Stand in the Schoolhouse Door
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood. In response, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which federalized the Alabama National Guard, Guard General Henry Graham commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace spoke further, but moved, Malone and Hood completed their registration. The incident brought Wallace into the national spotlight. On May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court of the United States handed down its decision regarding the case called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, in which the plaintiffs charged that the education of black children in separate public schools from their white counterparts was unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education meant. In the years following, hundreds of African-Americans applied for admission, but with one brief exception, all were denied; the University worked with police to find any disqualifying qualities, or when this failed, intimidated the applicants. But in 1963, three African-Americans —Vivian Malone Jones, Dave McGlathery and James Hood—applied. In early June a federal district judge ordered that they be admitted, forbade Governor Wallace from interfering. On June 11, Malone and Hood pre-registered in the morning at the Birmingham courthouse, they filled out all their forms there. They arrived at Foster Auditorium to have their course loads reviewed by advisors and pay their fees, they remained in their vehicle as Wallace, attempting to uphold his promise as well as for political show, blocked the entrance to Foster Auditorium with the media watching. Flanked by federal marshals, Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach told Wallace to step aside. However, Wallace interrupted gave a speech on states' rights.
Katzenbach called President John F. Kennedy, who had issued a presidential proclamation demanding that Wallace step aside, told him of Wallace's actions in ignoring the proclamation as it had no legal force. In response, Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, prepared, authorizing the federalization of the Alabama National Guard. Four hours Guard General Henry Graham commanded Wallace to step aside, saying, "Sir, it is my sad duty to ask you to step aside under the orders of the President of the United States." Wallace spoke further, but moved, Malone and Hood completed their registration. In the days following the enactment, the National Guard were ordered to remain on the campus owing to a large Ku Klux Klan contingent in the surrounding area. Wallace and Kennedy exchanged volatile telegrams over it. Wallace objected to Kennedy ordering the Guard to remain on the campus and said that Kennedy bore responsibility if something happened. Kennedy responded stating that Executive Order 11111 made it clear that responsibility for keeping the peace remained with the State Troopers under Wallace's control and said he would revoke the order if assurances were made.
Wallace refused stating he would not be intimidated and cited that Executive Order 11111 was passed without his knowledge. Executive Order 11111 was used to ensure that the Alabama National Guard made sure that black students across the state were able to enroll at all-white schools, it was complemented by Executive Order 11118, which provided "assistance for removal of unlawful obstructions of justice in the State of Alabama." The incident was detailed in Robert Drew's 1963 documentary film Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment. The event was depicted in the 1994 film Forrest Gump, in which the title character appeared at the event, in the 1997 television movie George Wallace. In June 2012, George Wallace, Jr. commented on his father's legacy, mentioned the reference to the event in Bob Dylan's 1964 song "The Times They Are a-Changin'": "Come Senators, please heed the call. Don't stand in the doorway, don't block up the hall." Wallace, Jr. said, when he was 14, he sang the song for his father and thought he saw the look of regret in his father's eyes.
Little Rock Nine School integration in the United States Timeline of the civil rights movement Sarah Melton, "A Sleight of History: University of Alabama's Foster Auditorium", Southern Spaces, October 15, 2009. JFK Address on Civil Rights The Crimson-white, June 9, 1963 and June 13, 1963, W. S. Hoole Special Collections Library. Media related to Stand in the Schoolhouse Door at Wikimedia Commons
Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
The U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency was an independent agency of the United States government that existed from 1961 to 1999, its mission was to strengthen United States national security by "formulating, negotiating and verifying effective arms control and disarmament policies and agreements." In so doing, ACDA ensured that arms control was integrated into the development and conduct of United States national security policy. ACDA conducted and coordinated research for arms control and disarmament policy formulation, prepared for and managed U. S. participation in international arms control and disarmament negotiations, prepared and directed U. S. participation in international arms control and disarmament systems. The Arms Control and Disarmament Agency was established by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act, Pub. L. 87–297, 75 Stat. 631, enacted September 26, 1961. The H. R. 9118 bill was drafted by presidential adviser John J. McCloy, its predecessor was the U. S. Disarmament Administration, part of the U.
