David Cyril Eric Swarbrick was an English folk musician and singer-songwriter. He has been described by Ashley Hutchings as "the most influential fiddle player bar none" and his style has been copied or developed by every British and many world folk violin players who have followed him, he was one of the most regarded musicians produced by the second British folk revival, contributing to some of the most important groups and projects of the 1960s, he became a much sought-after session musician, which led him throughout his career to work with many of the major figures in folk and folk rock music. A member of Fairport Convention from 1969, he is credited with assisting them to produce their seminal album Liege & Lief which initiated the British folk rock movement. This, his subsequent career, helped create greater interest in British traditional music and was influential within mainstream rock. After 1970 he emerged as Fairport Convention's leading figure and guided the band through a series of important albums until its disbandment in 1979.
He played in a series of smaller, acoustic units and engaged in solo projects. He maintained a massive output of recordings and a significant profile and made a major contribution to the interpretation of traditional British music. Born in 1941 in New Malden, now in Greater London, his family moved to Linton, near Grassington, North Yorkshire, where he learned to play the violin. In the late 1940s the family moved to Birmingham, where he attended Birmingham College of Art in the late 1950s, with the intention of becoming a printer. After winning a talent contest with his skiffle band playing guitar, he was introduced to Beryl and Roger Marriott, influential local folk musicians; the Marriotts took him under their wing and Beryl discovering that he had played the violin classically up until the skiffle craze encouraged him to switch back to the fiddle and he joined the Beryl Marriott Ceilidh Band. He joined the Ian Campbell Folk Group in 1960 and embarked on his recording career, playing on one single, three EPs and seven albums with the group over the next few years.
He contributed to the BBC Radio Ballads series on recordings with the three most important figures in the British folk movement of the time A. L. Lloyd, Ewan MacColl, MacColl's wife Peggy Seeger, as well as part of several collections to which the Ian Campbell Group contributed. From 1965 he began supporting him on his eponymous first album; the association was such a success that Second Album, gave them equal billing. They produced another four regarded recordings between 1967 and 1968, including Byker Hill, whose innovative arrangements of traditional songs made it one of the most influential folk albums of the decade. Swarbrick played on albums by Julie Felix, A. L. Lloyd and on the radio ballads, became the most regarded interpreter of traditional material on the violin and one of the most sought-after session musicians. In 1967, Swarbrick released his first solo album Rags and Airs, with guests Martin Carthy and Diz Disley, which has since become a benchmark for generations of folk fiddlers.
It was as a session musician that Swarbrick was called in by Joe Boyd, the manager of rising folk rock group Fairport Convention, in 1969, to undertake some overdubs on the Richard Thompson-penned track "Cajun Woman". Fairport had decided to play a traditional song "A Sailor's Life", which Swarbrick had recorded with Carthy in 1969, he was asked to contribute violin to the session; the result was an eleven-minute mini-epic that appeared on the 1969 album Unhalfbricking and which marked out a new direction for the band. Subsequently, Swarbrick was asked to join the group and was the first fiddler on the folk scene to electrify the violin. Martin Carthy recalled that Swarbrick had been indecisive about joining, telling Carthy: "I just played with this guy Richard and I want to play with him for the rest of my life." Together, now with Swarbrick co-writing with Richard Thompson "Crazy Man Michael", they created the groundbreaking album Liege & Lief. His energetic and unique fiddle style was essential to the new sound and direction of the band, most marked on the medley of four jigs and reels that Swarbrick arranged for the album and which were to become an essential part of every subsequent Fairport performance.
Before the album was released, key members of the band, founder Ashley Hutchings and singer and songwriter Sandy Denny left, Swarbrick stayed on with the band full-time, excited by the possibilities of performing traditional music in a rock context. His greater maturity, knowledge of folk song and personality meant that he soon emerged as the leading force in the band and continued to be so for the next decade, encouraging the band to bring in Dave Pegg, another graduate of the Ian Campbell Folk Group, on bass. However, Swarbrick was beginning to suffer the hearing problems that would dog the rest of his career; the first album of this new line-up, Full House, although not as commercially successful as Liege & Lief, sold well, remains regarded. Like Liege & Lief it contained interpretations of traditional tunes, including the epic "Sir Patrick Spens" and another instrumental arranged by Swarbrick, "Dirty Linen", but contained songs jointly penned by Swarbrick and guitarist Richard Thompson, including what would become their opening live song "Walk Awhile", the nine-minute long anti-war anthem "Sloth".
The partnership produced another three songs on Full House. However, the fruitful
A Maid of Constant Sorrow
A Maid of Constant Sorrow is a 1961 album, the debut of Judy Collins, released by Elektra Records and featuring traditional folk songs. On the album Collins' voice and guitar are sparsely accompanied by Fred Hellerman and Walter Raim on second guitar, Erik Darling on banjo and Bill Lee on bass; the title song is a variant of "Man of Constant Sorrow". The selections range from the Scottish anthem "Wild Mountain Thyme" to the Irish standards "Bold Fenian Men" and "The Prickilie Bush"; the album includes more obscure numbers such as "Tim Evans, Wars of Germany" and "John Riley". These songs are in the style of social protest, similar to early recordings by Bob Dylan, they reveal a style from Collins different than her better-known releases. In "Tim Evans", written by Ewan MacColl, she sings of a man wrongfully-convicted and hung for the killing of a woman and child: "Go down, you murderer, go down," who's exoneration comes only after having been hanged; the album shows an ability to select material which would serve her well on albums where the focus shifts away from traditional folk music.
Her alto vocals on lively songs like "O Daddy Be Gay" contrast with the social message material. In 2001 the album was re-released on CD with The Golden Apples of the Sun. "Maid of Constant Sorrow" 2:35 "The Prickilie Bush" 3:25 "Wild Mountain Thyme" 2:30 "Tim Evans" 2:51 "Sailor's Life" 2:41 "Bold Fenian Men" 2:44 "Wars of Germany" 3:10 "O Daddy Be Gay" 2:34 "I Know Where I'm Going" 1:50 "John Riley" 3:30 "Pretty Saro" 3:03 "The Rising of the Moon" 4:07 Judy Collins – guitar, vocals Fred Hellerman – second guitar Erik Darling – banjoTechnicalMark Abramson - editing William S. Harvey - design Lida Moser - photography
Judith Marjorie Collins is an American singer and songwriter known for her eclectic tastes in the material she records and for her social activism. Collins' debut album A Maid of Constant Sorrow was released in 1961, but it was the lead single from her 1967 album Wildflowers, "Both Sides, Now" — written by Joni Mitchell — that gave Collins international prominence; the single hit the Top 10 on the Billboard Pop Singles chart and won Collins her first Grammy Award for Best Folk Performance. She enjoyed further success with her recordings of "Someday Soon", "Chelsea Morning", "Amazing Grace", "Cook with Honey". Collins experienced the biggest success of her career with her recording of Stephen Sondheim's "Send in the Clowns" from her best-selling 1975 album Judith; the single charted on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in 1975 and again in 1977, spending 27 non-consecutive weeks on the chart and earning Collins a Grammy Award nomination for Best Pop Vocal Performance, Female, as well as a Grammy Award for Sondheim for Song of the Year.
Collins was born the eldest of five siblings in Seattle, where she spent the first ten years of her life. Her father, a blind singer and radio show host, took a job in Denver, Colorado, in 1949, the family moved there. Collins studied classical piano with Antonia Brico, making her public debut at age 13, performing Mozart's Concerto for Two Pianos. Brico took a dim view, both and of Collins' developing interest in folk music, which led her to the difficult decision to discontinue her piano lessons. Years after she became known internationally, she invited Brico to one of her concerts in Denver; when they met after the performance, Brico took both of Collins' hands into hers, looked wistfully at her fingers and said, "Little Judy—you could have gone places." Still Collins discovered that Brico herself had made a living when she was younger playing jazz and ragtime piano. In her early life, Collins had the good fortune of meeting many professional musicians through her father, it was the music of Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and the traditional songs of the folk revival of the early 1960s, that kindled Collins' interest and awoke in her a love of lyrics.
Three years after her debut as a piano prodigy, she was playing guitar. Her first public appearances as a folk artist after her graduation from Denver's East High School were at Michael's Pub in Boulder and the folk club Exodus in Denver, her music became popular at the University of Connecticut. She performed for the campus radio station along with David Grisman and Tom Azarian, she made her way to Greenwich Village, New York City, where she played in clubs like Gerde's Folk City until she signed with Elektra Records, a label she was associated with for 35 years. In 1961, Collins released her first album, A Maid of Constant Sorrow, at age 22. At first she sang traditional folk songs or songs written by others – in particular the protest songwriters of the time, such as Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Bob Dylan, she recorded her own versions of important songs from the period, such as Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and Pete Seeger's "Turn, Turn". Collins was instrumental in bringing little-known musicians to a wider public.
For example, she recorded songs by Canadian poet Leonard Cohen, who became a close friend over the years. She recorded songs by singer-songwriters such as Eric Andersen, Fred Neil, Ian Tyson, Joni Mitchell, Randy Newman, Robin Williamson and Richard Fariña long before they gained national acclaim. While Collins' first few albums consisted of straightforward guitar-based folk songs, with 1966's In My Life, she began branching out and including work from such diverse sources as the Beatles, Leonard Cohen, Jacques Brel, Kurt Weill. Mark Abramson produced and Joshua Rifkin arranged the album, adding lush orchestration to many of the numbers; the album was a major departure for a folk artist and set the course for Collins' subsequent work over the next decade. With her 1967 album Wildflowers produced by Abramson and arranged by Rifkin, Collins began to record her own compositions, beginning with "Since You've Asked"; the album provided Collins with a major hit and a Grammy award in Mitchell's "Both Sides, Now", which reached Number 8 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Two songs were featured in the 1968 film "The Subject Was Roses"). Collins' 1968 album Who Knows Where the Time Goes was produced by David Anderle, featured back-up guitar by Stephen Stills, with whom she was romantically involved at the time. Time Goes had a mellow country sound and included Ian Tyson's "Someday Soon" and the title track, written by the UK singer-songwriter Sandy Denny; the album featured Collins' composition "My Father" and one of the first covers of Leonard Cohen's "Bird on the Wire". By the 1970s Collins had a solid reputation as an art song singer and folksinger and had begun to stand out for her own compositions, she was known for her broad range of material: her songs from this period include the traditional Christian hymn "Amazing Grace", the Stephen Sondheim Broadway ballad "Send in the Clowns", a recording of Joan Baez's "A Song for David", her own compositions, such as "Born to the Breed". Collins guest starred on The Muppet Show in an episode broadcast in January 1978, singing "Leather-Winged Bat", "I Know An Old Lady who Swallowed a Fly", "Do Re Mi", "Send in the Clowns".
She appeared several times on Ses
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was co-founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane, his brothers Richard and John, as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, only becoming a separate company the following year. Penguin revolutionised publishing in the 1930s through its inexpensive paperbacks, sold through Woolworths and other high street stores for sixpence, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market. Penguin's success demonstrated. Penguin had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, the arts, science. Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House, an emerging conglomerate, formed in 2013 by the merger with American publisher Random House. Penguin Group was wholly owned by British Pearson PLC, the global media company which owned the Financial Times, but in the new umbrella company it retains only a minority holding of 25% of the stock against Random House owner, German media company Bertelsmann, which controls the majority stake.
It is one of the largest English-language publishers known as the "Big Six", now the "Big Five", along with Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, HarperCollins, Simon & Schuster. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of The Bodley Head with the books distributed from the crypt of Holy Trinity Church Marylebone. Only paperback editions were published until the "King Penguin" series debuted in 1939, latterly the Pelican History of Art was undertaken: these were unsuitable as paperbacks because of the length and copious illustrations on art paper so cloth bindings were chosen instead. Penguin Books has its registered office in the City of Westminster, England. Anecdotally, Lane recounted how it was his experience with the poor quality of reading material on offer at Exeter train station that inspired him to create cheap, well designed quality books for the mass market; however the question of how publishers could reach a larger public had been the subject of a conference at Rippon Hall, Oxford in 1934 which Lane had attended.
Though the publication of literature in paperback was associated with poor quality lurid fiction, the Penguin brand owed something to the short-lived Albatross imprint of British and American reprints that traded in 1932. Inexpensive paperbacks did not appear viable to Bodley Head, since the deliberately low price of 6d. Made profitability seem unlikely; this helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights for some works more cheaply than he otherwise might have done since other publishers were convinced of the short term prospects of the business. In the face of resistance from the traditional book trade it was the purchase of 63,000 books by Woolworths Group that paid for the project outright, confirmed its worth and allowed Lane to establish Penguin as a separate business in 1936. By March 1936, ten months after the company's launch on 30 July 1935, one million Penguin books had been printed; this early flush of success brought expansion and the appointment of Eunice Frost, first as a secretary as editor and as a director, to have a pivotal influence in shaping the company.
It was Frost who in 1945 was entrusted with the reconstruction of Penguin Inc after the departure of its first managing director Ian Ballantine. Penguin Inc had been incorporated in 1939 in order to satisfy US copyright law, had enjoyed some success under its vice president Kurt Enoch with such titles as What Plane Is That and The New Soldier Handbook despite being a late entrant into an well established paperback market. From the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. Avoiding the illustrated gaudiness of other paperback publishers, Penguin opted for the simple appearance of three horizontal bands, the upper and lower of which were colour-coded according to which series the title belonged to. In the central white panel, the author and title were printed in Gill Sans and in the upper band was a cartouche with the legend "Penguin Books"; the initial design was created by the 21-year-old office junior Edward Young, who drew the first version of the Penguin logo. Series such as Penguin Specials and The Penguin Shakespeare had individual designs.
The colour schemes included: orange and white for general fiction and white for crime fiction and white for travel and adventure, dark blue and white for biographies and white for miscellaneous and white for drama. Lane resisted the introduction of cover images for several years; some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look. From 1937 and on, the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the 1990s when a merge with Viking involved the head office moving to London; the Second World War saw the company established as a national institution, though it had no formal role, Penguin was integral to the war effort thanks in no small part to the publication of such bestselling manuals as Keeping Poultry and Rabbits on Scraps and Aircraft Recognition and supplying books for the services and British POWs. Penguin printed some 600 titles and started nineteen new series in the six years of the war and a time of enormous increase in the demand for books Penguin enjoyed a privileged place among its peers.
Paper rationing was the besetting problem of publishers during wartime, with the fall of France cutting off supp
Fairport Convention are a British folk rock band, formed in 1967 by Richard Thompson, Simon Nicol, Ashley Hutchings, Shaun Frater, with Frater replaced by Martin Lamble after their first gig. They started out influenced by American folk rock and singer-songwriter material, with a setlist dominated by covers of Bob Dylan and Joni Mitchell songs and a sound that earned them the nickname “the British Jefferson Airplane.” Vocalists Judy Dyble and Iain Matthews joined them before the recording of their self-titled debut in 1968. Denny began steering the group towards traditional British music for their next two albums, What We Did on Our Holidays and Unhalfbricking the latter featured fiddler Dave "Swarb" Swarbrick, most notably on the song A Sailor's Life, which laid the groundwork for British folk rock by being the first time a traditional British song was combined with a rock beat. However, shortly before the album's release, a crash on the M1 killed Lamble and Thompson's then-girlfriend, Jeannie Franklyn.
For this album Swarb joined full-time alongside Dave Mattacks on drums. Both Denny and Hutchings left before the year's end; the 1970s saw numerous lineup changes around the core of Swarb and Pegg, with Nicol absent for the middle of the decade, declining fortunes as folk music fell out of mainstream favour. Denny, whose partner Trevor Lucas had been a guitarist in the group since 1972, returned for the pop-orientated Rising for the Moon in 1975 in a final bid to crack America, they played a farewell concert in the village of Cropredy, where they’d held small concerts since 1976, this marked the beginning of the Cropredy Festival which has become the largest folk festival in Britain, with annual attendance of 20,000. The band was reformed by Nicol and Mattacks in 1985, joined by Maartin Allcock and Ric Sanders and they have remained active since. Allcock was replaced by Chris Leslie in 1996, Gerry Conway replaced Mattacks in 1998, with this lineup remaining unchanged since and marking the longest-lasting of the group's history.
Their 28th studio album, 50:50@50, released to mark their 50th anniversary, was released in 2017, they continue to headline Cropredy each year. Despite little mainstream success – with their only top 40 single being Si Tu Dois Partir, a French-language cover of the Dylan song If You Gotta Go, Go Now from Unhalfbricking – Fairport Convention remain influential in British folk rock and British folk in general. Liege & Lief was named the "Most Influential Folk Album of All Time" at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards in 2006, Pegg's playing style, which incorporates jigs and reels into his basslines, has been imitated by many in the folk rock and folk punk genres. Additionally, many former members went on to form other notable groups in the genre, including Fotheringay, Steeleye Span, the Albion Band. Hers ended with her death in 1978, though she is now regarded as Britain's finest female singer-songwriter, her song Who Knows Where the Time Goes? – recorded by Fairport on Unhalfbricking – has become a signature for herself and the band.
