Hermia is a fictional character from Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream. She is a girl of ancient Athens named for the Greek god of trade. Hermia is caught in a romantic entanglement where she loves one man, but is being courted by another, whose feelings she does not return. Though she loves Lysander, Hermia's father, wants her to marry Demetrius and has appealed to Theseus, the Duke of Athens, for support. Under Athenian law, Hermia's refusal of her father's command would result in her being put to death or being banished to a nunnery. Lysander and Hermia flee into the forest, meeting Demetrius' former fiancé, Hermia's lifelong friend, Helena. Demetrius had abandoned Helena to woo Helena is still hopelessly in love with him. Hermia tells Helena not to worry. Helena relates Hermia's plan to Demetrius in the hope that he will realize her love for him, but Demetrius pursues Hermia and Lysander into the forest with Helena in pursuit. Demetrius tries to persuade Helena to stop following him but Helena declares her love.
Oberon is the king of the fairies. He has been watching the story unfold, he orders his sprite, Puck, to place a drop from a magical flower on the sleeping Demetrius' eyelids so that he will fall in love with Helena when he wakes, everyone will be content. However, Puck mistakes Lysander for Demetrius. After discovering the mistake, Oberon places a drop of the magical flower on Demetrius' eyes. Demetrius awakes and his love for Helena is now rekindled. With both Demetrius and Lysander pursuing her, Helena becomes angry; because Lysander's love for Hermia was so great and Demetrius had been wooing her in accordance with her father's wishes, Helena believes that they are cruelly mocking her. When Hermia returns to the scene, Helena accuses her of being part of the joke. Hermia asserts that she would never hurt her friend that way. Accusations and challenges fly between Helena and Hermia. Hermia now thinks the two swains offers to fight Helena. Helena asks for protection because Hermia was a scrapper in their younger years, saying, "And though she be but little, she is fierce."
Lysander and Demetrius resolve to settle their rivalry with swords and separately head further into the forest. Wearied by the conflict and the chase, with Puck providing some magic assistance, the four young Athenians fall asleep in the forest. Puck places the antidote on Lysander's eyes but not on Demetrius'; the four wake up the next morning when Theseus, his betrothed, Egeus find them. This is the day Hermia is to make her choice: enter a nunnery or die. However, the lovers wake up dazed. Demetrius, now permanently under the love flowers spell, says. With Demetrius out of the picture, Theseus overrules Egeus. Hermia and Lysander marry each other at the wedding As Hermia's name comes from the god of trade, there may have been an economic reason for Demetrius' courtship and Egeus' insistence on their marriage. In film versions, Hermia was played by Olivia de Havilland in the 1935 version and by Anna Friel in the 1999 release
Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play. A weaver by trade, he is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck. Bottom and Puck are the only two characters who converse with and progress the three central stories in the whole play. Puck is first introduced in the fairies' story and creates the drama of the lovers' story by messing up who loves whom, places the donkey head on Bottom's in his story. Bottom is performing in a play in his story intending it to be presented in the lovers' story, as well as interacting with Titania in the fairies' story. While they are in the woods rehearsing, the fairy Puck, a mischievous sprite and minion of Oberon, king of the fairies, happens upon their rehearsal, he decides to have some fun with them, carrying out part of Oberon's orders in the process, when Bottom exits the stage, he transforms his head into a donkey's. When Bottom returns, unaware of his own transformation, his fellow actors run away from him with Quince screaming, "We are haunted!"
Bottom believes they are playing a prank on him, proclaiming, "This is to make an ass of me, to fright me if they could." So he sings loudly to show them he isn't afraid. The Fairy Queen Titania is awakened by Bottom's song, she has been enchanted by a love potion, which will cause her to fall in love with the first living thing that she sees when she wakes, made from the juice of a rare flower, once hit by Cupid's arrow, that her husband, King of the Fairies, spread on her eyes in an act of jealous rage. During his enchantment over her, he utters "Wake when some vile thing is near." The first thing she sees when she wakes is the transformed Bottom, she falls in love with him. She commands her fairy minions to serve and wait upon him. Oberon releases Titania from her enchantment. After being confronted with the reality that her romantic interlude with the transformed Bottom was not just a dream, she is disgusted with the image of him and seems suspicious of how "these things came to pass." After Oberon instructs Puck to return Bottom's head to his human state, which Puck reluctantly does, the fairies leave him sleeping in the woods, nearby the four Athenian lovers, Helena and Lysander.
He wakes up. His first thought is that he has missed his cue, he realises he has had "a most rare vision". He is amazed by the events of this dream, soon begins to wonder if it was in fact a dream at all, he decides that he will "get Peter Quince to write a ballad of this dream", that "it shall be called'Bottom's Dream,' because it hath no Bottom". Upon being reunited with his friends, he is not able to utter what has happened and says "For if I tell you, I am no true Athenian". Theseus ends up choosing Pyramus and Thisbe as the performance for his amusement, now the wedding day of the young Athenian lovers; the play is poorly written and poorly acted, though performed with a great deal of passion. Bottom performs the famous Pyramus death scene in the play within the play, one of the most comedic moments in the play. In performance, like Horatio in Hamlet is the only major part that can't be doubled, i.e. that can't be played by an actor who plays another character, since he is present in scenes involving nearly every character.
Bottom's discussion of his dream is considered by Ann Thompson to have emulated two passages from Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess. Critics have commented on the profound religious implications of Bottom's speech on his awakening without the ass's head in act 4 of A Midsummer Night's Dream: " The eye of man hath not heard, the ear of man hath not seen, man's hand is not able to taste, his tongue to conceive, nor his heart to report, what my dream was. I will get Peter Quince to write a ballad of this dream: it shall be called'Bottom's Dream', because it hath no bottom. Peradventure, to make it the more gracious, I shall sing it at her death." This speech seems to be a comically jumbled evocation of a passage from the New Testament's 1 Corinthians 2.9–10: "The things which eye hathe not sene, nether eare hath heard, nether came into man's heart, which God hathe prepared for them that love him. But God hathe reveiled them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, the deepe things of God."
Steven Doloff suggests that Bottom's humorous and foolish performance at the end of "A Midsummer Night's Dream" mimics a passage from the previous chapter of Corinthians: "For seing the worlde by wisdome knewe not God in the wisdome of God, it pleased God by the foolishnes of preaching to save them that believe: Seing that the Jewes require a signe, the Grecians seke after wisdome. But we preache Christ crucified: unto the Jewes a stombling blocke, & unto the Grecians, foolishnes: But unto them which are called, bothe of the Jewes & Grecias we preache Christ, the power of GOD, the wisdome of God. For the foolishnes of God is wiser the men." This passage's description of the sceptical reception Christ was given by his Greek audience appears to be alluded to in Bottom's performance. Just as Christ's preaching is regarded as "foolishnes," Bottom's audience perceives his acting as without value, except for the humor they can find in the actors' hopelessly flawed rendering of their subject matter.
Doloff writes that this allusion is likely because, in both texts, the sc
Shakespeare: The Animated Tales
Shakespeare: The Animated Tales is a series of twelve half-hour animated television adaptations of the plays of William Shakespeare broadcast on BBC 2 and S4C between 1992 and 1994. The series was commissioned by the Welsh language channel S4C. Production was co-ordinated by the Dave Edwards Studio in Cardiff, although the shows were animated in Moscow by Soyuzmultfilm, using a variety of animation techniques; the scripts for each episode were written by Leon Garfield, who produced truncated versions of each play. The academic consultant for the series was Professor Stanley Wells; the dialogue was recorded at the facilities of BBC Wales in Cardiff. The show was both a critical success; the first series episode "Hamlet" won two awards for "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Animation" at the 1993 Emmys, a Gold Award at the 1993 New York Festival. The second-season episode "The Winter's Tale" won the "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Animation" at the 1996 Emmys; the episodes continue to be used in schools as teaching aids when introducing children to Shakespeare for the first time.