S. Department of State. In the 1970s emphasis of the agency was placed upon gaining an understanding of the strategic weapons capabilities of the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China; the electronic reconnaissance capability of the United States was expanded through federal agency research and private contract research, utilizing radio frequency as well as optical technologies. The theory of this mission was that a clearer understanding of other nations' strategic capabilities was an important initial step in prevention of nuclear war. In 1997, the Clinton administration announced the partial integration of ACDA with the State Department as part of the reinvention of the agencies which implement the nation’s foreign policy; the ACDA Director served as both the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs and a Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control and Disarmament. He communicated with the President through the Secretary of State.
In his capacity as senior advisor to the president, the Under Secretary attended and participated, at the direction of the president, in National Security Council and subordinate meetings pertaining to arms control and disarmament and had the right to communicate, through the Secretary of State, with the President and members of the NSC on arms control and disarmament concerns. As of April 1, 1999, ACDA was abolished and its functions merged into the Department of State; this was done pursuant to Pub. L. 105–277, 112 Stat. 2681, enacted October 21, 1998. In particular, ACDA's four Bureaus were merged with the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs to form three new Bureaus: Political-Military Affairs, Bureau of Arms Control, Bureau of Nonproliferation; the functions of the ACDA Director were replaced by the office of the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs and by the office of the Senior Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control and Disarmament.
Additional reorganizations of the arms control function in those bureaus took place in subsequent years. The directors of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency were: William Chapman Foster Gerard C. Smith Fred Iklé Paul Warnke George M. Seignious Ralph Earle Eugene V. Rostow Kenneth Adelman William F. Burns Ronald F. Lehman John D. Holum Works by Arms Control and Disarmament Agency at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Arms Control and Disarmament Agency at Internet Archive Peters, Gerhard. "John F. Kennedy: "Message to the Congress Transmitting First Annual Report of the U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency." February 1, 1962". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. ACDA Mission Statement ^ White House Statements about 1997 Reorganization ^ Fiscal Year 2000 Budget ^ Works by Arms Control and Disarmament Agency at LibriVox Records of the U. S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency – National Archives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Inauguration of John F. Kennedy
The inauguration of John F. Kennedy as the 35th President of the United States was held on Friday, January 20, 1961 at the eastern portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of John F. Kennedy's only term as President and of Lyndon B. Johnson's only term as Vice President. Kennedy was assassinated 2 years, 306 days into this term, Johnson succeeded to the presidency. Kennedy took office following the November 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon, the then–incumbent Vice President, he was the first Catholic to become President, became the youngest person elected to the office. His inaugural address encompassed the major themes of his campaign and would define his presidency during a time of economic prosperity, emerging social changes, diplomatic challenges; this inauguration was the first in which Robert Frost, participated in the program. Presidential inaugurations are organized by the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.
For John F. Kennedy's inauguration, this committee was chaired by Senator John Sparkman, included Senators Carl Hayden and Styles Bridges, Representatives Sam Rayburn, John William McCormack, Charles A. Halleck. Frank Sinatra and Peter Lawford organized and hosted a pre-inaugural ball at the D. C. Armory on the eve of Inauguration day, January 19, 1961, considered as one of the biggest parties held in Washington, D. C. Sinatra recruited many Hollywood stars who performed and attended, went as far as convincing Broadway theatres to suspend their shows for the night to accommodate some of their actors attending the gala. With tickets ranging from $100 per person to $10,000 per group, Sinatra hoped to raise $1.7 million for the Democratic Party to eliminate its debt brought on by a hard-fought campaign. Many Hollywood stars gave brief speeches or performed acts, rehearsed by Kay Thompson and directed by Roger Edens, stayed at the Statler-Hilton Hotel where preparations and rehearsals were photographed by Phil Stern.
