African-American legal equality and suffrage and suppressing black voters, assassinating Republican officeholders. However, if the states failed to implement the acts, the laws allowed the Federal Government to ge
Hilary Ann Swank is an American actress and producer. She is the recipient of numerous awards for her career, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two Critics Choice Awards, a Screen Actors Guild Award. Swank made her film debut with a minor role in Buffy the Vampire Slayer before receiving her breakthrough role in the fourth installment of The Karate Kid franchise, The Next Karate Kid. On television, she starred as Carly Reynolds on the eighth season of the Fox teen drama Beverly Hills, 90210 from 1997 to 1998. Swank received widespread critical acclaim for her performance as Brandon Teena, a transgender man, in the biographical film Boys Don't Cry, for which she received her first Academy Award for Best Actress and the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama. For her portrayal of Maggie Fitzgerald in Clint Eastwood's sports drama film Million Dollar Baby, Swank again received her second Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress. Swank has starred in other films including The Gift, The Core, Iron Jawed Angels, Red Dust, The Reaping, P.
S. I Love You, Freedom Writers, The Homesman, You're Not You and Logan Lucky. In 2018, she portrayed Abigail Harris Getty on the FX television series Trust. Hilary Ann Swank was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, on July 30, 1974, her mother, Judy Kay, was a secretary and dancer, her father, Stephen Michael Swank, was a Chief Master Sergeant in the Oregon Air National Guard and a traveling salesman. She has a brother Daniel, eight years her senior. Many of Swank's family members are from Iowa, her maternal grandmother, Frances Martha Clough, was born in El Centro and was of Mexican descent. Swank's paternal grandmother was born in England; the surname "Swank" "Schwenk", is of German origin. After living in Spokane, Swank's family moved to a trailer park near Lake Samish in Bellingham, when Swank was six, she attended Happy Valley Elementary School, Fairhaven Middle School Sehome High School in Bellingham until she was 16. She competed in the Junior Olympics and the Washington state championships in swimming, she ranked fifth in the state in all-around gymnastics.
Swank made her first appearance on stage. When she was 15, her parents separated, her mother, supportive of her daughter's desire to act, moved with her to Los Angeles, where they lived out of their car until Swank's mother saved enough money to rent an apartment. Swank has called her mother the inspiration for her life. In California, Swank enrolled in South Pasadena High School dropping out, she described her time at South Pasadena High School. I didn't feel. I didn't belong in any way. I didn't feel like the teachers wanted me there. I just felt like I wasn't seen or understood." She explained that she became an actor because she felt like an outsider, "As a kid I felt that I belonged only when I read a book or saw a movie, could get involved with a character. It was natural that I became an actor because I longed so much to be those other people, or at least to play them." Swank made her film debut in the 1992 comedy horror film Buffy the Vampire Slayer, playing a small role, after which she acted in the direct-to-video drama Quiet Days in Hollywood, where she co-starred with Chad Lowe, who would become her husband for a time.
Her first leading film role was in the fourth installment of the Karate Kid series, The Next Karate Kid, which utilized her gymnastics background and paired her with Pat Morita. In 1994, she starred in the drama Cries Unheard: The Donna Yaklich Story as the abused step-daughter, protected by Donna. In 1995, she appeared with British actor Bruce Payne in Kounterfeit. In 1996 she starred in family drama Terror in the Family, as a troubled teenager. In September 1997, Swank played single mother Carly Reynolds in Beverly Hills, 90210 and was promised it would be a two-year role, but saw her character written out after 16 episodes in January 1998. Swank stated that she was devastated at being cut from the show, thinking, "If I'm not good enough for 90210, I'm not good enough for anything." The firing from Beverly Hills, 90210 freed her to audition for the role of Brandon Teena in Boys Don't Cry. To prepare for the role, Swank reduced her body fat to seven percent. Many critics hailed her work as the best female performance of 1999 and her work won her the Golden Globe Award and Academy Award for Best Actress.
Swank had earned only $75 per day for her work on the film, culminating in a total of $3,000. Her earnings were so low that she had not earned enough to qualify for health insurance. Swank again won the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for playing a female boxer in Clint Eastwood's 2004 film Million Dollar Baby, a role for which she underwent extensive training in the ring and weight room, aided by professional trainer Grant L. Roberts, gaining 19 pounds of muscle. With her second Oscar, she had joined the ranks of Vivien Leigh, Sally Field and Luise Rainer as the only actresses to have been nominated for Academy Awards for Best Actress twice and won both times. After winning her second Oscar, she said, "I don't know. I'm just a girl from a trailer park who had a dream."In 2006, Swank signed a three-year contract with Guerlain to be the face of the w