The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Poio is a municipality in Galicia, Spain in the province of Pontevedra. Poio is located in the North shore of the Ría de Pontevedra, between Sanxenxo and the provincial capital, Pontevedra; the municipality is adjacent with Meaño, Meis and Sanxenxo and offers a rich fusion of mountain and sea areas. Tambo island, an uninhabited island located in the middle of the Pontevedra estuary belongs to Poio but it is under the control of the Spanish Navy and disembarkment is not allowed. Poio has an approximate area of 34 square kilometers, its highest peak is Mount Castrove, which 667 meters high and from where one can see views of the Pontevedra and Arosa estuaries. The views spotlight the Alto de Raxó and Samieira, its more than 20 coastal km are full of beautiful beaches with quiet waters. Tambo island has 0,28 square kilometers and its highest peak is 80 meters high. Poio is a dormitory area of the city of Pontevedra, it has a growing market due to its proximity to the urban center. The parish of San Salvador, the nearest to the city, is the parish.
The tourism industry has begun to thrive in Combarro within the last few years. Sights include the Monastery of San Xoán de Poio, the picturesque fishing village of Combarro with its Hórreos by the sea and several prehistoric rock engraving sites.
Baiona is a municipality in Galicia, in the province of Pontevedra. Baiona is a tourist town with a medieval historical center situated by the outlet of the Vigo Bay, its population of just over 11,000 rises to around 45,000 in the summer. Since it is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago 30,000 hikers visit every year. Other than tourism the major economic activities revolve around fishing, it was founded in 140 BC by Diomedes of Aetolia. Throughout its history it has had several names including Stuciana, Abóriga and Erizana. In 1201 King Alfonso IX of Leon granted the town a royal charter. In 1370, King Ferdinand I of Portugal, proclaimed King of Castile took up residence in the town and established his seat there until being forced to return to Portugal. In 1474, the Baiona was seized by Don Pedro Alvarez de Soutomaior known as Pedro Madruga, Count of Caminha. On March 1, 1493, the Pinta, one of the ships from Columbus' voyage to the New World returned to Europe and arrived in Baiona, making the town's port the first to receive news of the discovery of America.
A replica of the ship can be visited, the event is celebrated every year. In 1585 the inhabitants of Baiona repelled an attempt to take the town by the privateer Francis Drake. Five years Philip II of Spain beat the pirates that were laying the Galician coast to waste with a fleet of 98 vessels and 17,000 soldiers; the economy in Baiona is focused on tourism. The Parador de Baiona stands out from all the hotels in the village. Other activities are subsistence agriculture, coastal fishing and construction. Parador of Baiona. Within the official Spanish category of Paradores of Spain, Baiona is a good example of well-preserved history. Surrounded by a stone wall, on a small peninsula, the old hotel and restaurant overlooks the entrance of the Rias Baixas and the Cies Islands. Monte Real Yacht Club Baiona; the yacht club, founded in 1965, is next to the Parador. The club is host to international regattas and home to a sailing school, bringing maritime tourists to the city. Concello de Baiona Official website
Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen is laborious to manufacture, but the fiber is strong and dries faster than cotton. Garments made of linen are valued for their exceptional coolness and freshness in hot and humid weather; the word linen is of West Germanic origin and cognate to the Latin name for the flax plant and the earlier Greek λινόν. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, most notably line, from the use of a linen thread to determine a straight line. Many products are made of linen: aprons, towels, bed linens, runners, chair covers, men's and women's wear; the collective term "linens" is still used generically to describe a class of woven or knitted bed, bath and kitchen textiles traditionally made of flax-based linen but today made from a variety of fibers. The term "linens "refers to lightweight undergarments such as shirts, waist-shirts and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, all of which were made exclusively out of linen.
The inner layer of fine composite cloth garments was traditionally made of linen, hence the word lining. Textiles in a linen weave texture when made of cotton, hemp, or other non-flax fibers, are loosely referred to as "linen"; such fabrics have their own specific names: for example fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave may be called madapolam. Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, fibers and various types of fabrics dating to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back earlier to 36,000 BP. Linen was sometimes used as a form of currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen as a symbol of light and purity, as a display of wealth; some of these fabrics, woven from hand-spun yarns, were fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen. In 1923, the German city Bielefeld issued banknotes printed on linen.
