A Room with a View (1985 film)

A Room with a View is a 1985 British romance film directed by James Ivory with a screenplay written by Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, produced by Ismail Merchant, of E. M. Forster's novel of the same name, it stars Helena Bonham Carter as Lucy and Julian Sands as George, features Maggie Smith, Denholm Elliott, Daniel Day-Lewis, Judi Dench and Simon Callow in supporting roles. Set in England and Italy, it is about a young woman named Lucy Honeychurch in the restrictive and repressed culture of Edwardian England, her developing love for a free-spirited young man, George Emerson; the film follows the novel by use of chapter titles to distinguish thematic segments. A Room with a View was a box-office success. At the 59th Academy Awards, it was nominated for eight Academy Awards, won three: Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Art Direction, Best Costume Design, it won five British Academy Film Awards and a Golden Globe. In 1999, the British Film Institute placed A Room with a View 73rd on its list of the Top 100 British films of the 20th century.

In 1907, a young English girl, Lucy Honeychurch, her spinster cousin and chaperone, Charlotte Bartlett, stay at the Pensione Bertolini while on holiday in Florence. They are disappointed their rooms lack a view of the Arno. At dinner, they meet other English guests: the Reverend Mr Beebe, two elderly spinster sisters, the Misses Alan, the romance author, Eleanor Lavish, the freethinking Mr Emerson and his handsome philosophical son, George. Learning about Charlotte and Lucy's view predicament, Mr Emerson and George offer to exchange rooms, though Charlotte considers the suggestion indelicate. Mr Beebe mediates, the switch is made. While touring the Piazza della Signoria the next day, Lucy witnesses a local man being brutally stabbed, she faints but George Emerson comes to her aid. When Lucy has recovered, the two have a personal discussion before returning the pensione. Charlotte and the Emersons join other British tourists for a day trip to the Fiesole countryside. Charlotte and Eleanor Lavish engage in conversation considered "unsuitable" for young ladies, so Lucy goes looking for Mr. Beebe.

Instead, the Italian driver mistakenly leads her to where George is admiring the view from a hillside. Seeing Lucy, he embraces and passionately kisses her. Charlotte intervenes. Worried that Lucy's mother will consider her an inadequate chaperone, Charlotte swears Lucy to secrecy and cuts their trip short. Upon returning to Surrey in England, Lucy says nothing to her mother about the incident and pretends to forget it, she is soon engaged to Cecil Vyse, a wealthy and prominent man, snobbish and pretentious. Cecil loves Lucy but he and his mother consider the Honeychurch family as their inferiors, dismaying Mrs Honeychurch. Lucy soon learns that Mr Emerson is moving into Sir Harry Otway's rental cottage, with George visiting on weekends. Lucy intended for the two Misses Alan to live there and is cross with Cecil upon learning that through a chance meeting with the Emersons in London, Cecil recommended the cottage to them, he proclaims his motive was to annoy Sir Harry, who Cecil considers a snob, believes will find the Emersons as being "too common."

George's presence upends Lucy's life, her suppressed feelings for him surface. Meanwhile, Lucy's brother, has become friends with George. Freddy invites George to play tennis at Windy Corner, the Honeychurch home, during which Cecil mockingly reads aloud from Miss Lavish's latest novel set in Italy. Cecil, still reading, is oblivious; as Cecil continues reading aloud, Lucy recognizes a scene as being identical to her and George's encounter in Fiesole. She confronts Charlotte. Lucy orders George to leave Windy never return, he says that Cecil will never love her for herself, as he would. Lucy seems unmoved, but soon after ends her engagement to Cecil. To escape the ensuing fallout, she arranges to travel to Greece with the Misses Alan. George, unable to be around Lucy, arranges for his father to move to London, unaware Lucy is no longer engaged; when Lucy stops by Mr Beebe's home to fetch Charlotte, she is confronted by Mr. Emerson, who happens to be there, she realizes her true feelings for George.

At the end, newlyweds George and Lucy honeymoon at the Italian pensione where they met, in the room with a view, overlooking Florence's Duomo. E. M. Forster began to write A Room with a View during a trip to Italy in the winter of 1901–02 when he was twenty-two, it was the first novel he worked on, however, he put it away before returning to it a few years later. Forster finished first two other novels: Where Angels Fear to Tread and The Longest Journey. A Room with a View was published in 1908. Set in Italy and England, A Room with a View follows Lucy Honeychurch, a proper young Englishwoman who discovers passion while on a trip to Italy. At her return to the restrained culture of Edwardian-era England, she must choose between two opposite men: the free-thinking George Emerson and the repressed aesthete Cecil Vyse; the story is both a romance and a humorous critique of English society at the beginning of the 20th century. The novel, Forster's third, was well received, better than his previous two, but it is considered lighter than his two best-regarded works Howards End and A Passage to India.

In Forster's own appreciation "A Room w

Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry is Australia's largest and most representative business association, comprising state and territory chambers of commerce and national industry associations. The Australian Chamber contributes to public discussion and government decision-making on issues that impact on business, including economics, workplace relations, work health and safety and employment and training; the Australian Chamber speaks on behalf of Australian business in international forums. The President is Jeremy Johnson and the Chief Executive Officer is James Pearson, a former diplomat and business advocate. Ian Spicer AM, 1992-1996 Mark Paterson AO, 1996-2001 Lyndon Rowe, 2001-2002 Peter Hendy, 2002-2008 Peter Anderson, 2008-2014 Kate Carnell AO, 2014-2016 James Pearson, 2016 – Present John Clark, 1992-1993 Harold Clough AO, OBE, 1993-1995 Graeme Samuel AO, 1995-1997 Robert Gerard AO, 1997-1999 Dr John Keniry AM, 1999-2001 David Gray, 2001-2003 Neville Sawyer, 2003-2005 Peter O’Brien, 2005-2007 Tony Howarth AO, 2007-2009 David Michaelis, 2009-2011 Richard Holyman, 2011-2013 Peter Hood, 2013-2015 Terry Wetherall, 2015 – 2017 Jeremy Johnson, 2017 - Present The Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry has a history that dates back more than 190 years.

The Chamber Movement commenced in Australia when the Sydney Chamber of Commerce was established in 1826. Across the 19th century Chambers of Commerce were formed in Adelaide, Melbourne and Launceston, Brisbane,Fremantle and Perth. Chambers of Manufacturers were formed in this era, including in Victoria, South Australia, NSW, Western Australia and Queensland. Australia’s first industry association was Master Builders Australia. Employer unions and federations emerged, including the Victorian Employers Union, the NSW Employers Union, South Australian Employers Federation and the Queensland Employers Federation. Businesspeople were central to Australia's development from the beginning, with a growing population driving the establishment of enterprises. In the decade before Federation in 1901, several Australia-wide bodies were formed to advocate national policies: the Australian Chamber of Commerce, the Associated Chambers of Manufacturers of Australia and the Australian Council of Employers Federations.

Through the Great War, the Great Depression, World War II and the post-war boom, business organisations continued advocacy on behalf of private enterprise and the community in pursuit of a prosperous Australia. In 1977 the ACMA and the ACEF merged to form the Confederation of Australian Industry. In 1992 the CAI merged with the ACC to form the Australian Chamber of Industry; the ACCI worked with Labor and Liberal-National governments in a constructive way during a period of significant economic reform. In 2015 the organisation launched a new corporate identity, featuring the Federation Star to demonstrate the way it brings together businesses from all parts of the country; the organisation became known as the Australian Chamber, helping to build recognition for the Chamber Movement in towns and states across Australia. The introduction of the Business Leaders Council in 2015 allowed individual businesses to get directly involved in Australian Chamber activities for the first time; the Business Leaders Summit joined the Business Leaders Dinner as landmark annual events to bring together members of the Chamber Movement.

The Australian Chamber is a not-for-profit organisation whose members are state and territory chambers of commerce and national industry associations. The Australian Chamber is led by a Board. Board members are elected from the membership at the Annual General Meeting held each November; the General Council, comprising the Board and other member representatives, oversees the Australian Chamber's policy development. The General Council meets three times a year and is advised by policy committees and working parties that meet between General Council meetings; the Australian Chamber has formal policies on a range of matters:Economics and Industry: The Australian Chamber supports a strong and globally competitive Australian economy can only be achieved by advancing economic reform. It argues to lower and simplify taxes, streamline the federation, reduce the size of government, cut excessive red tape, improve efficiency and enhance national productivity. Employment and Training: The Australian Chamber supports developing innovative and proactive programs that improve workforce participation, encourage apprenticeships and provide for better transitions from learning to work.

It argues for a focus on greater employment of young or disadvantaged job seekers, including mature-age workers, people with a disability and indigenous Australians. Small Business: The Australian Chamber says Australia’s two million small businesses that employ seven million people are the backbone of the economy, it argues for a focus on cutting red tape, simplifying the tax system, improving access to finance, making it easier to employ people and building better infrastructure. Sustainability: The Australian Chamber supports sustainable development that maintains the capacity of society, the economy and the environment to satisfy the needs of current and future generations, it argues for a focus on improving transport infrastructure and services to ensure Australia’s growing cities are efficient and liveable. Trade and International Affairs: The Australian Chamber supports global free trade as a principal driver of economic prosperity and peace, with greater cooperation facilitated through multilateral and bilateral trade liberal


A timetree is a phylogenetic tree scaled to time. It shows the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms in a temporal framework. Therefore, if living organisms are represented, the branch length between the base of the tree and all leafs is identical because the same time has elapsed, although extinct organisms can be shown in a timetree; as with a phylogenetic tree, timetrees can be drawn in different shapes: rectangular, circular, or spiral. The only figure in Darwin's Origin of Species, one of the earliest printed evolutionary trees, is a hypothetical timetree; because the fossil record has always been linked to the geologic record, evolutionary trees of extinct organisms are illustrated as timetrees. In the past, timetrees were sometimes called "chronograms," but that term has been criticized because it is imprecise, referring to any graph that shows time, not indicating that evolutionary relationships are involved; the first use of the single word "timetree," in the context of an evolutionary tree scaled to time, was in 2001