In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion or sample of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, speech, or other sounds, they are integrated using hardware or software such as digital audio workstations. A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète, experimental music created by splicing and looping tape; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler that became a staple of 1980s pop music. The 1988 release of the first Akai MPC, an affordable sampler with an intuitive interface, made sampling accessible to a wider audience. Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, with producers sampling funk and soul records drum breaks, which could be rapped over. Musicians have created albums assembled from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing; the practice has influenced all genres of music and is important to electronic music, hip hop and pop. Sampling without permission can infringe copyright.
The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, which can be a complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc in 1991, changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now prohibitively expensive. In the 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète, an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, manipulating them to create sound collages, he created pieces using recordings of sounds including the human body and kitchen utensils. The method involved the creation of tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end, by which a sound could be played indefinitely. Schaeffer developed a tape recorder, the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
It was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who. In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were deejayed over. Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer. Designers of early samplers used the term to describe the technical process of the instruments, rather than to describe how users would use the feature. While developing the Fairlight, Vogel sampled around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, discovered that he could imitate a real piano by playing the sample back at different pitches, he recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano.
This had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Compared to samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples, it allowed control over pitch and envelope, could only record a few seconds of sound. However, its ability to sample and play back acoustic sounds became its most popular feature. Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first world-changing sampler". Though it was it was unaffordable for most hobbyists, early users included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren and Ebn Ozn. An early pulse-code modulation digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic.
The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM. The success of the Fairlight inspired competitors, improving the technology and driving down prices dramatically. Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator and the Akai S950. Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 began incorporating samples of drum kits rather than generating sounds from circuits; the designers of early samplers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as drum hits or individual notes, to use as "building blocks" for compositions. However and producers began sampling longer passages of music. In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, "They didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of'When the Levee Breaks'." Roger Linn, designer of the LM-1 and MPC, said: "It was a pleasant surprise. After sixty years of recording, there are so many. Why reinvent the wheel?"In response to demand, samplers such as E-mu's SP-1200 were developed to allow users to store longer samples.
In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, which allowed artists to assign samples to separate pads and trigger them independently to playing a keyboard or drum kit. It h
Faith Renée Jordan is an American singer, record producer, actress. Born in Lakeland and raised in New Jersey, Evans relocated to Los Angeles in 1991 for a career in the music business. After working as a backing vocalist for Al B. Sure! and Christopher Williams, she became the first female artist to contract with Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs' Bad Boy Entertainment recording company in 1994, for which she collaborated with several label mates such as 112 and Carl Thomas and released three platinum-certified studio albums between 1995 and 2001, including Faith, Keep the Faith and Faithfully. In 2003, she ended her relationship with the company to sign with Capitol Records, her first album released on the label, The First Lady became her highest-charting album at the time, reaching the top of the US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts, while the holiday album A Faithful Christmas, released the same year, would become her last release before the company was bought in 2007. Following a longer hiatus, Evans released her fifth album Something About Faith on the independent label Prolific and Entertainment One Music in 2010.
With a career spanning two decades, Evans has sold over 18 million records worldwide. Other than her recording career, Evans is most known as the widow of New York rapper Christopher "The Notorious B. I. G." Wallace, whom she married on August 4, 1994, a few weeks after meeting at a Bad Boy photoshoot. The turbulent marriage resulted in Evans' involvement in the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry, dominating the rap music news at the time, ended with Wallace's murder in an unsolved drive-by shooting in Los Angeles on March 9, 1997. A 1997 tribute single featuring Puff Daddy and the band 112, named "I'll Be Missing You", won Evans a Grammy Award in 1998. An actress and writer, Evans made her screen debut in the 2000 musical drama Turn It Up by Robert Adetuyi, her autobiography Keep the Faith: A Memoir was released by Grand Central Publishing in 2008 and won a 2009 African American Literary Award for the Best Biography/Memoir category. Evans was born on June 10, 1973, in Lakeland, Florida, to an African American mother, Helene Evans, a professional singer.
Her father, Richard Swain, whose ancestry can be traced back to the Caucasus Mountains, was a musician who left before Evans was born. A half-year 19-year-old Helene returned to Newark, New Jersey and left Faith with her cousin Johnnie Mae and husband Orvelt Kennedy, the foster parents of more than 100 children they raised during the time that Faith lived with them. Faith had known Orvelt Kennedy as her grandparents, it was not until a couple of years that Helene's career floundered and she tried to take Evans back home. Faith, was afraid to leave what she had "been used to," and instead, Helene relocated next door. Raised in a Christian home, Evans began singing at church at age two. At age four, she caught the attention of the congregation of the Emmanuel Baptist Church in Newark when she sang The 5th Dimension's song "Let the Sunshine In". While attending University High School in Newark, she sang with several jazz bands and, encouraged by Helene, entered outside pageants and contests, where her voice would be noticed and praised.