Performances and speeches included Fredric March, Sidney Poitier, Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Gene Kelly, Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, Bill Dana, Milton Berle, Jimmy Durante, Harry Belafonte, Sinatra himself. Sammy Davis, Jr. a long-time friend of Sinatra, supporter of the Democratic Party, member of the Rat Pack, was asked by John F. Kennedy not to attend the gala at the behest of his father Joseph, fearing that his interracial marriage to Swedish actress May Britt was too controversial for the time and occasion, much to Sammy's and Sinatra's dismay. Davis had postponed his wedding to Britt until after the election at the request of the Kennedy campaign via Sinatra. Davis switched his support to the Republican Party and Richard Nixon in the early 1970s. Harry Belafonte expressed sadness at the controversy, stating "It was the ambassador, we didn't know that until after. Sammy not being there was a loss."At the end of the ball, Kennedy spoke to thank Sinatra on the festivities and his support of the Democratic Party throughout his life and the 1960 campaign, adding "The happy relationship between the arts and politics which has characterized our long history I think reached culmination tonight."
Jacqueline retired to the White House before the ball ended at 1:30am, John went to a second pre-inaugural ball hosted by his father Joseph Kennedy, would return to the White House at around 3:30am. A strong nor'easter fell the day before the inauguration, with temperatures at 20 °F and snowfall at 1–2 inches per hour and a total of 8 inches during the night, causing transportation and logistical problems in Washington and serious concern for the inauguration. On inauguration day, January 20, 1961, the skies began to clear but the snow created chaos in Washington canceling the inaugural parade; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was put in charge of clearing the streets during the evening and morning before the inauguration, were assisted by more than 1,000 District of Columbia employees and 1,700 Boy Scouts; this task force employed hundreds of dump trucks, front-end loaders, plows and flamethrowers to clear the route. Over 1,400 cars, stranded due to the conditions and lack of fuel had to be removed from the parade route along Pennsylvania Avenue.
The snowstorm dropped visibility at Washington National Airport to less than half a mile, preventing former President Herbert Hoover from flying into Washington and attending the inauguration. Before the proceeding to the Capitol in company with outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Kennedy went to a morning Mass at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Georgetown. Cardinal Richard Cushing gave the invocation at the inaugural which lasted for 12 minutes, with additional prayers recited by Archbishop Iakovos of the Greek Orthodox Church and Reverend Dr. John Barclay of the Central Christian Church of Austin, a blessing offered by Rabbi Nelson Glueck; the invocation and prayers lasted a total of 28 minutes. Marian Anderson sang "The Star-Spangled Banner", a composition by musical Leonard Bernstein titled "Fanfare for the Inauguration of John F. Kennedy" was played; the oath of office for Vice President was administered by the Speaker of the House of Representatives Sam Rayburn to Lyndon Johnson.
This marked the first time a Speaker administered the oath, given in previous inaugurations by either the President pro tempore of the Senate, the ex-Vice President, or a United States Senator. Robert Frost 86 years old, recited his poem "The Gift Outright". Kennedy requested Frost to read a poem at the inauguration, suggesting "The Gift Outright", considered an act of gratitude towards Frost for his h
Immigration to the United States
Immigration to the United States is the international movement of non-U. S. Nationals in order to reside permanently in the country. Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the U. S. history. Because the United States is a settler colonial society, all Americans, with the exception of the small percent of Native Americans, can trace their ancestry to immigrants from other nations around the world. In absolute numbers, the United States has a larger immigrant population than any other country, with 47 million immigrants as of 2015; this represents 19.1% of the 244 million international migrants worldwide, 14.4% of the U. S. population. Some other countries have larger proportions of immigrants, such as Switzerland with 24.9% and Canada with 21.9%. According to the 2016 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, the United States admitted 1.18 million legal immigrants in 2016. Of these, 20% were family-sponsored, 47% were the immediate relatives of U.
S. citizens, 12% were employment-based preferences, 4% were part of the Diversity Immigrant Visa program, 13% were refugees and/or asylum seekers. The remainder included small numbers from several other categories, including those who were granted the Special Immigrant Visa; the economic and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding such issues as maintaining ethnic homogeneity, workers for employers versus jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility and voting behavior. Prior to 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe. Exclusion laws enacted as early as the 1880s prohibited or restricted immigration from Asia, quota laws enacted in the 1920s curtailed Eastern European immigration; the civil rights movement led to the replacement of these ethnic quotas with per-country limits. Since the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has quadrupled.