However, the series has been critiqued for the large number of scenes cut to make the episodes shorter in length. The series was conceived in 1989 by Christopher Grace, head of animation at S4C. Grace had worked with Soyuzmultfilm on an animated version of the Welsh folktale cycle, the Mabinogion, he turned to them again for the Shakespeare project, feeling "if we were going to animate Shakespeare in a thirty-minute format we had to go to a country that we knew creatively and artistically could deliver, and in my view, there was only one country that could do it in the style that we wanted, that came at it from a different angle, a country to whom Shakespeare is as important as it is to our own." Grace was very keen to avoid creating anything Disney-esque. This style went with comic panache. Actors were hired by Leon Garfield who had written a series of prose adaptations of Shakespeare's plays for children called Shakespeare Stories in 1985, to recite abbreviated versions of the plays written.
According to Garfield, editing the plays down to thirty minutes whilst maintaining original Shakespearean dialogue was not easy. Garfield explains, "lines that are selected have to carry the weight of narrative, that's not always easy, it meant using half a line, skipping twenty lines, finding something that would sustain the rhythm but at the same time carry on the story. The most difficult by far were the comedies. In the tragedies, you have a strong story going straight through, sustained by the protagonist. In the comedies, the structure is much more complex." Garfield compared the task of trying to rewrite the plays as half-hour pieces as akin to "painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel on a postage stamp." To maintain narrative integrity, Garfield added non-Shakespearean voice-over narration to each episode, which would introduce the episode and fill in any plot points skipped over by the dialogue. The use of a narrator was employed by Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb in their own prose versions of Shakespeare's plays for children, Tales from Shakespeare, published in 1807, to which Garfield's work is compared.
However, fidelity to the original texts was paramount in the minds of the creators as the episodes sought "to educate their audience into an appreciation and love of Shakespeare, out of a conviction of Shakespeare as a cultural artifact available to all, not restricted to a narrowly defined form of performance. Screened in dozens of countries, The Animated Tales is Shakespeare as cultural educational television available to all." The dialogue was recorded at the sound studios of BBC Wales in Cardiff. During the recording, Garfield himself was present, along with literary advisor, Stanley Wells and the Russian directors. All gave input to the actors during the recording sessions; the animators took the voice recordings back to Moscow and began to animate them. At this stage, the project was overseen by Dave Edwards, who co-ordinated the Moscow animation with S4C. Edwards' job was to keep one eye on the creative aspects of the productions and one eye on the financial and practical aspects; this didn't make him popular with some of the directors, but his role was essential for the series to be completed on time and under budget.
According to Elizabeth Babakhina, executive producer of the series in Moscow, the strict rules brought into play by Edwards helped the directors. In the past, directors thought "If I make a good film, people will forgive me anything." Now they've begun to understand that they won't be forgiven if they make a great film. It has to be a great film, be on time." There was considerable media publicity prior to the initial broadcast of the first season, with Prince Charles commenting "I welcome this pioneering project which will bring Shakespeare's great wisdom and all-encompassing view of mankind to many millions from all parts of the globe, who have never been in his company before." An article in the Radio Times wrote "as a result of pre-sales alone, tens of millions of people are guaranteed to see it and Shakespeare is guaranteed for his best year since the First Folio was published in 16
Theseus was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules”. Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians; the Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer. The myths surrounding Theseus – his journeys and friends – have provided material for fiction throughout the ages. Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos – the political unification of Attica under Athens – represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous beasts; because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace, excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis.
Plutarch's Life of Theseus makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, the love of Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes, Demon and Cleidemus; as the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring an heir, he asked the Oracle of Delphi for advice, her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." Aegeus was disappointed. He asked the advice of king of Troezen. Pittheus understood the prophecy, got Aegeus drunk, gave Aegeus his daughter Aethra, but following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore.
There she poured a libation to Sphairos and Poseidon, was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature. After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens, thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens, his mother told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy.