After graduating from high school in 1991, Evans attended Fordham University in New York City to study marketing but left a year to have daughter Chyna with music producer Kiyamma Griffin. In 1993, she relocated to Los Angeles, where she worked as a backup vocalist for singer Al B. Sure!, when she was noticed by musician Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs. Impressed with her, Combs contracted her as the first female artist to his Bad Boy Entertainment record label during 1994. Newly contracted to Bad Boy Records, Evans was consulted by executive producer Combs to contribute backing vocals and writing skills to Mary J. Blige's My Life and Usher's self-titled debut album prior to starting work on her debut studio album Faith. Released on August 29, 1995, in North America, the album was a main collaboration with Bad Boy's main producers, The Hitmen, including Chucky Thompson and Combs, but it resulted in recordings with Poke & Tone and Herb Middleton. Faith became a success based on the singles "You Used to Love Me" and "Soon as I Get Home".
The album was certified platinum with 1.5 million copies sold, according to RIAA. A year before, on August 4, 1994, Evans married rapper and label mate Christopher "The Notorious B. I. G." Wallace, after having met him at a Bad Boy photoshoot. The couple had Christopher Jordan Wallace. Evans became involved in the East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry which dominated the rap music news at the time after allegations of an affair with Tupac Shakur. Wallace was murdered in a yet-to-be-solved drive-by shooting in Los Angeles, California in March 1997. During early 1997, after her separation from Wallace, but before his death, Evans' friend Missy Elliott introduced her to record company executive Todd Russaw. Faith began dating Russaw during her and Wallace's separation and after Wallace died, Evans became pregnant by Russaw; the couple had their first son Joshua on June 8, 1998. During the summer of 1998, Evans and Russaw were married, on March 22, 2007, they had their second son Ryder Evan Russaw. After Biggie's murder on March 9, 1997, Combs helped Evans produce her tribute song named "I'll Be Missing You", based on the melody of The Police's 1983 single "Every Breath You Take".
The song, which featured Combs and the all-male group 112, became a worldwide number-one success and debuted at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart during 1997, scoring that for eleven weeks. It
Henry W. "Hank" Sanicola was an American music manager, publisher and pianist, best known for his work and association with Frank Sinatra from the late 1930s to the early 1960s. Sanicola was born into an Italian-American family. Physically large, he was a boxer in his youth and entered the music business as a roadhouse piano player. Sanicola was "song plugger" from the late 1930s onwards; the two met in 1936. Records. Due to their similar backgrounds, the two began working together with Sanicola finding jobs where he played the piano and Sinatra would sing. Sanicola was one of Sinatra's closest friends, served as his bodyguard during Sinatra's performances with the Tommy Dorsey band; the two were involved in several business ventures, including a partnership with Ben Barton of Barton Music Corp, several boxing promotions. The two had a permanent falling-out in 1963 following pressure from the authorities on Sinatra to sell his Cal Neva Lodge & Casino, in which Sanicola had a 33 percent share. Sinatra once said.
I couldn't have made it without him". In return, Sanicola said: I was always his right arm, the strong right arm. I know. I was an amateur fighter. I used to hit guys when they started ganging up on Frank in bars. We were both of Sicilian origin, both Italians, so we became good friends; when Frank wasn't working, I would go along to accompany him. We knew, both of us. Many credited Sanicola with helping Frank diversify his business interests as a hedge against the rise and fall of popularity. Sanicola and Sinatra co-wrote several songs, including "Mistletoe and Holly". S. and the Top 30 in the UK. After the split with Sinatra, Sanicola continued representing singers, including Billy Andre and Tony Gato, but none with the same success as Frank. Sanicola had business interests in the Puccini restaurant. Sanicola died of a heart attack at the age of 60 in October 1974 and was buried at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Cathedral City, he was survived by a son and daughter Joan Alicata. Sanicola was portrayed by actor Vincent Guastaferro in the 1992 biographical miniseries Sinatra, alongside Philip Casnoff as Frank Sinatra.