Research suggests that immigration to the United States is beneficial to the U. S. economy. With few exceptions, the evidence suggests that on average, immigration has positive economic effects on the native population, but it is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that immigrants have lower crime rates than natives in the United States. Research shows that the United States excels at assimilating first- and second-generation immigrants relative to many other Western countries. American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period, the mid-19th century, the start of the 20th century, post-1965; each period brought distinct national groups and ethnicities to the United States. During the 17th century 400,000 English people migrated to Colonial America. However, only half stayed permanently, they comprised 85-90% of white immigrants. From 1700 to 1775 between 350-500,000 Europeans immigrated: the estimates vary in the sources.
Only 52,000 English immigrated in the period 1701 to 1775. A figure questioned as too low; the rest, 400-450,000 were Scots, Scots-Irish from Ulster and Swiss, French Huguenots, involuntarily 300,000 Africans. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants, they numbered 350,000. On the eve of the War for Independence 1770 to 1775 7,000 English, 15,00 Scots, 13,200 Scots-Irish, 5,200 Germans, 3,900 Irish Catholics arrived Fully half the English immigrants were young single men, well-skilled, trained artisans like the Huguenots The European populations of the Middle Colonies of New York, New Jersey and Delaware were ethnically mixed, the English constituting only 30 in Pennsylvania, 40% in New Jersey to 45% in New York (numbered22 thousand or 18% in NY; the mid-19th century saw an influx from northern Europe from the same major ethnic groups as for the Colonial Period but with large numbers of Catholic Irish and Scandinavians added to the mix.
Historians estimate that fewer than 1 million immigrants moved to the United States from Europe between 1600 and 1799. By comparison, in the first federal census, in 1790, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited naturalization to "free white persons". This made the United States an outlier, since laws that made racial distinctions were uncommon in the world in the 18th Century. In the early years of the United States, immigration was fewer than 8,000 people a year, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. After 1820, immigration increased. From 1836 to 1914, over 30 million Europeans migrated to the United States; the death rate on these transatlantic voyages was high, during. In 1875, the nation passed its first immigration law, the Page Act of 1875. After an initial wave of immigration from China following the California Gold Rush, Congress passed a series of laws culminating in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, banning all immigration from China until the law's repeal in 1943.
In the late 1800s, immigration from other Asian countries to the West Coas
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and known as the Food Stamp Program, provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people living in the United States. It is a federal aid program, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, under the Food and Nutrition Service, though benefits are distributed by each U. S. state's Division of Children and Family Services. SNAP benefits supplied 40 million Americans in 2018. 9.2% of American households obtained SNAP benefits at some point during 2017, with 16.7% of all children living in households with SNAP benefits. Beneficiaries and costs increased with the Great Recession, peaked in 2013 and have declined through 2017 as the economy recovered, it is the largest nutrition program of the 15 administered by FNS and is a key component of the social safety net for low-income Americans. The amount of SNAP benefits received by a household depends on the household's size and expenses. For most of its history, the program used paper-denominated "stamps" or coupons – worth $1, $5, $10 – bound into booklets of various denominations, to be torn out individually and used in single-use exchange.
Because of their 1:1 value ratio with actual currency, the coupons were printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Their rectangular shape resembled a U. S. dollar bill, including intaglio printing on high-quality paper with watermarks. In the late 1990s, the Food Stamp Program was revamped, with some states phasing out actual stamps in favor of a specialized debit card system known as Electronic Benefit Transfer, provided by private contractors. EBT has been implemented in all states since June 2004; each month, SNAP benefits are directly deposited into the household's EBT card account. Households may use EBT to pay for food at supermarkets, convenience stores, other food retailers, including certain farmers' markets; the idea for the first food stamp program has been credited to various people, most notably Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace and the program's first administrator, Milo Perkins. Of the program, Perkins said, "We got a picture of a gorge, with farm surpluses on one cliff and under-nourished city folks with outstretched hands on the other.