Young and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way. At the first site, Epidaurus, sacred to Apollo and the healer Asclepius, Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth, taking from him the stout staff that identifies Theseus in vase-paintings. At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis called "Pityokamptes", he would capture travellers, tie them between two pine trees that were bent down to the ground, let the trees go, tearing his victims apart. Theseus killed him by his own method, he became intimate with Sinis's daughter, fathering the child Melanippus. In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone named Phaea; some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The Bibliotheca by Pseudo-Apollodorus described the Crommyonian Sow as an offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
Near Megara, an elderly robber named Sciron forced travellers along the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he kicked them off the cliff behind them. Theseus pushed him off the cliff. Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he had beaten them, killed them. Theseus beat Cercyon at wrestling and killed him instead; the last bandit was Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He made them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit. Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, decapitating him with his own axe; when Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him
Jean-Christophe Averty was a French television and radio director, Satrap of the College of'Pataphysique. Many of his television productions from the 1960s were early examples of French video art, his studies were used in the following decades by the research groups of the French National Audiovisual Institute. A graduate of the IDHEC film school, Averty started in television in 1952 at the French Television Office, he has since directed over five hundred programs for television and radio, across all disciplines: fiction, drama and jazz. His many awards include an Emmy award in the United States. Averty was appointed Satrap of the College of'Pataphysique in 1990, due to his fascination for Alfred Jarry and Pataphysique. Averty made his reputation on his strong character, his taste for provocation and his sense for innovative television, his 1963 series The Green Grapes was infamous for a recurring sequence of a baby being put through a grater. A keen connoisseur of jazz, Averty filmed the Jazz à Juan festival for many years.
The pianist Martial Solal paid him a tribute in one of his compositions: Averty, c'est moi. Over 28 years, he hosted 1,805 episodes of his radio show Les Cinglés du music-hall, based on his own collection of jazz and variety 78s that he had bought in flea markets around the world; the show was cancelled in 2006 under Jean-Paul Cluzel's chairmanship of Radio France. The French section of the shows was based on notebooks entrusted to him by André Cauzard, filled with daily details of pre-war jazz music events. Averty directed television shows where he applied his singular style to showcase the greatest francophone singers such as Françoise Hardy, Yves Montand, Johnny Hallyday, Sylvie Vartan, Juliette Greco, Georges Brassens, France Gall, Serge Gainsbourg, Gilbert Bécaud, Guy Marchand, Léo Ferré, Tino Rossi, Jean Sablon. In 1969 Averty directed the TV movie Le Songe d'une nuit d'été, starring Claude Jade, Christine Delaroche and Jean-Claude Drouot, filmed in bluescreen, his television creations are landmarks in their use of video as a mode of artistic expression.
Averty made great use of characters filmed against a blue screen, overlaid on a drawn background. Examples are Sapeur Camembert, based on the eponymous work of Georges Colomb, a production of Edmond Rostand's classic play Chantecler. Averty was one of the last salaried directors of the French Production Company. In 2012, he entrusted the management and safeguarding of the rights of all of his television and radio works to the French National Audiovisual Institute. 1965 Emmy Award 1991 Legion of Honour Jean-Christophe Averty on IMDb
A Midsummer Night's Dream (2017 film)
A Midsummer Night's Dream is a 2017 film adaptation of the play A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare. The film is a modern rendition that relocates the story from ancient Athens to present day Los Angeles. Lily Rabe as Helena Hamish Linklater as Lysander Finn Wittrock as Demetrius Rachael Leigh Cook as Hermia Fran Kranz as Bottom Avan Jogia as Puck Ted Levine as Duke Theseus Paz De La Huerta as Hippolyta Saul Williams as Oberon Mia Doi Todd as Titania Charity Wakefield as Quince Charlie Carver as Snout Max Carver as Snug Justine Lupe as Flute The film was adapted for the screen and directed by Casey Wilder Mott; the production companies were Empyrean Pictures. The film's original soundtrack, composed by Mia Doi Todd, features guest appearances by Tunde Adebimpe, Cut Chemist, Miguel Atwood-Ferguson and others. A Midsummer Night's Dream premiered at the Los Angeles Film Festival in June 2017, where it received positive reviews; the film was acquired for a theatrical release by Brainstorm Media and played at Landmark Theatres and other venues nationwide in the summer of 2018.
The film received further critical acclaim upon its theatrical opening. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, it holds an approval rating of 77%, based on 13 reviews with an average rating of 6.4/10. Metacritic gives the film a weighted average score of 70 out of 100, based on 7 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". A Midsummer Night's Dream on IMDb