Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Manfred Mann were an English rock band, formed in London in 1962. The group were named after their keyboardist Manfred Mann, who led the successful 1970s group Manfred Mann's Earth Band; the band had two different lead vocalists during their period of success, Paul Jones from 1962 to 1966, Mike d'Abo from 1966 to 1969. Manfred Mann were in the UK charts in the 1960s. Three of the band's most successful singles, "Do Wah Diddy Diddy", "Pretty Flamingo" and "Mighty Quinn", topped the UK Singles Chart, they were the first southern-England-based group to top the US Billboard Hot 100 during the British invasion. The Mann-Hugg Blues Brothers were formed in London by keyboard player Manfred Mann and drummer/vibes/piano player Mike Hugg, who formed a house band in Clacton-on-Sea that featured Graham Bond. Bringing a shared love of jazz to the British blues boom sweeping London's clubs, the band was completed by Mike Vickers on guitar, alto saxophone and flute, bassist Dave Richmond and Paul Jones as lead vocalist and harmonicist.
By this time they had changed their name to the Manfreds. Gigging throughout late 1962 and early 1963, they soon attracted attention for their distinctive sound. After changing their name to Manfred Mann at the behest of their label's producer John Burgess, the group signed with His Master's Voice in March 1963 and began their recorded output that July with the slow, blues instrumental single "Why Should We Not?", which they performed on their first appearance on television on a New Year's Eve show. It failed to chart, as did its follow-up, "Cock-a-Hoop"; the overdubbed instrumental soloing on woodwinds, vibes and second keyboard lent considerable weight to the group's sound, demonstrated the jazz-inspired technical prowess in which they took pride. In 1964, the group were asked to provide a new theme tune for the ITV pop music television programme Ready Steady Go!. They responded with "5-4-3-2-1" which, with the help of weekly television exposure, rose to No. 5 in the UK Singles Chart. Shortly after "5-4-3-2-1" was recorded, Richmond left the band, though he would record with them later.
He was replaced by Jones' friend Tom McGuinness—the first of many changes. After a further self-penned hit, "Hubble Bubble", the band struck gold with "Do Wah Diddy Diddy", a cover version of the Exciters' No. 78 Hot 100 hit earlier that year. The track reached the top of the UK, US charts. With the success of "Do Wah Diddy Diddy" the sound of the group's singles moved away from the jazzy, blues-based music of their early years, to a pop hybrid that continued to make hit singles from cover material, they hit No. 3 in the UK with another girl-group cover, "Sha La La", which reached No. 12 in the US and Canada, followed it with the sentimental "Come Tomorrow" but both were of a noticeably lighter texture than their earliest output. Meanwhile, "B" sides and four-song EPs showcased original material and instrumental solos; the group returned to jazz and R&B themes on their albums: their first, 1964's The Five Faces of Manfred Mann, included standards such as "Smokestack Lightning" while the second and last with this line-up, Mann Made, offered several self-composed instrumentals and a version of "Stormy Monday Blues" alongside novelties and pop ballads.
With a cover of Maxine Brown's "Oh No Not My Baby" began a phase of new depth and sophistication in the arrangements of their singles. The group began its string of successes with Bob Dylan songs with a track on the best-selling EP The One in the Middle, "With God on Our Side", next reaching No. 2 in the UK with "If You Gotta Go, Go Now". The EP's title track reached the British top ten singles, the last self-written song and the band's last R'n'B workout to do so; the run climaxed with a second UK No. "Pretty Flamingo", produced by John Burgess. The group had managed an initial jazz/rhythm-and-blues fusion, had taken chart music in their stride—but could not hope to cope with Paul Jones' projected solo career as singer and actor, with Mike Vickers' orchestral and instrumental ambitions. Jones intended to go solo once a replacement could be found, but stayed with the band for another year, during which Vickers left. McGuinness moved to guitar, his original instrument, contributing the distinctive National Steel Guitar to "If You Gotta Go, Go Now" and "Pretty Flamingo", was replaced on bass by Jack Bruce, playing for the Graham Bond Organisation for some time before a recent brief stint with John Mayall's Bluesbreakers.