Bassist Ashley Hutchings met guitarist Simon Nicol in North London in 1966 when they both played in the Ethnic Shuffle Orchestra. They rehearsed on the floor above Nicol's father's medical practice in a house called "Fairport" on Fortis Green in Muswell Hill – the same street on which Ray and Dave Davies of the Kinks grew up; the house name lent its name to the group they formed together as Fairport Convention in 1967 with Richard Thompson on guitar and Shaun Frater on drums. After their initial performance at St Michael's Church Hall in Golders Green on 27 May 1967, they had their first of many line-up changes as one member of the audience, drummer Martin Lamble, convinced the band that he could do a better job than Frater and replaced him, they soon added a female singer, Judy Dyble, which gave them a distinctive sound among the many London bands of the period. Fairport Convention were soon playing at underground venues such as UFO and The Electric Garden, which became the Middle Earth club.
After only a few months, they caught the attention of manager Joe Boyd who secured them a contract with Polydor Records. Boyd suggested they augment the line-up with another male vocalist. Singer Iain Matthews joined the band and their first album, Fairport Convention, was recorded in late 1967 and released in June 1968. At this early stage Fairport looked to North American folk and folk rock acts such as Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan, The Byrds for material and inspiration; the name "Fairport Convention" and the use of two lead vocalists led many new listeners to believe that they were an American act, earning them the nickname'the British Jefferson Airplane' during this period. Fairport Convention played alongside Jefferson Airplane at the First Isle of Wight Festival, 1968. After disappointing album sales they signed a new contract with Island Records. Before their next recording Judy Dyble was replaced by the band with Sandy Denny, a
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams was an English composer. His works include operas, chamber music and religious vocal pieces and orchestral compositions including nine symphonies, written over sixty years. Influenced by Tudor music and English folk-song, his output marked a decisive break in British music from its German-dominated style of the 19th century. Vaughan Williams was born to a well-to-do family with strong moral views and a progressive social outlook. Throughout his life he sought to be of service to his fellow citizens, believed in making music as available as possible to everybody, he wrote many works for student performance. He was musically a late developer, not finding his true voice until his late thirties. Vaughan Williams is among the best-known British symphonists, noted for his wide range of moods, from stormy and impassioned to tranquil, from mysterious to exuberant. Among the most familiar of his other concert works are Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis and The Lark Ascending, his vocal works include folk-song arrangements and large-scale choral pieces.
He wrote eight works for stage performance between 1919 and 1951. Although none of his operas became popular repertoire pieces, his ballet Job: A Masque for Dancing was successful and has been staged. Two episodes made notably deep impressions in Vaughan Williams's personal life; the First World War, in which he served in the army, had a lasting emotional effect. Twenty years though in his sixties and devotedly married, he was reinvigorated by a love affair with a much younger woman, who became his second wife, he went on composing through his seventies and eighties, producing his last symphony months before his death at the age of eighty-five. His works have continued to be a staple of the British concert repertoire, all his major compositions and many of the minor ones have been recorded. Vaughan Williams was born at Down Ampney, the third child and younger son of the vicar, the Reverend Arthur Vaughan Williams and his wife, Margaret, née Wedgwood, his paternal forebears were of mixed Welsh descent.
The judges Sir Edward and Sir Roland Vaughan Williams were Arthur's father and brother. Margaret Vaughan Williams was niece of Charles Darwin. Arthur Vaughan Williams died in February 1875, his widow took the children to live in her family home, Leith Hill Place, Surrey; the children were under the care of a nurse, Sara Wager, who instilled in them not only polite manners and good behaviour but liberal social and philosophical opinions. Such views were consistent with the progressive-minded tradition of both sides of the family; when the young Vaughan Williams asked his mother about Darwin's controversial book On the Origin of Species, she answered, "The Bible says that God made the world in six days. Great Uncle Charles thinks it took longer: but we need not worry about it, for it is wonderful either way". In 1878, at the age of five, Vaughan Williams began receiving piano lessons from his aunt, Sophy Wedgwood, he displayed signs of musical talent early on, composing his first piece of music, a four-bar piano piece called "The Robin's Nest", in the same year.
He did not like the piano, was pleased to begin violin lessons the following year. In 1880, when he was eight, he took a correspondence course in music from Edinburgh University and passed the associated examinations. In September 1883 he went as a boarder to Field House preparatory school in Rottingdean on the south coast of England, forty miles from Wotton, he was happy there, although he was shocked to encounter for the first time social snobbery and political conservatism, which were rife among his fellow pupils. From there he moved on to the public school Charterhouse in January 1887, his academic and sporting achievements there were satisfactory, the school encouraged his musical development. In 1888 he organised a concert in the school hall, which included a performance of his G major Piano Trio with the composer as violinist. While at Charterhouse Vaughan Williams found that religion meant less and less to him, for a while he was an atheist; this softened into "a cheerful agnosticism", he continued to attend church to avoid upsetting the family.
His views on religion did not affect his love of the Authorised Version of the Bible, the beauty of which, in the words of Ursula Vaughan Williams in her 1964 biography of the composer, remained "one of his essential companions through life." In this, as in many other things in his life, he was, according to his biographer Michael Kennedy, "that English product the natural nonconformist with a conservative regard for the best tradition". In July 1890 Vaughan Williams left Charterhouse and in September he was enrolled as a student at the Royal College of Music, London. After a compulsory course in harmony with Francis Edward Gladstone, professor of organ and harmony, he studied organ with Walter Parratt and composition with Hubert Parry, he idolised Parry, recalled in his Musical Autobiography: Parry once said to me: "Write choral music as befits an Englishman and a democrat". We pupils of Parry have, if we have been wise, inherited from him the great English choral tradition, which Tallis passed on to Byrd, Byrd to Gibbons, Gibbons to Purcell, Purcell to Battishill and Greene, they in their turn through the Wesleys, to Parry.
He has passed on the
A broadside is a large sheet of paper printed on one side only. Broadsides were used as posters, announcing events or proclamations, commentary in the form of ballads, or advertisements; the historical type of broadsides, designed to be plastered onto walls, were ephemera, i.e. temporary documents created for a specific purpose and intended to be thrown away. They were one of the most common forms of printed material between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain and North America, they were advertisements, but could be used for news information or proclamations. Broadsides were a popular medium for printing topical ballads starting in the 16th century. Broadside ballads were printed on thin sheets of paper and sold in the Victorian era London for a penny or half-penny. Broadsides were folded twice to make small pamphlets or chapbooks. Collections of songs in chapbooks were known as garlands. Broadside ballads lasted longer in Ireland, although never produced in such huge numbers in North America, they were significant in the eighteenth century and provided an important medium of propaganda, on both sides, in the American War of Independence.
Broadsides were sold at public executions in the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries. These were produced by printers who specialised in them, they were illustrated by a crude picture of the crime, a portrait of the criminal, or a generic woodcut of a hanging taking place. There would be a written account of the crime and of the trial and the criminal's confession of guilt. A doggerel verse warning others to not follow the executed person's example, to avoid their fate, was another common feature. By the mid-19th century, the advent of newspapers and inexpensive novels resulted in the demise of the street literature broadside. One classic example of a broadside used for proclamations is the Dunlap broadside, the first publication of the United States Declaration of Independence, printed on the night of July 4, 1776 by John Dunlap of Philadelphia in an estimated 200 copies. An example of a broadside used for news information is the first published account of George Washington crossing the Delaware, printed on December 30, 1776 by unknown.
Today, broadside printing is done by many smaller printers and publishers as a fine art variant, with poems being available as broadsides, intended to be framed and hung on the wall. Broadsides pasted on walls are still used as a form of mass communication in Haredi Jewish communities, where they are known by the Yiddish term "pashkevil" if they are not attacks or lampoons. Broadsheet Poster Dunlap broadside Broadside ballad Phoenix Broadsheets A Book of Broadsheets. London: Methuen, 1928 English Broadside Ballad Archive at the University of California, Santa Barbara Modern American Poetry Collection at Ball State University Archives and Special Collections Research Center Broadsided Contemporary, original broadsides published monthly online and posted around the US and abroad Poetry Center of Chicago Broadsides – fine letter press broadsides Green Linden Press Poetry BroadsidesHistorical broadsidesLibrary of Congress – Three Centuries of Broadsides and other Printed Ephemera University of Georgia – Historical broadsides from 1849–1989 Wake Forest University – Confederate Broadside Poetry Collection 1,800 Scottish broadsides from 1650–1910 at National Library of Scotland Broadsides at the Boston AthenaeumCrime broadsidesHistorical & Special Collections, Harvard Law School Library.