We set out to find a practical way to build a bridge across that chasm." The program operated by permitting people on relief to buy orange stamps equal to their normal food expenditures. Orange stamps could be used to buy any food. Over the course of nearly four years, the first FSP reached 20 million people in nearly half of the counties in the United States at a total cost of $262 million. At its peak, the program assisted an estimated four million people; the first recipient was Mabel McFiggin of New York. The program ended when the conditions that brought the program into being—unmarketable food surpluses and widespread unemployment—ceased to exist; the 18 years between the end of the first FSP and the inception of the next were filled with studies and legislative proposals. Prominent US senators associated with attempts to enact a food stamp program during this period included George Aiken, Robert M. La Follette, Jr. Hubert Humphrey, Estes Kefauver, Stuart Symington. From 1954 on, US Representative Leonor Sullivan strove to pass food-stamp program legislation.
On September 21, 1959, P. L. 86-341 authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to operate a food-stamp system through January 31, 1962. The Eisenhower Administration never used the authority. However, in fulfillment of a campaign promise made in West Virginia, President John F. Kennedy's first Executive Order called for expanded food distribution and, on February 2, 1961, he announced that food stamp pilot programs would be initiated; the pilot programs would retain the requirement that the food stamps be purchased, but eliminated the concept of special stamps for surplus foods. A Department spokesman indicated. Of the program, US Representative Leonor K. Sullivan of Missouri asserted, "...the Department of Agriculture seemed bent on outlining a possible food stamp plan of such scope and magnitude, involving some 25 million persons, as to make the whole idea seem ridiculous and tear food stamp plans to smithereens." The Food Stamp Act of 1964 appropriated $75 million to 350,000 individuals in 40 counties and three cities.
The measure drew overwhelming support from House Democrats, 90 percent from urban areas, 96 percent from the suburbs, 87 percent from rural areas. Republican lawmakers opposed the initial measure: only 12 percent of urban Republicans, 11 percent from the suburbs, 5 percent from rural areas voted affirmatively. President Lyndon B. Johnson hailed food stamps as "a realistic and responsible step toward the fuller and wiser use of an agricultural abundance". Rooted in congressional logrolling, the act was part of a larger appropriation that raised price supports for cotton and wheat. Rural lawmakers supported the program so that their urban colleagues would not dismantle farm subsidies. Food stamps, along with Medicaid/Medicare, Head Start, the Job Corps, were foremost among the growing anti-poverty programs. President Johnson called for a permanent food-stamp program on January 31, 1964, as part of his "War on Poverty" platform introduced at the State of the Union a few weeks earlier. Ag
The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government. Its official mission is to provide social and economic development abroad through technical assistance, while promoting mutual understanding between Americans and populations served. Peace Corps Volunteers are American citizens with a college degree, who work abroad for a period of two years after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, entrepreneurs in education, information technology and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service; the program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy on March 1, 1961 and authorized by Congress on September 21, 1961 with passage of the Peace Corps Act; the act declares the program's purpose as follows: To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower.
Since its inception, more than 235,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 141 countries. The Peace Corps shows "the willingness of Americans to work at the grassroots level in order to help underdeveloped countries meet their needs"; the Peace Corps has affected the way people of other countries view Americans, how Americans view other countries, how Americans view their own country. Following the end of World War II, various members of the United States Congress proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in developing countries. In December 1951 Representative John F. Kennedy suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years." In 1952 Senator Brien McMahon proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy".
Funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before Kennedy, as a presidential candidate, would raise the idea during a campaign speech at the University of Michigan. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote, There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty; the President, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957, it did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it through the Senate.
It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, they made them better. Only in 1959, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University Research Foundation for the study. John F. Kennedy was the first to announce the idea for such an organization during the 1960 presidential campaign, on October 14, 1960, at a late-night speech at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor on the steps of the Michigan Union.
He dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961. Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers."Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity for such a task. The idea was popular among students and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and Chester Bowles to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country". President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps.
"This group and this effort were the progenitors of