In his brief tenure before leaving to form Cream, Bruce played on "Pretty Flamingo" and on the EP Instrumental Asylum, which began the group's experiments with instrumental versions of chart songs. He was replaced by Klaus Voormann; the band changed record companies just afterward, although EMI released an EP of earlier unissued 1963–66 era songs titled As Was, a hits compilation. Jones was replaced by Mike d'Abo in July 1966, the group switched labels to Fontana Records, where they were produced by Shel Talmy, their first Fontana single, a
Phillip Harvey Spector is an American record producer and songwriter who developed the Wall of Sound, a music production formula he described as a Wagnerian approach to rock and roll. Spector was dubbed the "First Tycoon of Teen" by writer Tom Wolfe and is acknowledged as one of the most influential figures in pop music history. After the 1970s, Spector retired from public life. In 2009, he has remained incarcerated since. Born in the Bronx, Spector began his career in 1958 as the co-founder of the Teddy Bears, performing on guitar and vocals, penning their US number-one single "To Know Him Is to Love Him". In 1960, he co-founded Philles Records, at the age of 21, became the youngest US label owner to that point. Over the next several years, he wrote, co-wrote, or produced records for acts such as the Ronettes and the Crystals, John Lennon and George Harrison of the Beatles, he employed what would become known as "the Wrecking Crew" as his de facto house band while collaborating with arranger Jack Nitzsche, engineer Larry Levine, various Brill Building songwriters.
Spector's other chart-topping singles include "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'", "The Long and Winding Road", "My Sweet Lord". Spector is considered the first auteur among musical artists for the unprecedented freedom and control he had over every phase of the recording process. Additionally, he helped engender the idea of the studio as an instrument, the integration of pop art aesthetics into music, the art rock genre, his honors include the 1973 Grammy Award for Album of the Year for co-producing Harrison's Concert for Bangladesh, a 1989 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, a 1997 induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine ranked Spector number 63 on their list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", for their 2003 list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time", included his productions of Presenting the Fabulous Ronettes, A Christmas Gift for You, Back to Mono. According to BMI, "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" is the song that received the most US airplay in the 20th century.
By the mid 1970s, Spector had produced eighteen US Top 10 singles for various artists, but following work with Leonard Cohen, Dion DiMucci, the Ramones, he remained inactive and affected by personal struggles. In 2003, the actress Lana Clarkson was found dead from a bullet wound in Spector's home, he maintained to the media that she had accidentally shot herself. From 2007 to 2009, he was the subject of two trials, he is serving a prison sentence of 19 years to life and will be 88 years old before becoming eligible for parole. Harvey Phillip Spector was born on December 26, 1939 to Benjamin and Bertha Spector, a first-generation immigrant Jewish family in the Bronx, New York City, his father was an ironworker from Ukraine with the surname Spekter, which he anglicized to Spector. Spector's father committed suicide on April 20, 1949. In 1953, his mother moved the family to Los Angeles. Having learned to play guitar, Spector performed "Rock Island Line" in a talent show at Fairfax High School, where he was a student.
While at Fairfax, he joined a loose-knit community of aspiring musicians, including Lou Adler, Bruce Johnston, Steve Douglas, Sandy Nelson, the last of whom played drums on Spector's first record release, "To Know Him Is to Love Him". With three friends from high school, Marshall Leib, Sandy Nelson, Annette Kleinbard, Spector formed a group, the Teddy Bears. During this period, record producer Stan Ross—co-owner of Gold Star Studios in Hollywood—began to tutor Spector in record production and exerted a major influence on Spector's production style. In 1958, the Teddy Bears recorded the Spector-penned "Don't You Worry My Little Pet", which helped them secure a deal with Era Records. At their next session, they recorded another song Spector had written—this one inspired by the epitaph on Spector's father's tombstone. Released on Era's subsidiary label, Dore Records, "To Know Him Is to Love Him" reached number one on Billboard Hot 100 singles chart on December 1, 1958, selling over a million copies by year's end.
It was the seventh number-one single on the newly formed chart. Following the success of their debut, the group signed with Imperial Records, their next single, "I Don't Need You Anymore", reached number 91. They released several more recordings, including an album, The Teddy Bears Sing!, but failed to reach the top 100 in US sales. The group disbanded in 1959. After the split, Spector's career moved from performing and songwriting to production. While recording the Teddy Bears's album, he had met Lester Sill, a former promotion man, a mentor to Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, his next project, the Spectors Three, was undertaken under the aegis of Sill and his partner, Lee Hazlewood. In 1960, Sill arranged for Spector to work as an apprentice to Stoller in New York. Ronnie Crawford would become project as producer. Spector learned how to use a studio, he co-wrote the Ben E. King Top 10 hit "Spanish Harlem" with Jerry Leiber and worked as a session musician, most notably playing the guitar solo on the Drifters' song "On Broadway".
His own productions during this time, while less conspicuous, included releases by LaVern Baker, Ruth Brown, Billy Storm, as well as the Top Notes' original version of "Twist and Shout". Leiber and Stoller recommended Spector to produce Ray Peterson's "Corrina, Corrina
Ike & Tina Turner
Ike & Tina Turner were an American musical duo, active during the 1960s and early 1970s, composed of the husband-and-wife team of Ike Turner and Tina Turner. They performed live as the Ike & Tina Turner Revue, supported by Ike Turner's rhythm and blues and soul group, the Kings of Rhythm and backing singers, the Ikettes; the Ike & Tina Turner Revue was regarded as "one of the most potent live acts on the R&B circuit". The duo's early works, including "A Fool in Love", "It's Gonna Work Out Fine", "I Idolize You" and "River Deep – Mountain High", became high points in the development of soul music, their works were noted for wildly interpretive re-arrangements of rock songs such as "I Want to Take You Higher" and "Proud Mary", the latter of which won a Grammy Award in 1971. Their live performances were a musical spectacle in the style of the Famous Flames; the duo's professional and personal relationship ended in 1976, their divorce was finalized in 1978. Ike & Tina Turner were inducted to the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1991.
In 1954, blues musician Ike Turner had moved to St. Louis from Memphis to find work for him and his band, the Kings of Rhythm. By 1956, Ike and his band had become one of the most popular live performing attractions to the St. Louis and neighboring East St. Louis club scene. Prior to the move to St. Louis, Ike worked as a talent scout for R&B labels such as Modern and RPM Records. Around this time, a young high school student from Nutbush, Tennessee who had moved to St. Louis from Brownsville named Anna Mae Bullock, began attending the predominantly African American nightclub, Club Manhattan, where she saw the Kings of Rhythm for the first time writing that the band's performance "put her in a trance". Bullock got to know Ike and his band and dated Kings of Rhythm saxophonist Raymond Hill, with whom she had her first child, Craig, in 1958. In 1957, who had tried to convince Ike to let her perform onstage with him, was given a microphone from the band's drummer Eugene Washington, the boyfriend of Bullock's sister Alline, a bartender there.
Ike was playing the B. B. King R&B ballad, "You Know. Impressed by her strong vocal delivery, Ike asked Bullock. By the end of the night, Bullock had led the Kings of Rhythm on vocals with Ike on guitar. After convincing her mother to let her perform with his band, Ike had Bullock and the Kings of Rhythm perform in all of the clubs in the St. Louis and East St. Louis areas. Bullock was one of many other singers male, who would front the band at times. Inspired by her skinny, long-legged frame, her dramatic soulful vocals, Ike gave Bullock the first stage name of "Little Ann". In 1958, Bullock added her vocals on an Ike Turner record, titled "Box Top,", released on the St. Louis label, Tune Town Records. Bullock moved into Ike's home in East St. Louis where she was trained by Ike on vocal control and performance. Though Bullock insisted on recording more vocals, Ike was resistant after he began working with singers such as Billy Gayles and Art Lassiter. Despite their eight-year age difference and Bullock developed a close friendship, acted more like "brother and sister."