Today, linen is an expensive textile produced in small quantities. It has a long staple relative to cotton and other natural fibers; the word "linen" is derived from the Latin for the flax plant, linum, the earlier Greek λίνον. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms: Line, derived from the use of a linen thread to determine a straight line Lining, because linen was used to create an inner layer for wool and leather clothing Lingerie, via French denotes underwear made of linen Linseed oil, an oil derived from flax seed Linoleum, a floor covering made from linseed oil and other materials The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in Georgia dated to thirty-six thousand years ago suggests that ancient people used wild flax fibers to create linen-like fabrics from an early date. In ancient Mesopotamia, flax was domesticated and linen was first produced, it was used by the wealthier class of the society, including priests. The Sumerian poem of the courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi, translated by Samuel Noah Kramer and Diane Wolkstein and published in 1983, mentions flax and linen.
It opens with listing the steps of preparing linen from flax, in a form of questions and answers between Inanna and her brother Utu. In ancient Egypt, linen was used for burial shrouds, it was worn as clothing on a daily basis. The use of linen for priestly vestments was not confined to the Israelites. Linen fabric has been used for bed coverings and clothing for centuries; the significant cost of linen derives not only from the difficulty of working with the thread, but because the flax plant itself requires a great deal of attention. In addition flax thread is not elastic, therefore it is difficult to weave without breaking threads, thus linen is more expensive to manufacture than cotton. There is a long history of the production of linen in Ireland; the Living Linen Project was set up in 1995 as an oral archive of the knowledge of the Irish linen industry, at that time still available within a nucleus of people who worked in the industry in Ulster. In December 2006, the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed 2009 to be the International Year of Natural Fibres in order to raise people's awareness of linen and other natural fibers.
When the tomb of the Pharaoh Ramses II, who died in 1213 BC, was discovered in 1881, the linen wrappings were in a state of perfect preservation after more than 3000 years. When the tomb of Tutankhamen was opened, the linen curtains were found to be intact. In the Ulster Museum, Belfast there is the mummy of'Takabuti' the daughter of a priest of Amun, who died 2,500 years ago; the linen on this mummy is in a perfect state of preservation. The earliest records of an established linen industry are 4,000 years old, from Egypt, The earliest written documentation of a linen industry comes from the Linear B tablets of Pylos, where linen is depicted as an ideogram and written as "li-no", the female linen workers are cataloged as "li-ne-ya"; the Phoenicians, with their merchant fleet, opened up new channels of commerce to the peoples of the Mediterranean, developed the tin mines of Cornwall, introduced flax growing and the making of linen into Ireland before the com
Mondariz – Balneario
Mondariz–Balneario is a spa town and municipality in Galicia, Spain in the province of Pontevedra. It has the distinction of being the smallest municipality in Galicia and one of the smallest in Spain, it is known through archaeological remains that the site now occupied by the town was inhabited from prehistoric times, which establishes the existence of a fort in the Coto Cividade as well as in Roman times, as in Pious neighboring parish are remains of Roman amphorae, various ceramic and bronze coins confirming the occupation. However, the finding of greater magnitude and Roman is the best proof that Mondariz-Balneario was Romanized, are remains of a Roman road near the stands, on or river Tea, Cernadela bridge of Roman origin. Tradition has it that in 1282 and in the chapel of San Pedro, situated in this county, took place the marriage of King Diniz of Portugal to the Princess Isabella of Aragon, daughter of Peter III and became known as Isabel of Portugal. In the new division of Pontevedra municipalities, in accordance with Royal Decree of 23 June 1835, it was included in the parish of Mondariz as a mere territory, as reflected in his writings Florida Blanca, it was under the jurisdiction of Sobrosa, being dependent of Don Juan Lago, the Marquis de Valladares and the Marquis de Sobrosa.
In 1904 the parish becomes Troncoso, a newly created parish whose territories were dispersed from the parish of Santa Eulalia de Mondariz dependent of Mondariz parish. In 1924, after the change of name to the parish of Our Lady of Lourdes it becomes an independent municipality on November 30 with the current name Mondariz-Balneario. Balneario is the Spanish word for spa resort, referring the host-medical establishment that had provided the necessary economic strength to support its emancipation from Mondariz. Thus, the history of Mondariz-Balneario is related to Don Sabino Peinador Enrique Vela, who made the aforementioned neighborhood Troncoso renowned spa, thanks to which appeared the town. Since April 17, 1925 the town of Mondariz-Balneario holds the title of "Very hospitable villa" granted by King Alfonso XIII and General Primo de Rivera in thanks to good treatment received from the neighbors in their frequent visits to the Grand Hotel; the Grand Hotel, that opened in 1898 and hosted important guests in the early twentieth century, started its decline after the spanish civil war.
In 1973 a devastating fire destroyed the Grand Hotel and left the building in ruins until 2005, when it was rebuilt to house private apartments. In the meantime, a new hotel and spa was built in the adjacent buildings, nowadays Mondariz-Balneario remains as one of the most important spa resorts in Galicia. Official website
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon