Raymond William Stacy Burr was a Canadian American actor known for his title roles in the television dramas Perry Mason and Ironside. He was prominently involved in multiple charitable endeavors, such as working on behalf of the United Service Organizations. Burr's early acting career included roles on Broadway, television and in film as the villain, his portrayal of the suspected murderer in the Alfred Hitchcock thriller Rear Window is regarded as his best-known film role. He won two Emmy Awards, in 1959 and 1961, for the role of Perry Mason, which he played for nine seasons and reprised in a series of 26 television films, his second TV series, earned him six Emmy nominations and two Golden Globe nominations. After Burr's death from cancer in 1993, his personal life came into question, as many details of his known biography appeared to be unverifiable. In 1996, Burr was ranked as number 44 of the 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time by TV Guide. Raymond William Stacy Burr was born May 1917, in New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada.
His father, William Johnston Burr, was a hardware salesman. When Burr was six, his parents divorced. Burr's mother moved to Vallejo, with him and his younger siblings and James, his father remained in New Westminster. Burr attended San Rafael Military Academy in San Rafael and graduated from Berkeley High School. In years, Burr invented stories of a happy childhood. In 1986 he told journalist Jane Ardmore that when he was 12 years old his mother sent him to New Mexico for a year to work as a ranch hand, he was his full adult height and rather large and "had fallen in with a group of college-aged kids who didn't realize how young Raymond was, they let him tag along with them in activities and situations far too sophisticated for him to handle." He developed a passion for growing things and, while still a teenager, joined the Civilian Conservation Corps for a year. Throughout his teenage years, he had some acting work, making his stage debut at age 12 with a Vancouver stock company. Growing up during the Great Depression, Burr hoped to study acting at the Pasadena Playhouse, a renowned community theater and school in Pasadena, but he was unable to afford the tuition.
In 1934, he joined a repertory theatre group in Toronto that toured throughout Canada joined another company that toured India and England. He attended Long Beach Junior College and taught for a semester at San Jose Junior College, working nights as a radio actor and singer, he began his association with the Pasadena Playhouse in 1937. Burr moved to New York in 1940, made his first Broadway appearance in Crazy With the Heat, a two-act musical revue produced by Kurt Kasznar that folded, his first starring role on the stage came in November 1942, when he was an emergency replacement in a Pasadena Playhouse production of Quiet Wedding, directed by Lenore Shanewise. He became a member of the Pasadena Playhouse drama faculty for 18 months, he performed in some 30 plays over the years, he returned to the Broadway stage for Patrick Hamilton's The Duke in Darkness, a psychological drama set during the French Wars of Religion. Burr's performance as the loyal friend of the imprisoned protagonist led to a contract with RKO Radio Pictures.
Burr appeared in more than 50 feature films between 1946 and 1957, creating an array of villains that established him as an icon of film noir. Film historian Alain Silver concluded that Burr's most significant work in the genre is in these ten films: Desperate, Sleep, My Love, Raw Deal, Abandoned, Red Light, M, His Kind of Woman, The Blue Gardenia and Crime of Passion. Silver described Burr's private detective in Pitfall as "both reprehensible and pathetic", a characterization cited by film historian Richard Schickel as a prototype of film noir, in contrast with the appealing television characters for which Burr became famous."He tried to make you see the psychosis below the surface when the parts weren't huge," said film historian James Ursini. "He was able to bring such complexity and different levels to those characters, create sympathy for his characters though they were doing reprehensible things."Other titles in Burr's film noir legacy include Walk a Crooked Mile, Unmasked, The Whip Hand, FBI Girl, Meet Danny Wilson, Rear Window, They Were So Young, A Cry in the Night and Affair in Havana.
Beyond noir, Burr's villains were seen in Westerns, period dramas, horror films and adventure films."I was just a fat heavy," Burr told journalist James Bawden. "I split the heavy parts with Bill Conrad. We were both in our twenties playing much older men. I never got the girl but I once got the gorilla in a 3-D picture called Gorilla at Large. I menaced Lizabeth Scott, Paulette Goddard, Anne Baxter, Barbara Stanwyck; those girls would take one look at me and scream and can you blame them? I was drowned, beaten and all for my art, but I knew. I lacked any kind of self esteem. At 25 I was playing the fathers of people older than me."Burr's occasional roles on the right side of the law include the aggressive prosecutor in A Place in the Sun. His courtroom performance in that film made an impression on Gail Patrick and her husband Cornwell Jackson, who had Burr i
Shepperd Strudwick was an American actor of film and stage. Born in Hillsborough, North Carolina, he began his film career as the title character in the film Joaquin Murrieta, credited as Sheppard Strudwick, he appeared as Yugoslav guerrilla leader Lt. Aleksa Petrovic, an aide to General Draza Mihailovich, in the 20th Century Fox war film Chetniks! The Fighting Guerrillas in 1943, he played Edgar Allan Poe in The Loves of Edgar Allan Poe and appeared in Strange Triangle, Fighter Squadron, The Reckless Moment, The Red Pony, Under the Gun and A Place in the Sun, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Montgomery Clift, as the Taylor character's father. His most famous film role was that of Adam Stanton, the idealistic doctor who kills Willie Stark in the classic film All the King's Men. Another notable role was Father Jean Massieu in Joan of Arc, starring Ingrid Bergman as Joan. Strudwick made many appearances on television, including the role of Dr. Charles Morris in the 1958 Perry Mason episode, "The Case of the Fugitive Nurse."
He appeared on The Twilight Zone, several roles on the soap operas As the World Turns, Another World, One Life to Live and Love of Life. In 1981, he starred as the voice of Homer in the National Radio Theater's Peabody Award-winning radio dramatization of the Odyssey, his last appearance on film was in a TV film. That same year, he was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actor for the Broadway play To Grandmother's House We Go, he was married to Mary Jeffrey from 1977 until his death. He had a son by a previous marriage, he died in New York City from cancer on January 15, 1983, at the age of 75. He had appeared as an on-camera spokesperson for Oasis cigarettes. Another World - Jim Matthews One Life to Live - Victor Lord Love of Life - Timothy McCauley National Radio Theater: Odyssey - Homer To Grandmother's House We Go, Broadway play Tony Award for Best Play: To Grandmother's House We Go - Nominated Shepperd Strudwick on IMDb Shepperd Strudwick at the Internet Broadway Database Shepperd Strudwick at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Shepperd Strudwick papers, 1927-1983, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Shepperd Strudwick at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection Shepperd Strudwick at Find a Grave
Academy Award for Best Cinematography
The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular motion picture. In its first film season, 1927–28, this award was not tied to a specific film; the problem with this system became obvious the first year, since Karl Struss and Charles Rosher were nominated for their work together on Sunrise but three other films shot individually by either Rosher or Struss were listed as part of the nomination. The second year, 1929, there were no nominations at all, although the Academy has a list of unofficial titles which were under consideration by the Board of Judges. In the third year, 1930, not cinematographers, were nominated, the final award did not show the cinematographer's name. For the 1931 awards, the modern system in which individuals are nominated for a single film each was adopted in all profession-related categories. From 1939 to 1967 with the exception of 1957, there were separate awards for color and for black-and-white cinematography.
Since the only black-and-white films to win are Schindler's List and Roma. Floyd Crosby won the award for Tabu in 1931, the last silent film to win in this category. Hal Mohr won the only write-in Academy Award in 1935 for A Midsummer Night's Dream. Mohr was the first person to win for both black-and-white and color cinematography. No winners are lost, although some of the earliest nominees are lost, including The Devil Dancer, The Magic Flame, Four Devils; the Right to Love is incomplete, Sadie Thompson is incomplete and reconstructed with stills. The first nominees shot on digital video were The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and Slumdog Millionaire in 2009, with Slumdog Millionaire the first winner; the following year Avatar was the first nominee and winner to be shot on digital video. In 2018, Rachel Morrison became the first woman to receive a nomination. Prior to that it had been the last gender-neutral Academy Award category. In 2019, Alfonso Cuarón became the first winner of this category to have served as director on the film, for his film Roma.
Winners are listed first followed by the other nominees. BAFTA Award for Best Cinematography Independent Spirit Award for Best Cinematography Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Cinematography American Society of Cinematographers Award for Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences official site The Official Academy Awards Database, listing all past nominees and winners
Solomon Hersh Frees, better known as Paul Frees, was an American actor, voice actor and screenwriter known for his work on MGM, Walter Lantz, Walt Disney theatrical cartoons during the Golden Age of Animation and for providing the voice of Boris Badenov in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show. A contemporary of voice actor Mel Blanc, Frees was known as "The Man of a Thousand Voices." Frees was born Solomon Hersh Frees in Chicago, Illinois, on June 22, 1920. He had an unusually wide four-octave voice range that would enable him to voice everything from the thundering basso profundo of the unseen "Ghost Host" in the Haunted Mansion attraction at Disneyland in California and at Walt Disney World in Florida to the voice of the farmer who helps the Little Green Sprout in the Green Giant vegetable commercials. In the 1930s, Frees first appeared on vaudeville under the name Buddy Green, he remained active for more than 40 years. During that time, he was involved in cartoons and TV appearances. Frees' early radio career was cut short when he was drafted into World War II where he fought at Normandy, France on D-Day.
He was returned to the United States for a year of recuperation. He attended the Chouinard Art Institute under the G. I. Bill; when his first wife's health failed, he decided to return to radio work. He appeared on Hollywood radio series, including Escape, playing lead roles and alternating with William Conrad as the opening announcer of Suspense in the late 1940s, parts on Gunsmoke, Crime Classics. One of his few starring roles in this medium was as Jethro Dumont/Green Lama in the 1949 series The Green Lama, as well as a syndicated anthology series The Player, in which Frees narrated and played all the parts. Frees was called upon in the 1950s and 1960s to "re-loop" the dialogue of other actors to correct for foreign accents, lack of English proficiency, or poor line readings by non-professionals; these dubs extended from a few lines to entire roles. This can be noticed rather in the films Grand Prix and Midway where Frees reads for Toshiro Mifune's performances as Admiral Yamamoto. Frees dubbed the entire role of Eddie in the Disney film The Ugly Dachshund, replacing actor Dick Wessel, who had died of a sudden heart attack after completion of principal photography.
Frees dubbed Humphrey Bogart in his final film The Harder They Fall. Bogart was suffering at the time from what would be diagnosed as esophageal cancer and thus could be heard in some takes, hence the need for Frees to dub in his voice, he voiced the cars in the comedy The Great Race. Unlike many voice actors who did most of their work for one studio, Frees worked extensively with at least nine of the major animation production companies of the 20th century: Walt Disney Studios, Warner Bros. Walter Lantz Studios, UPA, Hanna-Barbera, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, DePatie-Freleng Enterprises, Jay Ward Productions, Rankin/Bass, Ruby-Spears; some of Frees' most memorable voices were for various Disney projects. Frees voiced Disney's Professor Ludwig Von Drake in eighteen episodes of the Disney anthology television series, beginning with the first episode of the newly renamed Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color on September 24, 1961; the character appeared on many Disneyland Records. Von Drake's introductory cartoon, An Adventure in Color, featured The Spectrum Song, sung by Frees as Von Drake.
A different Frees recording of this song appeared on a children's record, was reissued on CD. Frees narrated a number of Disney cartoons, including the Disney educational short film Donald Duck in Mathmagic Land; this short aired in the same television episode as Von Drake's first appearance. He provided voices for numerous characters at Disney parks, including the unseen "Ghost Host" in the Haunted Mansion attraction at Disneyland and Walt Disney World, several audio-animatronic pirates, including the Auctioneer, in the Pirates of the Caribbean ride and recorded the iconic "Dead Men Tell No Tales" used in the ride. Disney issued limited edition compact discs commemorating the two rides, featuring outtakes and unused audio tracks by Frees and others. Frees provided narration for the Tomorrowland attraction Adventure Thru Inner Space and the original Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln. Audio clips from the attractions in Frees' distinctive voice have appeared in fireworks shows at Disneyland. A computer-animated singing bust in Frees' likeness appeared in the 2003 film The Haunted Mansion as a tribute.
Audio recordings of Frees from the Pirates of the Caribbean attraction can be heard in Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End in a homage to the ride. Frees had a small live-action role for Disney in the 1959 film The Shaggy Dog, playing Dr. Galvin, a military psychiatrist who attempts to understand why Mr. Daniels believes a shaggy dog can uncover a spy ring, he did the film's opening narration. His other Disney credits, most of them narration for segments of the Disney anthology television series, include the following: The "Man in Space" series of shows From Aesop to Hans Christian Andersen Mars and Be
Walter Sande was an American character actor, known for numerous supporting film and television roles. Born in Denver, Colorado, he was one of those stern, heavyset character actors in Hollywood no person could recognize by name. Sande showed an early interest in music as a youth and by his college years managed to start his own band; this led to a job as musical director for 20th Century-Fox's theater chain, which, in turn, led him to acting in films beginning in 1937. Providing atmospheric bits with no billing, he made an initial impression in serial cliffhangers as a third-string heavy with the popular The Green Hornet Strikes Again! and Sky Raiders. His first top featured role, would come with The Iron Claw as Jack "Flash" Strong, a photographer who, uncharacteristically for Walter, served as a comic sidekick to our serial hero. Best of all would be his role in another serial as Red Pennington, the amusing sidekick to Don Winslow of the Navy, he repeated his role again in Don Winslow of the successful sequel.
