Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a time, coins with mint errors. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same, a numismatist may or may not be a coin collector, and vice versa. A coins grade is a determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party service like PCGS or NGC will grade, attribute. Over 80 million coins have been certified by the four largest services, people have hoarded coins for their bullion value for as long as coins have been minted. However, the collection of coins for their value was a development. Evidence from the archaeological and historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and it seems probable that individual citizens collected old, exotic or commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art.
Contemporary coin collecting and appreciation began around the fourteenth century, during the Renaissance, it became a fad among some members of the privileged classes, especially kings and queens. The Italian scholar and poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuits first and most famous aficionado, following his lead, many European kings and other nobility kept collections of ancient coins. Perhaps because only the wealthy could afford the pursuit, in Renaissance times coin collecting became known as the Hobby of Kings. During the 17th and 18th centuries coin collecting remained a pursuit of the well-to-do, but rational, Enlightenment thinking led to a more systematic approach to accumulation and study. During the 19th and 20th centuries, coin collecting increased further in popularity, the market for coins expanded to include not only antique coins, but foreign or otherwise exotic currency. Coin shows, trade associations, and regulatory bodies emerged during these decades, as one of the oldest and most popular world pastimes, coin collecting is now often referred to as the King of Hobbies.
The motivations for collecting are varied, possibly the most common type of collector is the hobbyist, who amasses a collection purely for fun with no real expectation of profit. This is especially true of casual collectors and children who collect items on the basis of chance, another frequent reason for purchasing coins is as an investment. As with stamps, precious metals or other commodities, coin prices are based on supply
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce. Under United States law, coins that fail the last of these requirements are not coins at all, bullion coins are usually available in both gold and silver, with the exceptions of the Krugerrand and the Swiss Vreneli which are only available in gold. The American Eagle series is available in gold and platinum, bullion coins are typically available in various weights. These are usually multiples or fractions of 1 troy ounce, bullion coins sell for a premium over the market price of the metal on the commodities exchanges. Reasons include their small size and the costs associated with manufacture, storage. The amount of the premium varies depending on the type and weight. The premium is affected by prevailing demand, the ISO currency code for gold bullion is XAU. ISO4217 includes codes not only for currencies, but for precious metals and certain other entities used in international finance, the European Commission publishes annually a list of gold coins which must be treated as investment gold coins in all EU Member States.
The list has legal force and supplements the law, in the United Kingdom, HM Revenue and Customs have added an additional list of gold coins alongside the European Commission list. These are gold coins that HMRC recognise as falling within the VAT exemption for investment gold coins, the following list presents only the most common coins included in the European Commission list. Silver coin Palladium coin Platinum coin
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, paper money, and related objects. Early money used by people is referred to as Odd and Curious, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins, the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones. Today, most transactions take place by a form of payment with either inherent, Numismatic value may be used to refer to the value in excess of the monetary value conferred by law, which is known as the collector value. Economic and historical studies of use and development are an integral part of the numismatists study of moneys physical embodiment. First attested in English 1829, the word comes from the adjective numismatic. It was borrowed in 1792 from French numismatiques, itself a derivation from Late Latin numismatis, genitive of numisma, throughout its history, money itself has been made to be a scarce good, although it does not have to be.
Many materials have been used to form money, from naturally scarce precious metals and cowry shells through cigarettes to entirely artificial money, called fiat money, many complementary currencies use time as a unit of measure, using mutual credit accounting that keeps the balance of money intact. Modern money is essentially a token – an abstraction, paper currency is perhaps the most common type of physical money today. However, goods such as gold or silver retain many of the properties of money, such as volatility. However, these goods are not controlled by one single authority, coin collecting may have existed in ancient times. Caesar Augustus gave coins of every device, including old pieces of the kings, who wrote in a letter that he was often approached by vinediggers with old coins asking him to buy or to identify the ruler, is credited as the first Renaissance collector. Petrarch presented a collection of Roman coins to Emperor Charles IV in 1355, the first book on coins was De Asse et Partibus by Guillaume Budé.
During the early Renaissance ancient coins were collected by European royalty and nobility, Numismatics is called the Hobby of Kings, due to its most esteemed founders. Professional societies organized in the 19th century, the Royal Numismatic Society was founded in 1836 and immediately began publishing the journal that became the Numismatic Chronicle. The American Numismatic Society was founded in 1858 and began publishing the American Journal of Numismatics in 1866, in 1931 the British Academy launched the Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum publishing collections of Ancient Greek coinage. The first volume of Sylloge of Coins of the British Isles was published in 1958, after World War II in Germany a project, Fundmünzen der Antike was launched, to register every coin found within Germany. This idea found successors in many countries, in the United States, the US mint established a coin Cabinet in 1838 when chief coiner Adam Eckfeldt donated his personal collection
The hobby of collecting includes seeking, acquiring, cataloging, displaying and maintaining whatever items are of interest to the individual collector. The scope of collecting is unlimited, which is expressed in the expression, If something exists. The most obvious way to categorise collections is by the type of objects collected, most collections are of manufactured commercial items, but natural objects such as birds eggs, butterflies and seashells can be the subject of a collection. Some collectors may not a specific type of object, but instead objects with specific properties, for example. Among collections of manufactured items, the objects may be antique, antiques are collectible items at least 100 years old, while collectibles can be arbitrarily recent. Collectors and dealers may use the vintage to describe older collectibles. Items which were once everyday objects but may now be collectible since almost all those once produced have been destroyed or discarded are called ephemera, philately and deltiology are forms of collecting which can be undertaken at minimal expense.
Some collectors are generalists with very broad criteria for inclusion, while others focus on a subtopic within their area of interest, the monetary value of objects is important to some collectors but irrelevant to others. Some collectors maintain objects in pristine condition, while others use the items they collect, collecting is for some people a childhood hobby, but for others a lifelong pursuit or one that begins in adulthood. Collectors who begin early in life often modify their aims when they get older, the emergence of the internet as a global forum for different collectors has resulted in many isolated enthusiasts finding each other. Collecting is a practice with an old cultural history. The Egyptian Ptolemaic dynasty collected books from all over the world at the Library of Alexandria. The collecting hobby is a descendant of the cabinet of curiosities which was common among scholars with the means. Planned collecting of ephemeral publications goes back at least to George Thomason in the reign of Charles I, collecting engravings and other prints by those whose means did not allow them to buy original works of art goes back many centuries.
The involvement of larger numbers of people in collecting activities comes with the prosperity and that is when collecting such items as antique china and decorative items from oriental countries becomes established. The retail price of a collectible is valid only at the moment it was purchased, once the collectible comes into the buyer’s possession, its value is linked to what is called the secondary market. There is no market for an item unless someone is willing to buy it. Depending on various factors, individuals and secondary retailers may sell a collectible for more and these factors include, but are not limited to, age and demand
A pattern coin is a coin which has not been approved for release, produced for the purpose of evaluating a proposed coin design. They are often off-metal strike, to standard or piedforts. They are collected or studied by many coin collectors because of their sometimes highly elaborate designs, the first English coin that can be identified with certainty is a groat, originally worth fourpence. This piece, an example of which was illustrated and sold in the Dodsley Cuff sale of the century, had crowns in place of the usual three pellets in each quarter of the reverse. Patterns are particularly identifiable and exist in larger numbers from the reign of Elizabeth I onwards, the experimental base metal issues of all coinage prior to the mid-18th century have been well preserved. Boultons mint in Soho produced prodigious quantities of patterns, which were supplemented by Taylor some fifty or so years from the same dies. After the Declaration of Independence was signed on July 4,1776, during the next 16 years, a variety of different coin designs from over the world were common.
In this period, a large amount of different pattern coins were created, proposed for use in the newly found states. However, none of these designs were used by the general public, in 1792 the United States Mint opened in Philadelphia. In that year several more patterns were created, including the half dime and it is believed that ca.1,500 pieces were struck as patterns, and that these patterns themselves entered circulation during the next decade. Over the next 40 years, more patterns were created but there is little currently known about these pieces. Technically, these coins were not patterns but rather off-metal strikes, an example is an 1807 Half Eagle, or five dollar gold piece struck in copper. Starting in 1836, more patterns were created by the United States Mint in Philadelphia. S, dollars that was minted in 1877 and weighed 2.5 ounces. The U. S. Mint deemed the idea of a 2.5 ounce gold coin infeasable, transitional pieces are patterns dated before coins with the new design officially went into circulation.
These were often produced during final stage of the pattern process, one famous example is the 1856 Flying Eagle cent, although that coin has been commonly and incorrectly believed to be regular issue due to its high mintage for collectors. Fantasy pieces include many struck in the 1860s and 1870s as patterns and this practice ended in the 1880s, when the U. S. Mint enforced regulations to prevent the sale of pattern coins. From time to time the U. S. Mint experiments with new coinage, at that time the practice of using dies with Martha Washington for trial strikings began, since they would not be confused with real circulating money. Because they do not resemble money, no restrictions exist on the sale of Martha Washington pieces, mint-produced modern patterns are very rare, with only a few pieces existing in private collections
Hard times token
Hard-times tokens are large cent-sized copper tokens, struck from about 1833 through 1843, serving as unofficial currency. These privately made pieces, comprising merchant and satirical pieces, were used during a time of political and financial crisis in the United States, hard-times tokens are collectible and usually very affordable as coins or as political history. In 1832, President Andrew Jackson ran for re-election and called for the abolition of the Second Bank of the United States, while he won the election, he worked to weaken the bank before the charter expired in 1836. Without the Bank of the United States, state banks attempted to fill the paper money gap and issued a number of bank notes. Hoping to halt the inflation and speculation in lands and his Treasury secretary, Levi Woodbury. The circular simply stated that as of August 151836, banks and others who received public money were required to only gold. Instead of the results, the circular spelled the end of a time of economic prosperity.
The circular set into motion a panic, and the public began hoarding specie, without specie to pay out and merchants began having financial troubles. It wasnt too long before the effects of Jacksons decision were felt across the nation as banks and businesses failed, by this time, Jacksons vice president, Martin Van Buren, was the elected president in office. The period of hardship, the Panic of 1837, during Van Burens presidency came to be known as the Hard Times. Stark, Attack on Second Bank, fiscal policies bring Hard Times, Coin World, January 3,2006
Coins of the United States dollar
Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually since and they make up an aspect of the United States currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢, 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, minted are bullion and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint, the coins are sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the countrys economy. Today four mints operate in the United States producing billions of coins each year, the main mint is the Philadelphia Mint, which produces circulating coinage, mint sets and some commemorative coins. The Denver Mint produces circulating coinage, mint sets and commemoratives, the San Francisco Mint produces regular and silver proof coinage, and produced circulating coinage until the 1970s. The West Point Mint produces bullion coinage and Denver produce the dies used at all of the mints. The proof and mint sets are manufactured each year and contain examples of all of the circulating coins.
The producing mint of each coin may be identified, as most coins bear a mint mark. The identifying letter of the mint can be found on the front side of most coins, unmarked coins are issued by the Philadelphia mint. The mass and composition of the cent changed to the current copper plated zinc core in 1982, both types were minted in 1982 with no distinguishing mark. Cents minted in 1943 were struck on planchets punched from zinc coated steel which left the resulting edges uncoated and this caused many of these coins to rust. These steel pennies are not likely to be found in circulation today, the wheat cent was mainstream and common during its time. Some dates are rare, but many can still be found in circulation, nickels produced from mid-1942 through 1945 were manufactured from 56% copper, 35% silver and 9% manganese. This allowed the saved nickel metal to be shifted to production of military supplies during World War II. Few of these are found in circulation. Prior to 1965 and passage of the Coinage Act of 1965 the composition of the dime, half-dollar and dollar coins was 90% silver, the half-dollar continued to be minted in a 40% silver-clad composition between 1965 and 1970.
Dimes and quarters from before 1965 and half-dollars from before 1971 are generally not in circulation due to being removed for their silver content, in 1975 and 1976 bicentennial coinage was minted
Nearly all countries have issued proof coinage. Preparation of a proof striking usually involved polishing of the dies and they can usually be distinguished from normal circulation coins by their sharper rims and design, as well as much smoother fields – the blank areas not part of the coins design. The dies for making modern proof coins are often treated with chemicals to certain parts of the design take on a frosted appearance. Several other methods have used in the past to achieve this effect, including sand blasting the dies. Proof coins of the early 19th century even appear to be scratched, the term proof refers to the process by which the coins are made and not to the condition of the coin. Certification agencies can grade and assign numerical ratings for proof coins, most proof coins are double struck under higher pressure. This does not normally result in doubling that is readily observable, after being struck, they are separately and individually handled, in contrast to normal coins which are thrown into bins.
The U. S. had largely stopped striking proof coins in 1916, beginning in 1936, the U. S. Mint began producing proof coins again. Proof coins through 1942 could be ordered individually from the mint, because of this the lowest mintage for any denomination determines the total number of complete sets that can exist. Consequently, this number is used to indicate the mintages of proof sets for the years 1936 through 1942, sets struck from 1936 to 1942 and, when resumed, from 1950 to 72 include the cent, dime and half dollar. From 1973 through 1981 the dollar was included, and from 2000 on. From 1950 to 1955, proof sets were packaged in a box,1955 saw both the original box packaging and introduced the flat-pack, where the coins were sealed in cellophane and presented in an envelope. The flat-pack packaging continued through 1964, after which the coins were sealed in various styles of hard plasticized cases, the 1999–2008 proof sets contain five different Statehood quarters. The 2004–2005 series contain the two Lewis and Clark nickels, the 2007-2017 proof sets include Presidential dollars.
The 2010-2021 proof sets contain America the Beautiful quarters, depicting different National Parks, Proof sets containing only 2009 cents, Statehood quarters, America the Beautiful quarters, and Presidential dollars are available. From 1971 to 1974, proof silver-clad Eisenhower dollars were issued in a plastic case contained in a brown wood-grain finish slipcase box, anthony dollars were struck in 1999. S. Mint to advise the public that these sets were not government-issued sets, a proof Coin & Chronicles set was issued for 2009, which included one each of the 4 different Lincoln Cent designs and a commemorative Lincoln Silver Dollar, presented in special packaging. Other sets, called Prestige Proof sets, contain selected commemorative coins and these sets were sold from 1983 to 1997 at an additional premium
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial