Frankfurt Auschwitz trials
The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex. Hans Hofmeyer led as Chief Judge the "criminal case against Mulka and others". Overall, only 789 individuals of the 8,200 surviving SS personnel who served at Auschwitz and its sub-camps were tried, of which 750 received sentences. Unlike the first trial in Poland held two decades earlier, the trials in Frankfurt were not based on the legal definition of crimes against humanity as recognized by international law, but according to the state laws of the Federal Republic. Most of the senior leaders of the camp, including Rudolf Höss, the longest-standing commandant of the camp, were turned over to the Polish authorities in 1947 following their participation as witnesses in the Nuremberg Trial.
Subsequently, the accused were tried in Kraków and many sentenced to death for violent crimes and torturing of prisoners. Only SS-Untersturmführer Hans Münch was set having been acquitted of war crimes; that original trial in Poland is known as the first Auschwitz Trial. SS-Sturmbannführer Richard Baer, the last camp commandant, died in detention while still under investigation as part of the trials. Defendants ranged from members of the SS to kapos, privileged prisoners responsible for low-level control of camp internees, included some of those responsible for the process of "selection," or determination of who should be sent to the gas chambers directly from the "ramp" upon disembarking the trains that brought them from across Europe. In the course of the trial 360 witnesses were called, including around 210 survivors. Proceedings began in the "Bürgerhaus Gallus", in Frankfurt am Main, converted into a courthouse for that purpose, remained there until their conclusion. State Attorney General Fritz Bauer, himself interned in 1933 at the Heuberg concentration camp, led the prosecution.
Bauer was concerned with pursuing individual defendants serving at Auschwitz-Birkenau. The men on trial in Frankfurt were tried only for murders and other crimes that they committed on their own initiative at Auschwitz and were not tried for genocidal actions perpetrated "when following orders", considered by the courts to be the lesser crime of accomplice to murder. At a 1963 trial, KGB assassin Bohdan Stashynsky, who had committed several murders in the Federal Republic in the 1950s, was found by a German court not guilty of murder. Instead, Stashynsky was found to be only an accomplice to murder as the courts ruled that the responsibility for his murders rested only with his superiors in the KGB who had given him his orders; the legal implication of the Stashynsky case were that the courts had ruled that in a totalitarian system only executive decision-makers could be convicted of murder and that anyone who followed orders and killed someone could be convicted only of being accomplices to murder.
The term executive decision-maker was so defined by the courts to apply only to the highest levels of the Reich leadership during the National Socialist period, that all who just followed orders when killing were just accomplices to murder. Someone could be only convicted of murder if it was shown that they had killed someone on their own initiative, thus all of the accused of murder at the Auschwitz trial were tried only for murders that they had done on their own initiative. Thus, Bauer could only indict for murder those who killed when not following orders, those who had killed while following orders could be indicted as accomplices to murder. Moreover, because of the legal distinction between murderers and accomplices to murder, this meant that an SS man who killed thousands while operating the gas chambers at Auschwitz could only be found guilty of being accomplice to murder because he had been following orders, while an SS man who had beaten one inmate to death on his own initiative could be convicted of murder because he had not been following orders.
Bauer is said to have been opposed in the former purpose by the young Helmut Kohl a junior member of the Christian Democratic Union. In furtherance of that purpose Bauer sought and received support from the Institute for Contemporary History in Munich; the following historians from the Institute served as expert witnesses for the prosecution. Subsequently, the information the four historians gathered for the prosecution served as the basis for their 1968 book, Anatomy of the SS State, the first thorough survey of the SS based on SS records. Information about the actions of those accused and their whereabouts had been in the possession of West German authorities since 1958, but action on their cases was delayed by jurisdictional disputes, among other considerations; the court's proceedings were public and served to bring many details of the Holocaust to the attention of the public in the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as abroad. Six defendants were given life sentences and several others received the maximum prison sentences possible for the charges brought against them.
The trial comprised 183 days of hearings held from 19
Printemps is a French department store chain. The Printemps stores focus on beauty, fashion and men's wear. Printemps was founded in 1865 by Jean-Alfred Duclos; the original store was designed by noted architects Jules and Paul Sédille and opened at the corner of Le Havre and Boulevard Haussmann in Paris, France, on 3 November 1865. The building was expanded in 1874, elevators from the 1867 Universal Exposition were installed. Rebuilt after a fire in 1881, the store became the first to use electric lighting, in 1888, it was one of the first department stores with direct subway access, the Metro being connected in 1904. The policies of Printemps revolutionized retail business practices; the store marked items with set prices and eschewed the haggling based on customer appearance, standard in retail shopping. Like other grands magasins, Printemps used the economies of scale to provide high quality goods at prices that the expanding middle class could afford, they pioneered the idea of discount sales to clear outdated stock, the use of window models to display the latest fashions.
Printemps was noted for its branding innovations as well, handing out bouquets of violets on the first day of spring and championing the new Art Nouveau style, with its nature inspired motifs. In 1904, a near collapse of the business led to the resignation of Jules Jaluzot, he was succeeded by Gustave Languionie, who the following year announced the construction of a second store. This location, designed by architect Rene Binet, opened five years and is famously dominated by a glass domed hall 42 meters in height, a noted Art Nouveau staircase; the first store outside of Paris was opened in 1912 in Deauville. Peter Laguionie, the son of Gustave, took the helm of the store in 1920, rebuilding it after another large fire in 1921. In 1931, Printemps created. By 1970, there were 13 Prisunic discount outlets; the oil-price driven French economic crisis of the early 1970s threatened the Printemps business model. In response, the firm was transformed into a limited corporation, with a controlling interest acquired by the Maus Frères, a Swiss holding company.
Led by Jean-Jacques Delort, the firm embarked on a turnaround strategy, creating specialty stores and brands and branching out into retail areas such as food and mail. In the 1980s, the brand went global, opening stores in Japan, Jeddah, Dubai and Kuala Lumpur; the flagship Printemps store is located on Boulevard Haussmann in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, along with other well-known department stores like Galeries Lafayette. There are other Printemps stores throughout France; the company has opened branches outside France in locations including Andorra, the Ginza shopping district in Tokyo, Saudi Arabia and Shanghai. However, the franchises in Seoul, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore, which opened in the 1980s, the one in Taipei, which opened in 1993, are closed, as is the only North American branch in Denver, which had opened in 1987. A franchise, supposed to open in 1998 in Ratu Plaza, was under construction and was being finished when the Asian economic crisis and the May 1998 riots hit, the franchise never opened.
On 15 January 2014, Printemps opened "its first new store in 32 years in the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall in Paris."The figures of the Four Seasons on the façade were sculpted by French sculptor Henri Chapu. Jaluzot was replaced as owner in 1900 by Gustave Laguionie, after the business came close to collapse. In the early 20th century, the building was extended along the Boulevard Haussmann by architect René Binet in an art nouveau style; the building burned down, its interior was rebuilt in the 1920s. A remarkable feature of the Haussmann store is an elaborate cupola above the main restaurant in the store, installed during the 1923 reconstruction. In 1939, to avoid the risk that it would be destroyed in bombing attacks, the cupola was dismantled and stored at Clichy, it was restored in 1973 by the grandson of its original designer, using plans, kept in the archives of the family business. In 1975, the façade and cupola of the building were registered as historical monuments, their slogan, invented in 1996, is "Au Printemps, nous avons des vêtements!", sung as a catchy jingle in advertisements.
On 16 December 2008, the Paris department store Printemps Haussmann was evacuated following a bomb threat from the terrorist group FRA. The demining services found five sticks of dynamite in the toilet of the store; the FRA claimed this assassination attempt and demanded the withdrawal of 3,000 French soldiers deployed in Afghanistan. Printemps and its subsidiaries were acquired in 1991 by François Pinault and merged with other holding into Pinault-Printemps-Redoute, now Kering, the parent company of Gucci and FNAC. In 1997, a complete renovation of the flagship store was completed. In 2006, PPR sold Printemps to the Italian Borletti Group, who made major investments to revamp the stores. On 31 July 2013, Divine Investments SA, a Qatari-controlled investment fund, announced it has bought Printemps. On 4 August 2013, labor organizations in France asked the Paris prosecutor's office to open a preliminary inquiry into the sale, in response to a complaint from labor representatives. On 8 August 2013, a French court rejected the
Red Desert (film)
Red Desert is a 1964 Italian film directed by Michelangelo Antonioni and starring Monica Vitti with Richard Harris. Written by Antonioni and Tonino Guerra, it was Antonioni's first color film; the story follows a troubled woman living in an industrial region of Northern Italy following a recent automobile accident. Il deserto rosso was awarded the Golden Lion at the 25th Venice Film Festival in 1964, it has received acclaim from critics. This was the last in a series of four films he made with Vitti between 1959 and 1964, preceded by L'Avventura, La Notte, L'Eclisse. In Ravenna, Giuliana is walking with her young son, towards the petrochemical plant managed by her husband, Ugo. Passing workers who are on strike, Giuliana nervously and impulsively purchases a half-eaten sandwich from one of the workers, they are surrounded by strange industrial structures and debris that create inhuman images and sounds. Inside the plant, Ugo is talking with a visiting business associate, Corrado Zeller, looking to recruit workers for an industrial operation in Patagonia, Argentina.
Ugo and Corrado converse comfortably in the noisy factory. Ugo tells Corrado that his wife, had a recent auto accident, though she was physically unhurt, she has not been right mentally; that night in their apartment, Giuliana becomes agitated and fearful over a dream she had about sinking in quicksand. Ugo is unable to understand what she's experiencing. Attracted to Giuliana, Corrado visits her at an empty shop she's planning to open and talks about his life and the restless nature of his existence, she accompanies him to Ferrara on one of his worker recruitment drives, she indirectly reveals details about her mental state. She tells him that when she was in the hospital, she met a young woman patient, advised by her doctors to find someone or something to love—a husband, a son, a job a dog, she speaks of the young woman feeling like there was "no ground beneath her, like she was sliding down a slope, always on the verge of drowning." They travel to a radio observatory in Medicina. Surrounded by cold industrial architecture, Giuliana seems lost in her loneliness and isolation.
The following weekend, Giuliana and Corrado are walking beside a polluted estuary where they meet up with another couple and Linda, together they drive to a small riverside shack at Porto Corsini where they meet Emilia. They spend time in the shack engaged in trivial small talk filled with jokes, role-playing, sexual innuendo. Giuliana seems to find temporary solace in these mindless distractions. A mysterious ship docks directly outside their shack, as she looks out to the open sea, Giuliana confides to Corrado, "I can't look at the sea for long or I lose interest in what's happening on land." During their conversations and Giuliana have grown closer, he shows interest and sympathy for her. Like Giuliana, Corrado is alienated, but he is better adapted to and accepting of his environment, telling her, "You wonder what to look at; when a doctor arrives to board the ship, seeing that the ship is now quarantined due to an infectious disease, rushes off in a state of panic. Her unwillingness to stay, or to return to the shack to retrieve the purse she left behind, underscores her state of alienation from the others.
Sometime Ugo leaves on a business trip, Giuliana spends more time with Corrado, revealing more about her anxieties. One day she discovers that her son has become paralyzed from the waist down. Fearing he has contracted polio, Giuliana tries to comfort her son with a story about a young girl who lives on an island and swims off a beach at an isolated cove; the girl is at home with her surroundings, but after a mysterious sailing ship approaches offshore, all the rocks of the cove seem to come alive and sing to her in one voice. Soon after, Giuliana discovers to her shock. Unable to imagine why her son would do such a cruel thing, Guiliana's sense of loneliness and isolation returns. Desperate to end her inner turmoil, Giuliana goes to Corrado's apartment where he tries to force his affections on her. Resisting Corrado's advances, Giuliana accepts his affections, the two make love in his bed; the intimacy, does little to relieve Giuliana's sense of isolation. The next day, a distraught Giuliana leaves Corrado and wanders to a dockside ship where she meets a foreign sailor and tries to communicate her feelings to him, but he cannot understand her words.
Acknowledging the reality of her isolation, she says, "We are all separate." At that point, Giuliana seems to be alone and at her lowest state. Sometime Giuliana is again walking with her son near her husband's plant. Valerio notices a nearby smokestack emitting poisonous yellow smoke and wonders if birds are being killed by the toxic emissions. Giuliana tells him. Monica Vitti as Giuliana Richard Harris as Corrado Zeller Carlo Chionetti as Ugo Xenia Valderi as Linda Rita Renoir as Emilia Lili Rheims as Telescope operator's wife Aldo Grotti as Max Valerio Bartoleschi as Giuliana's son Emanuela Paola Carboni as Girl in fable Giuliano Missirini as Radio telescope operator The working title of the film was Celeste e verde. Shooting took place in the following locations: Incir De Paolis Studios, Lazio, Italy Ravenna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy Sardinia, Italy The film is set in the industrial area of 1960s Ravenna with sprawling new post World War Two factories, indu
Paris Orly Airport referred to as Orly, is an international airport located in Orly and in Villeneuve-le-Roi, 7 NM south of Paris, France. It serves as a secondary hub for domestic and overseas territories flights of Air France and as the homebase for Transavia France. Flights operate to destinations in Europe, the Middle East, the Caribbean, North America, East Asia and Southeast Asia. Prior to the opening of Charles de Gaulle Airport in March 1974, Orly was the main airport of Paris. With the shift of most international traffic to Charles de Gaulle Airport, Orly remains the busiest French airport for domestic traffic and the second busiest French airport overall in passenger traffic, with 33,120,685 passengers in 2018; the airport is operated by Groupe ADP under the brand Paris Aéroport. Since February 2018, the CEO of the airport has been Régis Lacote. Orly Airport covers 15.3 square kilometres of land. The airport area, including terminals and runways, spans over two départements and seven communes: Essonne département: communes of Paray-Vieille-Poste, Athis-Mons, Chilly-Mazarin, Morangis.
Management of the airport, however, is under the authority of Aéroports de Paris, which manages Charles de Gaulle Airport, Le Bourget Airport, several smaller airports in the suburbs of Paris. Known as Villeneuve-Orly Airport, the facility was opened in the southern suburbs of Paris in 1932 as a secondary airport to Le Bourget. Before this two huge airship hangars had been built there by the engineer Eugène Freyssinet from 1923 on; as a result of the Battle of France in 1940, Orly Airport was used by the occupying German Luftwaffe as a combat airfield, stationing various fighter and bomber units at the airport throughout the occupation. As a result, Orly was attacked by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces, destroying much of its infrastructure, leaving its runways with numerous bomb craters to limit its usefulness to the Germans. After the Battle of Normandy and the retreat of German forces from the Paris area in August 1944, Orly was repaired by USAAF combat engineers and was used by Ninth Air Force as tactical airfield A-47.
The 50th Fighter Group flew P-47 Thunderbolt fighter-bomber aircraft from the airport until September liaison squadrons used the airfield until October 1945. The USAAF diagram from March 1947 shows the 6140-foot 27/207 runway with 5170-foot 81/261 runway crossing it at its north end; the November 1953 Aeradio diagram shows four concrete runways, all 197 feet wide: 03L 7874 ft, 03R 6069 ft, 08L 5118 ft and 08R 6627 ft. The American United States Army Air Forces 1408th Army Air Force Base Unit was the primary operator at Orly Field until March 1947 when control was returned to the French Government.. The Americans left in 1967 as a result of France's withdrawal from NATO's integrated military command, all non-French NATO forces were asked to leave France. In May 1958 Pan Am Douglas DC-7Cs flew to Los Angeles in 21 hr 56 min. Air France flew to Tokyo in 31 hr 5 min via Anchorage or 44 hr 45 min on a seven-stop Lockheed Constellation via India. Air France's ten flights a day to London were all Vickers Viscounts.
A development project voted in 2012 planned to merge the airport's south and west terminals with the construction of an 80,000 m2 building to create one great terminal. On 14 April 2016, the Groupe ADP rolled out the Connect 2020 corporate strategy and the commercial brand Paris Aéroport was applied to all Parisian airports, including the Orly airport. Paris-Orly Airport features two separate passenger terminal buildings, Terminal 4 and Terminals 1 and 2: On 19 March 2019, Terminal Ouest became Terminals 1 and 2, Terminal Sud became Terminal 4. A new junction building, to be known as Terminal 3, will be opened on 16 April 2019; the western terminal has a different layout than Terminal Sud, consisting of two floors and a gate area of four "fingers" rather than a brick-style layout. The ground level 0 features the arrivals facilities including 8 baggage reclaim belts as well as several service facilities and shops; the departures area is located on level 1 with more restaurants located here. This central departures area is connected to four gate areas named halls 1-4 which contain departure gates 10A-10P, 20A-20L, 31A-31F and 40A-40G respectively.
23 stands at this terminal are equipped with jet-bridges, with several of them able to handle wide-body aircraft. The innovative 1961 steel-and-glass southern terminal building consists of six floors. While the smaller basement level -1 as well as the upper levels 2, 3 and 4 contain only some service facilities and office space, level 0 features the arrivals facilities as well as several shops and service counters; the airside area and departure gates are located on the upper level 1. The waiting area, which features several shops as well, houses gates A1-A10 and A40-A42 and is furthermore connected to the gate areas Hall A and Hall B to each side of the building. 15 of the terminal's departure gates are equipped with jet-bridges, some of them are able to handle wide-body aircraft. AOM French Airlines had
Jean-Luc Godard is a French-Swiss film director and film critic. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the 1960s French New Wave film movement. Like his New Wave contemporaries, Godard criticized mainstream French cinema's "Tradition of Quality", which "emphasized craft over innovation, privileged established directors over new directors, preferred the great works of the past to experimentation." As a result of such argument, he and like-minded critics started to make their own films. Many of Godard's films challenge the conventions of traditional Hollywood in addition to French cinema. In 1964, Godard described his and his colleagues' impact: "We barged into the cinema like cavemen into the Versailles of Louis XV." He is considered the most radical French filmmaker of the 1960s and 1970s. Along with showing knowledge of film history through homages and references, several of his films expressed his political views. Since the New Wave, his politics have been much less radical and his recent films are about representation and human conflict from a humanist, a Marxist perspective.
In a 2002 Sight & Sound poll, Godard ranked third in the critics' top-ten directors of all time. He is said to have "created one of the largest bodies of critical analysis of any filmmaker since the mid-twentieth century." He and his work have been central to narrative theory and have "challenged both commercial narrative cinema norms and film criticism's vocabulary." In 2010, Godard did not attend the award ceremony. Godard's films have inspired many directors including Martin Scorsese, Quentin Tarantino, Brian De Palma, Steven Soderbergh, D. A. Pennebaker, Robert Altman, Jim Jarmusch, Wong Kar-wai, Wim Wenders, Bernardo Bertolucci, Pier Paolo Pasolini. From his father, he is the cousin of former President of Peru, he has been married twice, to actresses Anna Karina and Anne Wiazemsky, both of whom starred in several of his films. His collaborations with Karina—which included such critically acclaimed films as Bande à part and Pierrot le Fou —was called "arguably the most influential body of work in the history of cinema" by Filmmaker magazine.