By 1959, their friendship turned into a relationship and by early 1960, Bullock was pregnant with Ike's child. In March 1960, R&B singer Art Lassiter became the new front man for the Kings of Rhythm and hired Lassiter's background vocalists, a girl group named The Artettes. Ike had written a song for Lassiter and the Artettes titled "A Fool in Love". On the day Lassiter was to show up to Technosound Studios in St. Louis to record his vocal, the singer was a no-show. Having booked expensive studio time, Ike allowed the 20-year-old Bullock, still going by "Little Ann", to record the song as a dummy track for Lassiter. After recording Bullock and the Artettes, Ike sent the song to a St. Louis radio disk jockey, so impressed by the song that he convinced Ike to send the record to Juggy Murray, the president of the New York-based R&B label, Sue Records. Murray was impressed by Bullock's vocal delivery on the song, calling it "raw and funky" and that it "sounded like raw dirt". Murray bought the rights to the song and gave Ike a $20,000 advance, convincing Ike to not erase Bullock's vocals and "make her the star".
Prior to this move and the recording of "A Fool in Love", Ike had conversations with Bullock about singers in his band that would leave his group only to find bigger success elsewhere, Bullock said she convinced Ike that if they had a hit together that she "wouldn't leave him" if they became successful. Paranoid that Bullock could leave him for a solo career, Ike changed her stage name from "Little Ann" to "Tina Turner". Though small and skinny, Ike felt Bullock could be his "wonder woman" and imagined Bullock like his favorite TV show characters such as Nagoya, he named her Tina after another of his favorite characters, Queen of the Jungle. To assert control, Ike added his name, making the act "Ike and Tina Turner", though the young couple weren't married. Ike trademarked the name. In case Bullock left, he could hire another female artist and have her perform under the moniker of "Tina Turner". Ike completed the transformation by adding one of the Artettes, Robbie Montgomery, two other backing singers he hired, Venetta Fields and Jessie Smith, renaming them The Ikettes, inspired by Ray Charles' Raelettes.
When "A Fool in Love" was released in the summer of 1960, Ike booked his entire band under the name, "The Ike & Tina Turner Revue" venturing into a grueling series of one-nighters. "A Fool in Love" became an immediate hit after its release in the summe
Heat Wave (Martha and the Vandellas song)
"Heat Wave" is a 1963 song written by the Holland–Dozier–Holland songwriting team. It was first made popular by the Motown vocal group Martha and the Vandellas. Released as a 45 rpm single on July 9, 1963, on the Motown subsidiary Gordy label, it hit number 1 on the Billboard Hot R&B chart—where it stayed for four weeks running—and peaking at number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100, it was recorded 12 years by rock vocalist Linda Ronstadt on her Platinum-selling 1975 album Prisoner in Disguise. Ronstadt's version of the song was released as a single in September 1975, reaching number 5 in Billboard, 4 in Cash Box, 6 in Record World. In 2010, British musician Phil Collins spent a single week on the Billboard Adult Contemporary listing with his retooling of the song—a smooth combination of both versions. "Heat Wave" was one of many songs written and produced by the Holland–Dozier–Holland songwriting and producing team. It was the second hit collaboration between Martha and the Vandellas and the team, with the first being "Come and Get These Memories".
The lyrics of "Heat Wave" feature the song's narrator singing about a guy who has her heart "burning with desire" and "going insane" over the feeling of his love, asking, "is this the way love's supposed to be?" The song is referred to as " Heat Wave", but the title on the label of the original 1963 single was just "Heat Wave". Produced and composed with a gospel backbeat, jazz overtones and, doo-wop call and responsive vocals, "Heat Wave" was one of the first songs to exemplify the style of music termed as the "Motown Sound"; the single was a breakthrough hit, peaking at number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100, at number 1 on the Billboard R&B Singles Chart. It garnered the group's only Grammy Award nomination for Best Rhythm and Blues Recording for 1964, making the Vandellas the first Motown group to receive a Grammy Award nomination; some versions of the song have a radio edit that cuts out the repetition of the ending of the instrumental portion of the song, in one key, featuring the repeated saxophone and piano portion.
In a version issued on the compilation Gold, the instrumental is extended as well as the ending portion, which includes Reeves singing more ad-libs while her group mates continue to sing the word "burning" repeatedly. The Martha and the Vandellas version was featured in the 1970 film The Boys in the Band, in a scene in which several of the characters perform an impromptu line dance to the recording; the success of "Heat Wave" helped popularize both Martha and the Vandellas and Holland-Dozier-Holland, while cementing Motown as a strong musical force. In a 2007 DVD entitled "The Lovin' Spoonful with John Sebastian – Do You Believe in Magic", author Sebastian illustrates how he sped up the three-chord intro from "Heat Wave" to come up with the intro to "Do You Believe in Magic". Billboard named the song #12 on their list of 100 Greatest Girl Group Songs of All Time. Lead vocals – Martha Reeves Background vocals – Rosalind Ashford and Annette Beard Produced by Brian Holland and Lamont Dozier Written by Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier and Edward Holland, Jr. Instrumentation by the Funk Brothers: Richard "Pistol" Allen – drums James Jamerson – double bass Joe Hunter – piano Robert White – guitar Eddie Willis – guitar Andrew "Mike" Terry – saxophone solo Linda Ronstadt remade "Heat Wave" for her album Prisoner in Disguise, recorded at The Sound Factory in Hollywood between February and June 1975 and released that October.
Ronstadt's sideman Andrew Gold told Rolling Stone: " band had been trying to get Linda to add it to her set for quite awhile...one night at a Long Island club called My Father's Place we received six encores and we'd run of tunes. One of us yelled out'Heat Wave in D' and we did it. Awfully sloppy but the crowd liked it. So we kept the song in our set." Michael Epstein the manager of My Father's Place states he was responsible for Ronstadt's singing "Heat Wave" at his club: when Ronstadt went backstage after advising the audience she and the band had no more material Epstein says he suggested Ronstadt perform "Heat Wave" writing down the lyrics and playing some chords on a guitar to help her band improvise. According to the Rolling Stone article the perfectionism of Ronstadt's producer Peter Asher "led to many, many hours of work on'Heat Wave' in a process that would amuse the old-line Motown musicians involved in the assembly-line approach that resulted in hits including Martha and the Vandellas' 1963 recording of the song."Although Ronstadt had made her top ten breakthrough in 1975 with remakes of the 1960s hits "You're No Good" and "When Will I Be Loved", the lead single from Prisoner in Disguise was the original Neil Young composition "Love Is a Rose" with "Heat Wave" relegated to the B-side of the single, released in August 1975.
However pop radio disc jockeys preferred "Heat Wave", which rose to a number 5 peak in November 1975, while "Love Is a Rose" received support from C&W radio, reaching number 5 on the C&W chart in Billboard magazine. Linda Ronstadt – lead vocals Andrew Gold – acoustic guitars, electric guitars, piano, ARP String Ensemble, background vocals, hand claps Kenny Edwards – bass, background vocals Peter Asher– hand claps In 2010, Phil Collins remade "Heat Wave" for his cover album, Going Back, with the track serving as lead single, the first Phil Collins' single release in over five years. Except for the Carole King/Gerry Goffin-penned title cut and that team's "Some of Your Lovin'"—both Dusty Springfield hits—and Collins' take on Curtis Mayfield's "Talking About My Baby", Going Back comprised Collins' remakes of Motown classics with the session personnel featuring three members of The Funk Brothers, Bob Babbitt, Ray Monette, Eddi
Mary Isobel Catherine Bernadette O'Brien, professionally known as Dusty Springfield, was an English pop singer and record producer whose career extended from the late 1950s to the 1990s. With her distinctive sensual mezzo-soprano sound, she was an important singer of blue-eyed soul and at her peak was one of the most successful British female performers, with six top 20 singles on the US Billboard Hot 100 and sixteen on the UK Singles Chart from 1963 to 1989, she is UK Music Halls of Fame. International polls have named Springfield among the best female rock artists of all time, her image, supported by a peroxide blonde bouffant hairstyle, evening gowns, heavy make-up, as well as her flamboyant performances made her an icon of the Swinging Sixties. Born in West Hampstead to a family that enjoyed music, Springfield learned to sing at home. In 1958 she joined her first professional group, The Lana Sisters, two years formed a pop-folk vocal trio, The Springfields, with her brother Tom Springfield and Tim Field.
They became the UK's top selling act. Her solo career began in 1963 with the upbeat pop hit, "I Only Want to Be with You". Among the hits that followed were "Wishin' and Hopin' ", "I Just Don't Know What to Do with Myself", "You Don't Have to Say You Love Me", "Son of a Preacher Man"; as a fan of US soul music, she brought many little-known soul singers to the attention of a wider UK record-buying audience by hosting the first national TV performance of many top-selling Motown artists beginning in 1965. Owing to these efforts, a year she became the best-selling female singer in the world and topped a number of popularity polls, including Melody Maker's Best International Vocalist. Although she was never considered a Northern Soul artist in her own right, her efforts contributed a great deal to the formation of the genre as a result, she was the first UK singer to top the New Musical Express readers' poll for Female Singer. To boost her credibility as a soul artist, Springfield went to Memphis, Tennessee, to record Dusty in Memphis, an album of pop and soul music with the Atlantic Records main production team.
Released in 1969, it has been ranked among the greatest albums of all time by the US magazine Rolling Stone and in polls by VH1 artists, New Musical Express readers, Channel 4 viewers. The album was awarded a spot in the Grammy Hall of Fame. Despite its current recognition, the album did not sell well. After its release, she relocated to America. However, in collaboration with Pet Shop Boys, she returned to the Top 10 of the UK and US charts in 1987 with "What Have I Done to Deserve This?" Two years she had two other UK hits on her own with "Nothing Has Been Proved" and "In Private." Subsequently, in the mid-1990s, owing to the inclusion of "Son of a Preacher Man" on the Pulp Fiction soundtrack, interest in her early output was revived. Springfield was born Mary Isobel Catherine Bernadette O'Brien on 16 April 1939 in West Hampstead, the second child of Gerard Anthony "OB" O'Brien and Catherine Anne "Kay" O'Brien. Springfield's older brother, Dionysius P. A. O'Brien, was known as Tom Springfield.
Springfield's father, raised in British India, worked as a tax accountant and consultant. Her mother came from an Irish family from Tralee, County Kerry, that included a number of journalists. Springfield was brought up in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire until the early 1950s, lived in Ealing, she attended Northfields, a traditional all-girl school. The comfortable middle-class upbringing was disturbed by dysfunctional tendencies in the family. Springfield and her brother were both prone to food-throwing as adults, she was given the nickname "Dusty" for playing football with boys in the street, was described as a tomboy. Springfield was raised in a music-loving family, her father would tap out rhythms on the back of her hand and encourage her to guess the musical piece. She listened to a wide range of music, including George Gershwin and Hart, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Cole Porter, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Glenn Miller. A fan of American jazz and the vocalists Peggy Lee and Jo Stafford, she wished to sound like them.
At the age of twelve, she made a recording of herself performing the Irving Berlin song "When the Midnight Choo Choo Leaves for Alabama" at a local record shop in Ealing. After leaving school, Springfield sang with Tom in local folk clubs. In 1957 the pair worked together at holiday camps; the following year Springfield responded to an advertisement in The Stage to join The Lana Sisters, an "established sister act", with Iris'Riss' Long and Lynne Abrams. She had changed her name to Shan, "cut her hair, lost the glasses, experimented with makeup, fashion" to become one of the'sisters'; as a member of the pop vocal trio, Springfield developed skills in harmonising and microphone technique and recorded, performed on TV, played at live shows in the United Kingdom and at United States Air Force bases in continental Europe. In 1960, Springfield left The Lana Sisters and formed a pop-folk trio, The Springfields, with Tom and Reshad Feild, replaced by Mike Hurst in 1962; the trio chose their name while rehearsing in a field in Somerset in the springtime and took the stage names of Dusty and Tim Springfield.
Intending to make an authentic US album, the group travelled to Nashville, Tennessee, to record Folk Songs from the Hills. The