The Monkey Wrench Gang
The Monkey Wrench Gang is a novel written by American author Edward Abbey, published in 1975. Abbey's most famous work of fiction, the novel concerns the use of sabotage to protest environmentally damaging activities in the Southwestern United States, was so influential that the term "monkeywrench" has come to mean, besides sabotage and damage to machines, any sabotage, law-making, or law-breaking to preserve wilderness, wild spaces and ecosystems. In 1985, Dream Garden Press released a special 10th Anniversary edition of the book featuring illustrations by R. Crumb, plus a chapter titled "Seldom Seen at Home", deleted from the original edition. Crumb's illustrations were used for a limited-edition calendar based on the book; the most recent edition was released in 2006 by Harper Perennial Modern Classics. The book's four main characters are ecologically minded misfits—"Seldom Seen" Smith, a Jack Mormon river guide. Together, although not always working as a knit team, they form the titular group dedicated to the destruction of what they see as the system that pollutes and destroys their environment, the American West.
As the gang's attacks on deserted bulldozers and trains continue, the law closes in. For the gang, the enemy is those who would develop the American Southwest—despoiling the land, befouling the air, destroying nature and the sacred purity of Abbey's desert world, their greatest hatred is focused on the Glen Canyon Dam, a monolithic edifice of concrete that the monkey-wrenchers seek to destroy because it dams a beautiful wild river. From the National Observer, "A sad, exuberant, vulgar fairy tale... It'll make you want to go out and blow up a dam." From The New York Times, "Since the publication of The Monkey Wrench Gang, Mr. Abbey has become an underground cult hero." From The Washington Post, "One of the best writers to deal with the American West." From the Houston Chronicle, "What a thing of beauty is Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang." In his book Screw Unto Others, George Hayduke states that Edward Abbey was his mentor, mentions The Monkey Wrench Gang as the origin of the term monkey-wrenching.
Hayduke says The Monkey Wrench Gang inspired environmentalist David Foreman to help create Earth First! A direct action environmental organization that advocates much of the minor vandalism depicted in the book. Many scenes of vandalism and ecologically motivated mayhem, including a billboard burning at the beginning of the book and the use of caltrops to elude a group of vigilantes, are presented in sufficient detail as to form a skeletal how-to for would-be saboteurs; the actions are presented in a larger-than-life format, because much of what Hayduke, the rest of the characters in the story face are larger-than-life obstacles that require larger-than-life approaches. The symbol of the Earth Liberation Front is a monkey stone hammer. In his book Sewer, Gas & Electric: The Public Works Trilogy, author Matt Ruff notes: "One of my other literary inspirations for the subplot was Edward Abbey’s The Monkey Wrench Gang.* That book’s protagonist, George Hayduke, is a Vietnam vet and former POW who launches a campaign of sabotage against the polluters who are ruining his beloved southwestern desert.
Hayduke is a pretty angry guy, but he loves life, in his own fatalistic way he remains an optimist." Hayduke Lives continues the story from. As of 2012, a film adaptation of the book, to be directed by Henry Joost and Ariel Schulman, was being planned; the film rights holders for the book filed suit against the producers of Night Moves, charging that the film's plot is similar to the story of book. Adbusters Culture jamming Environmentalism Cassuto, David N. "Waging Water: Hydrology vs. Mythology in The Monkey Wrench Gang." ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment 2.1: 13–36. Slovic, Scott. "Aestheticism and Awareness: The Psychology of Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang." CEA Critic 55.3: 54–68. Box, C. J. Savage Run, G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers, 2002.
Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming. Though earlier geological periods experienced episodes of warming, the term refers to the observed and continuing increase in average air and ocean temperatures since 1900 caused by emissions of greenhouse gasses in the modern industrial economy. In the modern context the terms global warming and climate change are used interchangeably, but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region. Many of the observed warming changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record, in historical and paleoclimate proxy records of climate change over thousands to millions of years. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."
The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century, the global surface temperature is to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C to 2.6 to 4.8 °C depending on the rate of greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects. These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. Future climate change effects are expected to include rising sea levels, ocean acidification, regional changes in precipitation, expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers and sea ice. Predicted regional precipitation effects include more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, wildfires, heavy rainfall with floods, heavy snowfall. Effects directly significant to humans are predicted to include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields, the abandonment of populated areas due to rising sea levels.
Environmental impacts appear to include the extinction or relocation of ecosystems as they adapt to climate change, with coral reefs, mountain ecosystems, Arctic ecosystems most threatened. Because the climate system has a large "inertia" and greenhouse gases will remain in the atmosphere for a long time, climatic changes and their effects will continue to become more pronounced for many centuries if further increases to greenhouse gases stop. Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, possible future climate engineering. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required and that global warming should be limited to well below 2.0 °C compared to pre-industrial levels, with efforts made to limit warming to 1.5 °C. Some scientists call into question climate adaptation feasibility, with higher emissions scenarios, or the two degree temperature target.
Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are increasing. A 2015 global survey showed that a median of 54% of respondents consider it "a serious problem", with significant regional differences: Americans and Chinese are among the least concerned. Multiple independently produced datasets confirm that between 1880 and 2012, the global average surface temperature increased by 0.85 °C. Since 1979 the rate of warming has doubled. Climate proxies show the temperature to have been stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Although the increase of the average near-surface atmospheric temperature is used to track global warming, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has accumulated in the oceans; the rest warmed the continents and the atmosphere. The warming evident in the instrumental temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations, as documented by many independent scientific groups.
Examples include sea level rise, widespread melting of snow and land ice, increased heat content of the oceans, increased humidity, the earlier timing of spring events, e.g. the flowering of plants. Global warming refers with the amount of warming varying by region. Since 1979, global average land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as global average ocean temperatures; this is due to the larger heat capacity of the oceans and because oceans lose more heat by evaporation. Where greenhouse gas emissions occur does not impact the location of warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to diffuse across the planet, although localized black carbon deposits on snow and ice do contribute to Arctic warming; the Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have heated much faster than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, its arrangement around the Arctic Ocean has resulted in the maximum surface area flipping from reflective snow and ice cover to ocean and land surfaces that absorb more sunlight.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere. If a planet's atmosphere contains radiatively active gases they will radiate energy in all directions. Part of this radiation is directed towards the surface; the intensity of the downward radiation – that is, the strength of the greenhouse effect – will depend on the atmosphere's temperature and on the amount of greenhouse gases that the atmosphere contains. Earth’s natural greenhouse effect is critical to supporting life. Human activities the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have strengthened the greenhouse effect and caused global warming; the term "greenhouse effect" is a misnomer that arose from a faulty analogy with the effect of sunlight passing through glass and warming a greenhouse. The way a greenhouse retains heat is fundamentally different, as a greenhouse works by reducing airflow so that warm air is kept inside.
The existence of the greenhouse effect was argued for by Joseph Fourier in 1824. The argument and the evidence were further strengthened by Claude Pouillet in 1827 and 1838 and reasoned from experimental observations by John Tyndall in 1859, who measured the radiative properties of specific greenhouse gases; the effect was more quantified by Svante Arrhenius in 1896, who made the first quantitative prediction of global warming due to a hypothetical doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, the term "greenhouse" was not used to refer to this effect by any of these scientists. Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of ultraviolet and near-infrared radiation. About 26% of the incoming solar energy is reflected to space by the atmosphere and clouds, 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds. Most of the remaining energy is absorbed at the surface of Earth; because the Earth's surface is colder than the Sun, it radiates at wavelengths that are much longer than the wavelengths that were absorbed.
Most of this thermal radiation warms it. The atmosphere gains heat by sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface; the atmosphere radiates energy both downwards. This leads to a higher equilibrium temperature than. An ideal thermally conductive blackbody at the same distance from the Sun as Earth would have a temperature of about 5.3 °C. However, because Earth reflects about 30% of the incoming sunlight, this idealized planet's effective temperature would be about −18 °C; the surface temperature of this hypothetical planet is 33 °C below Earth's actual surface temperature of 14 °C. The basic mechanism can be qualified in a number of ways, none of which affect the fundamental process; the atmosphere near the surface is opaque to thermal radiation, most heat loss from the surface is by sensible heat and latent heat transport. Radiative energy losses become important higher in the atmosphere because of the decreasing concentration of water vapor, an important greenhouse gas, it is more realistic to think of the greenhouse effect as applying to a "surface" in the mid-troposphere, coupled to the surface by a lapse rate.
The simple picture assumes a steady state, but in the real world, there are variations due to the diurnal cycle as well as the seasonal cycle and weather disturbances. Solar heating only applies during daytime. During the night, the atmosphere cools somewhat, but not because its emissivity is low. Diurnal temperature changes decrease with height in the atmosphere. Within the region where radiative effects are important, the description given by the idealized greenhouse model becomes realistic. Earth's surface, warmed to a temperature around 255 K, radiates long-wavelength, infrared heat in the range of 4–100 μm. At these wavelengths, greenhouse gases that were transparent to incoming solar radiation are more absorbent; each layer of atmosphere with greenhouses gases absorbs some of the heat being radiated upwards from lower layers. It reradiates in both upwards and downwards; this results in more warmth below. Increasing the concentration of the gases increases the amount of absorption and reradiation, thereby further warms the layers and the surface below.