Jean-Luc Godard was born on 3 December 1930 in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, the son of Odile and Paul Godard, a Swiss physician. His wealthy parents came from Protestant families of Franco–Swiss descent, his mother was the daughter of Julien Monod, a founder of the Banque Paribas, she was the great-granddaughter of theologian Adolphe Monod. Relatives on his mother's side include composer Jacques-Louis Monod, naturalist Théodore Monod and pastor Frédéric Monod. Four years after Jean-Luc's birth, his father moved the family to Switzerland. At the outbreak of the Second World War, Godard was in France and returned to Switzerland with difficulty, he spent most of the war in Switzerland, although his family made clandestine trips to his grandfather's estate on the French side of Lake Geneva. Godard attended school in Switzerland. Not a frequent cinema-goer, he attributed his introduction to cinema to a reading of Malraux's essay Outline of a Psychology of Cinema, his reading of La Revue du cinéma, relaunched in 1946.
In 1946, he went to study at the Lycée Buffon in Paris and, through family connections, mixed with members of its cultural elite. He lodged with the writer Jean Schlumberger. Having failed his baccalaureate exam in 1948 he returned to Switzerland, he lived with his parents, whose marriage was breaking up. He spent time in Geneva with a group that included another film fanatic, Roland Tolmatchoff, the extreme rightist philosopher Jean Parvulesco, his older sister Rachel encouraged him to paint, in an abstract style. After time spent at a boarding school in Thonon to prepare for the retest, which he passed, he returned to Paris in 1949, he registered for a certificate in anthropology at the University of Paris, but did not attend class. He got involved with the young group of film critics at the ciné-clubs. Godard held only French citizenship in 1953, he became a citizen of Gland, canton of Vaud, Switzerland through simplified naturalisation through his Swiss father. In Paris, in the Latin Quarter just prior to 1950, ciné-clubs were gaining prominence.
Godard began attending these clubs – the Cinémathèque, the CCQL, Work and Culture ciné Club, others – which became his regular haunts. The Cinémathèque had been founded by Henri Langlois and Georges Franju in 1936. At these clubs he met fellow film enthusiasts including Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol, François Truffaut. Godard was part of a generation for, he has said: "In the 1950s cinema was as important as bread—but it isn't the case any more. We thought cinema would assert itself as an instrument of knowledge, a microscope... a telescope.... At the Cinémathèque I discovered a world. They'd told us about Goethe, but not Dreyer.... We watched silent films in the era of talkies. We dreame
Contempt is a 1963 French-Italian New Wave drama film written and directed by Jean-Luc Godard, based on the Italian novel Il disprezzo by Alberto Moravia. It stars Brigitte Bardot, Michel Piccoli, Jack Palance, Giorgia Moll. Paul Javal, a young French playwright who has found commercial success in Rome, accepts an offer from vulgar American producer Jeremy Prokosch to rework the script for German director Fritz Lang's screen adaptation of The Odyssey. Paul's wife, Camille Javal, joins him on the first day of the project at Cinecittà; as the first discussions are completed, Prokosch invites the crew to join him at his villa, offering Camille a ride in his two-seat sportscar. Camille looks to Paul to decline the offer, but he submissively withdraws to follow by taxi, leaving Camille and Prokosch alone. Paul does not catch up with them until 30 minutes explaining that he was delayed by a traffic accident. Camille grows uneasy, secretly doubting his honesty and suspecting that he is using her to cement his ties with Prokosch.
The feelings of doubt are heightened when she sees him exchange familiarities with Prokosch's secretary, Francesca. Back at their apartment and Camille discuss the subtle uneasiness that has come between them in the first few hours of the project, Camille announces to her bewildered husband that she no longer loves him. Hoping to rekindle Camille's love, Paul convinces her to accept Prokosch's invitation to join them for filming in Capri. Prokosch and Lang are locked in a conflict over the correct interpretation of Homer's work, an impasse exacerbated by the difficulty of communication between the German director, French script writer, American producer. Francesca acts as interpreter; when Paul sides with Prokosch against Lang by suggesting that Odysseus left home because of his wife's infidelity, Camille's suspicions of her husband's servility are confirmed. She deliberately allows him to find her in Prokosch's embrace, in the ensuing confrontation she declares that her respect for him has turned to contempt because he has bartered her to Prokosch.
He denies this accusation, offering to leave Capri. After an auto crash in which Camille and Prokosch are killed, Paul prepares to leave Capri and return to the theater. Lang continues to work on the film. Brigitte Bardot as Camille Javal Michel Piccoli as Paul Javal Jack Palance as Jeremy Prokosch Giorgia Moll as Francesca Vanini Fritz Lang as himself Raoul Coutard as the cameraman Jean-Luc Godard as Lang's assistant director Linda Veras as a Siren Italian film producer Carlo Ponti approached Godard to discuss a possible collaboration. Ponti suggested Sophia Marcello Mastroianni, whom Godard refused. Godard's former wife and muse, Anna Karina, revealed that the director had traveled to Rome to ask Monica Vitti if she would portray the female lead; however the Italian actress turned up an hour late, "staring out the window like she wasn't interested at all". Bardot was chosen, because of the producer's insistence that the profits might be increased by displaying her famously sensual body; this provided the film's opening scene, filmed by Godard as a typical mockery of the cinema business with tame nudity.
The scene was shot after Godard considered the film finished, at the insistence of the American co-producers. In the film, Godard cast himself as Lang's assistant director, characteristically has Lang expound many of Godard's New Wave theories and opinions. Godard employed the two "forgotten" New Wave filmmakers, Luc Moullet and Jacques Rozier, on the film. Bardot visibly reads a book about Fritz Lang, written by Moullet, Rozier made the documentary short about the making of the film, Le Parti des Choses. Godard admitted to changing the original novel, "but with full permission" of the original writer. Among his changes were focusing the action to only a few days and changing the writer character from being "silly and soft. I've made him more American—something like a Humphrey Bogart type." Contempt was filmed in and occurs in Italy, with location shooting at the Cinecittà studios in Rome and the Casa Malaparte on Capri island. In a sequence, the characters played by Piccoli and Bardot wander through their apartment alternately arguing and reconciling.
Godard filmed the scene as an extended series of tracking shots, in natural light and in near real-time. The cinematographer, Raoul Coutard, shot some films of the Nouvelle Vague, including Godard's Breathless. According to Jonathan Rosenbaum, Godard was directly influenced by Jean-Daniel Pollet and Volker Schlöndorff's Méditerranée, released earlier the same year. Godard admitted his tendency to get actors to improvise dialogue "during the peak moment of creation" baffled them. "They feel useless," he said. "Yet they bring me a lot... I need them, just as I need the pulse and colours of real settings for atmosphere and creation." The French and American theatrical releases differed significantly. The French release was multilingual, while the American and Italian releases were dubbed into English and Italian, respectively; the French and American releases differ only in editing, but the Italian version is shorter and, instead of George Delerue's original musical score, features a different light jazz score written by
The Little Soldier
The Little Soldier is a 1960 French film and directed by French filmmaker Jean-Luc Godard, but not released until 1963. It was Godard's first film with Anna Karina. During the Algerian War, Bruno Forestier lives in Geneva to escape the enlistment in France. Working for French intelligence, he is ordered to kill Palivoda, pro-FLN, to prove he is not a double agent. Refusal and hesitation keep him from carrying out the assassination. Meanwhile, he meets and falls in love with Véronica Dreyer, who helped the FLN. Bruno is captured and tortured by Algerian revolutionaries, he escapes, agrees to kill Palivoda for the French in exchange for passage to Brazil for himself and Véronica. However, the French discover Véronica's ties to the FLN, torture her to death; the situation in Algeria and the denunciation of the use of torture by both sides are the main themes of the movie. This led to the film being banned for three years in France; the film shows a typical theme of Jean-Luc Godard, developed in his works: interrogation about the nature of cinema and the image.
The film was banned in France until January 1963, because of the presence of torture scenes. This was Godard's second feature film; this is the first of Jean-Luc Godard's movies starring Anna Karina, who became his wife soon after the filming. She would go on to become the quintessential Godard actress; the Little Soldier has received positive reviews since release. In a retrospective review, Roger Ebert awarded it a full four stars. Le Petit Soldat on IMDb The Little Soldier at AllMovie Review of DVD of Le Petit Soldat Review of Le Petit Soldat