The Pennington role would spark a long and steady career in movies a step or two behind Hollywood's elite, in To Have and Have Not, in Along Came Jones, The Blue Dahlia, Dark City and Bad Day at Black Rock, among hundreds of others. A regular authoritative presence in such classic sci-fi films as Red Planet Mars, The War of the Worlds and Invaders from Mars, he had a recurring featured part in the 1940s Boston Blackie film series playing Detective Matthews alongside Chester Morris, former thief-turned-crime hero. A primary support player during the "Golden Age" of television, Sande worked on nearly every popular western and crime show available in the late 1940s and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, including Johnny Ringo. In 1949, he played Sheriff Taylor in the three-part The Lone Ranger television premiere, as he helped the masked man and Tonto capture the Butch Cavendish gang, he made 15 appearances on Dragnet, starring Jack Webb portraying Chief of Detectives Thad Brown or some other high-ranking LAPD officer.
In 1960, he made a guest appearance on Perry Mason as circus co-owner and murder victim Judson Curtis in "The Case of the Clumsy Clown." He had a regular series role on the syndicated The Adventures of Tugboat Annie as Captain Horatio Bullwinkle, Annie's rival, a recurring one as Lars "Papa" Holstrum, on The Farmer's Daughter. He guest starred on the syndicated adventure series Rescue 8, starring Lang Jeffries. Sande died of a heart attack at the age of sixty-five in Chicago, Illinois. Public Prosecutor The Adventures of Tugboat Annie as Capt. Horatio Bullwinkle Lassie as Tom Wanted Dead or Alive as Sheriff Pat Garret Walter Sande on IMDb
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity and well-being of the country, it is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States celebrated Labor Day. Canada's Labour Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day.
Lastly, several countries have chosen neither date for their Labour Day. Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, different groups of trade unionists chose a variety of days on which to celebrate labor. In the United States, a September holiday called. Alternate stories of the event's origination exist. According to one early history of Labor Day, the event originated in connection with a General Assembly of the Knights of Labor convened in New York City in September 1882. In connection with this clandestine Knights assembly, a public parade of various labor organizations was held on September 5 under the auspices of the Central Labor Union of New York. Secretary of the CLU Matthew Maguire is credited for first proposing that a national Labor Day holiday subsequently be held on the first Monday of each September in the aftermath of this successful public demonstration. An alternative thesis maintains that the idea of Labor Day was the brainchild of Peter J. McGuire, a vice president of the American Federation of Labor, who put forward the initial proposal in the spring of 1882.
According to McGuire, on May 8, 1882, he made a proposition to the fledgling Central Labor Union in New York City that a day be set aside for a "general holiday for the laboring classes". According to McGuire he further recommended that the event should begin with a street parade as a public demonstration of organized labor's solidarity and strength, with the march followed by a picnic, to which participating local unions could sell tickets as a fundraiser. According to McGuire he suggested the first Monday in September as an ideal date for such a public celebration, owing to optimum weather and the date's place on the calendar, sitting midway between the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving public holidays. Labor Day picnics and other public gatherings featured speeches by prominent labor leaders. In 1909 the American Federation of Labor convention designated the Sunday preceding Labor Day as "Labor Sunday", to be dedicated to the spiritual and educational aspects of the labor movement; this secondary date failed to gain significant traction in popular culture.
In 1887 Oregon became the first state of the United States to make Labor Day an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty U. S. states celebrated Labor Day. All U. S. states, the District of Columbia, the United States territories have subsequently made Labor Day a statutory holiday. The date of May 1 emerged in 1886 as an alternative holiday for the celebration of labor becoming known as International Workers' Day; the date had its origins at the 1885 convention of the American Federation of Labor, which passed a resolution calling for adoption of the eight-hour day effective May 1, 1886. While negotiation was envisioned for achievement of the shortened work day, use of the strike to enforce this demand was recognized, with May 1 advocated as a date for coordinated strike action; the proximity of the date to the bloody Haymarket affair of May 4, 1886, further accentuated May First's radical reputation. There was disagreement among labor unions at this time about when a holiday celebrating workers should be, with some advocating for continued emphasis of the September march-and-picnic date while others sought the designation of the more politically-charged date of May 1.
Conservative Democratic President Grover Cleveland was one of those concerned that a labor holiday on May 1 would tend to become a commemoration of the Haymarket Affair and would strengthen socialist and anarchist movements that backed the May 1 commemoration around the globe. In 1887, he publicly supported the September Labor Day holiday as a less inflammatory alternative; the date was formally adopted as a United States federal holiday in 1894. Labor Day is called the "unofficial end of summer" because it marks the end of the cultural summer season. Many take their two-week vacations during the two weeks ending Labor Day weekend. Many fall activities, such as school and sports begin about this time. In the United States, many school districts resume classes around the Labor Day holiday weekend. Many begin the week before, making Labor Day weekend the first three-day weekend of the school calendar, while others return the Tuesday following Labor Day, allowing families one final getaway before the school year begins.
Many districts across the Midwest are opting to begin school after Labor Day. In the U. S. state of Virginia, the amusement park industry has succes