Greenhouse gases—including most diatomic gases with two different atoms and all gases with three or more atoms—are able to absorb and emit infrared radiation. Though more than 99% of the dry atmosphere is IR transparent, intermolecular collisions cause the energy absorbed and emitted by the greenhouse gases to be shared with the other, non-IR-active, gases. By their percentage contribution to the greenhouse effect on Earth the four major gases are: water vapor, 36–70% carbon dioxide, 9–26% methane, 4–9% ozone, 3–7%It is not possible to assign a specific percentage to each gas because the absorption and emission bands of the gases overlap. Clouds absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus affect the radiative properties of the atmosphere. Strengthening of the greenhouse effect through human activities is known as the enhanced greenhouse effect; this increase in radiative forcing from human activity is
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender. The most used measure of life expectancy is at birth, which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of an actual birth cohort and can be computed only for cohorts born many decades ago, so that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year. National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. In the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, LEB was 26 years. For recent years, LEB in Swaziland is about 49, while LEB in Japan is about 83; the combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, plagues and childbirth before modern medicine was available lowers LEB.
For example, a society with a LEB of 40 may have few people dying at 40: most will die before 30 or after 55. In populations with high infant mortality rates, LEB is sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life; because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, LEB can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low LEB will have a small proportion of older people. Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5, can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a simple measure of overall mortality rates other than in early childhood. Aggregate population measures, such as the proportion of the population in various age groups, should be used along individual-based measures like formal life expectancy when analyzing population structure and dynamics. However, pre-modern societies still had universally higher mortality rates and universally lower life expectancies at every age for both genders, this example was rare.
In societies with life expectancies of 30, for instance, a 40 year remaining timespan at age 5 may not be uncommon, but a 60 year one was. Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most measured levels, it is denoted by e x, which means the mean number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged x, according to a particular mortality experience. Longevity, maximum lifespan, life expectancy are not synonyms. Life expectancy is defined statistically as the mean number of years remaining for an individual or a group of people at a given age. Longevity refers to the characteristics of the long life span of some members of a population. Maximum lifespan is the age at death for the longest-lived individual of a species. Moreover, because life expectancy is an average, a particular person may die many years before or many years after the "expected" survival; the term "maximum life span" is more related to longevity.
Life expectancy is used in plant or animal ecology. The term life expectancy may be used in the context of manufactured objects, but the related term shelf life is used for consumer products, the terms "mean time to breakdown" and "mean time between failures" are used in engineering. Records of human lifespan above age 100 are susceptible to errors. For example, the previous world-record holder for human lifespan, Carrie White, was uncovered as a simple typographic error after more than two decades. Therefore, the capacity for equivalent hidden errors make maximum lifespan records dubious; the oldest confirmed recorded age for any human is 122 years, reached by Jeanne Calment who lived between 1875 and 1997. This is referred to as the "maximum life span", the upper boundary of life, the maximum number of years any human is known to have lived. A theoretical study shows that the maximum life expectancy at birth is limited by the human life characteristic value δ, around 104 years. According to a study by biologists Bryan G. Hughes and Siegfried Hekimi, there is no evidence for limit on human lifespan.
However, this view has been questioned on the basis of error patterns. The following information is derived from the 1961 Encyclopædia Britannica and other sources, some with questionable accuracy. Unless otherwise stated, it represents estimates of the life expectancies of the world population as a whole. In many instances, life expectancy varied according to class and gender. Life expectancy at birth takes account of infant mortality but not prenatal mortality. Life expectancy increases with age as the individual survives the higher mortality rates associated with childhood. For instance, the table above listed the life expectancy at birth among 13th-century English nobles at 30. Having survived until the age of 21, a male member of the English aristocracy in this period could expect to live: 1200–1300: to age 64 1300–1400: to age 45 1400–1500: to age 69 1500–1550: to age 71In a similar way, the life expectancy of scholars in the Medieval Islamic world was 59–84.3 years.17th-century English life expectancy was only about 35 years because infant and child mortality remained high.
Life expectancy was under 25 years in the early Colony of Virginia, in seventeenth-century New England, about 40 percent died befor
When the Killing's Done
When the Killing's Done is a 2011 novel by T. C. Boyle; the book is an environmental and family drama revolving around the Channel Islands of California—specifically Anacapa and Santa Cruz—and the controversy surrounding efforts by the National Park Service and its partners to eradicate invasive species and revitalize the islands' natural communities. The novel has substantial basis in historical occurrence. Native wildlife populations on the islands, both part of Channel Islands National Park, had been pushed toward extinction by a variety of invasive species, including the golden eagle, black rats, feral pigs and sheep. In 2001 and 2002 the National Park Service used poison to eradicate Anacapa Island's non-native black rats, partnered with other government agencies and the Nature Conservancy to remove feral pigs from Santa Cruz Island, completed in 2006. In the novel, Dave Lajoy, an impassioned animal rights activist, leads an attempt to prevent NPS spokesperson and biologist Alma Boyd Takesue from removing rats and pigs from the islands.
The novel flashbacks to events on the islands during the 1940s and the 1970s. T. C. Boyle official web site T. C. Boyle: When the Killing's Done - 2011 Interview with the author on Bookworm