Ingham, Chris. Frank Sinatra. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-84353-414-3. Jacobs, George. Mr. S: My Life with Frank Sinatra. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0786259183. Jacobs, George. Mr. S: The Last Word on Frank Sinatra. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-41229-2. Kelley, Kitty, his Way: The Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Bantam Books Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-553-38618-9. Leigh, Spencer. Frank Sinatra: An Extraordinary Life. McNidder and Grace Limited. ISBN 978-0-85716-088-1. Levinson, Peter J.. September in the Rain: The Life of Nelson Riddle. Taylor Trade Publications. ISBN 1589791630. Niemeyer, Daniel. 1950s American Style: A Reference Guide. Lulu.com. ISBN 1304201651. Silva, Luiz Carlos do Nascimento. Put Your Dreams Away: A Frank Sinatra Discography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31055-3. Summers, Anthony. Sinatra: The Life. Transworld. ISBN 978-1-4070-6890-9. Hank Sanicola on IMDb
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Faith (Faith Evans album)
Faith is the debut album by American recording artist Faith Evans. It was released by Bad Boy Records on August 1995 in the United States. A collaboration with the label's main producers The Hitmen, including members Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs and Chucky Thompson, as well as Mark Ledford, Herb Middleton, Jean-Claude Olivier, among others; the album, which spawned the gold-certified hits "You Used to Love Me" and "Soon as I Get Home", was certified Platinum by the RIAA in March 1996. Faith contains a cover of the Rose Royce's single "Love Don't Live Here Anymore" which featured an appearance from Mary J. Blige on the album's original pressings. Newly contracted to Bad Boy Records, Evans was consulted by executive producer Combs to contribute backing vocals and writing skills to Mary J. Blige's My Life and Usher's self-titled debut album prior to starting work on her debut record album Faith. Producer Chucky Thompson- who helmed most of the album- recalls meeting Evans for the first time by her doing vocal production work on Usher's album.
Though she was a protégé of Al B. Sure!'s, she signed to Bad Boy and insisted on Thompson producing her entire album after hearing him playing music on the piano in the studio. Thompson said Evans' first single "You Used To Love Me" was planned for her labelmates Total, but Evans wrote to the track after hearing the music and it was the first song finished for her album; the second single "Soon As I Get Home" was done to pass the time at the studio because Thompson had a flight to catch that day. As he was about to leave, he received a call from Combs insisting he record the music Evans heard him play before he got on the plane. Evans left a message on Thompson's answering machine-, the song she wrote and recorded. Thompson said the song was finished and he didn't add any other touches to it. Another song on the album, "You Don't Understand", was influenced by Evans' marriage to The Notorious B. I. G.. The music of R. Kelly was the primary inspiration for the musical arrangement, according to Thompson.
The third single from the album was the song "Ain't Nobody". Thompson said it was influenced by the song "Can't Let Her Get Away" by Michael Jackson from his 1991 album Dangerous; when he started on the music, he didn't do the tracking until after Combs came to hear the song and gave him the go ahead to track it. When Thompson attempted the first time after Combs left, the plug came out from the machine and the entire track was erased- which led him having to do it all over again from scratch; the final single released from the album, "Come Over", was supposed to be an interlude. However, Evans insisted. Another album track on Faith, "All This Love" was written by Evans and her boyfriend prior to her marriage to The Notorious B. I. G, but Thompson revealed. The CD bonus track "Reasons" featured uncredited background vocals from Blackstreet member Dave Hollister; the reason for his appearance was due to Evans and Blackstreet recording their debut albums at the same studio, but only on different floors.
Planned as an interlude, Blackstreet member and producer Teddy Riley came looking for Hollister and overheard the two singing "Reasons". Riley suggested to Combs that it should be made into a full song. Faith was recorded at The Hit Factory and Combs' personal studio Daddy's House Recording- both of which were based in New York City. Faith received critical acclaim upon its release. Entertainment Weekly gave the album an A- rating, describing Faith as "packed with sensual, smoky R&B torch songs and titanium-hard hip-hop beats--Faith seems set to take her place at the top of the mountain of young soul divas." Vibe complimented the albums vocal production. Folks have likened that voice to rain, it's an appropriate metaphor can sound as lilting as a summer shower or as electric as a thunderstorm, her instrument's potential seems boundless more Whitney than Mary, more classic than nouveau." The Source praised Sean Combs production, writing that "for those closet sentimentalists or those who like to get their slow drag on when you're working with the man who perfected the remix, there's still a good chance that Faith will not only be pumping on rainy nights in the crib but on summer days in the Land Cruisers too."
Released on August 29, 1995, the album became a success based on the hit singles "You Used to Love Me", "Soon as I Get Home" and Ain't Nobody". It was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America with over 1,500,000 copies sold. Credits adapted from liner notes. Samples "Fallin' in Love" samples "Remind Me", performed by Patrice Rushen. "Give It to Me" samples "In the Mood", performed by Tyrone Davis. "No Other Love" samples "Walk on By", performed by Isaac Hayes. FaithEvansMusic.com Faith Evans at MySpace Faith Evans discography at Discogs Faith Evans at AllMusic
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i