The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. It played an important role in the internal conflicts of France and for most of its history was used as a state prison by the kings of France, it was stormed by a crowd on 14 July 1789, in the French Revolution, becoming an important symbol for the French Republican movement, was demolished and replaced by the Place de la Bastille. The Bastille was built to defend the eastern approach to the city of Paris from the English threat in the Hundred Years' War. Initial work began in 1357, but the main construction occurred from 1370 onwards, creating a strong fortress with eight towers that protected the strategic gateway of the Porte Saint-Antoine on the eastern edge of Paris; the innovative design proved influential in both France and England and was copied. The Bastille figured prominently in France's domestic conflicts, including the fighting between the rival factions of the Burgundians and the Armagnacs in the 15th century, the Wars of Religion in the 16th.
The fortress was declared a state prison in 1417. The defences of the Bastille were fortified in response to the English and Imperial threat during the 1550s, with a bastion constructed to the east of the fortress; the Bastille played a key role in the rebellion of the Fronde and the battle of the faubourg Saint-Antoine, fought beneath its walls in 1652. Louis XIV used the Bastille as a prison for upper-class members of French society who had opposed or angered him including, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, French Protestants. From 1659 onwards, the Bastille functioned as a state penitentiary. Under Louis XV and XVI, the Bastille was used to detain prisoners from more varied backgrounds, to support the operations of the Parisian police in enforcing government censorship of the printed media. Although inmates were kept in good conditions, criticism of the Bastille grew during the 18th century, fueled by autobiographies written by former prisoners. Reforms were implemented and prisoner numbers were reduced.
In 1789 the royal government's financial crisis and the formation of the National Assembly gave rise to a swelling of republican sentiments among city-dwellers. On 14 July the Bastille was stormed by a revolutionary crowd residents of the faubourg Saint-Antoine who sought to commandeer the valuable gunpowder held within the fortress. Seven remaining prisoners were found and released and the Bastille's governor, Bernard-René de Launay, was killed by the crowd; the Bastille was demolished by order of the Committee of the Hôtel de Ville. Souvenirs of the fortress were transported around France and displayed as icons of the overthrow of despotism. Over the next century, the site and historical legacy of the Bastille featured prominently in French revolutions, political protests and popular fiction, it remained an important symbol for the French Republican movement. Nothing is left of the Bastille except some remains of its stone foundation that were relocated to the side of Boulevard Henri IV. Historians were critical of the Bastille in the early 19th century, believe the fortress to have been a well-administered institution, but implicated in the system of French policing and political control during the 18th century.
The Bastille was built in response to a threat to Paris during the Hundred Years' War between England and France. Prior to the Bastille, the main royal castle in Paris was the Louvre, in the west of the capital, but the city had expanded by the middle of the 14th century and the eastern side was now exposed to an English attack; the situation worsened after the imprisonment of John II in England following the French defeat at the battle of Poitiers, in his absence the Provost of Paris, Étienne Marcel, took steps to improve the capital's defences. In 1357, Marcel expanded the city walls and protected the Porte Saint-Antoine with two high stone towers and a 78-foot-wide ditch. A fortified gateway of this sort was called a "bastille", was one of two created in Paris, the other being built outside the Porte Saint-Denis. Marcel was subsequently removed from his post and executed in 1358. In 1369, Charles V became concerned about the weakness of the eastern side of the city to English attacks and raids by mercenaries.
Charles instructed Hugh Aubriot, the new provost, to build a much larger fortification on the same site as Marcel's bastille. Work began in 1370 with another pair of towers being built behind the first bastille, followed by two towers to the north, two towers to the south; the fortress was not finished by the time Charles died in 1380, was completed by his son, Charles VI. The resulting structure became known as the Bastille, with the eight irregularly built towers and linking curtain walls forming a structure 223 feet wide and 121 feet deep, the walls and towers 78 feet high and 10 feet thick at their bases. Built to the same height, the roofs of the towers and the tops of the walls formed a broad, crenellated walkway all the way around the fortress; each of the six newer towers had underground "cachots", or dungeons, at its base, curved "calotte" "shell", rooms in their roofs. Garrisoned by a captain, a knight, eight squires and ten crossbowmen, the Bastille was encircled with ditches fed by the River Seine, faced with stone.
The fortress had four sets of drawbridges, which allowed the Rue Saint-Antoine to pass eastwards through the Bastille's gates while giving easy access to the city walls on the
Tobias George Smollett was a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for his picaresque novels, such as The Adventures of Roderick Random and The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, which influenced novelists including Charles Dickens, his novels were amended liberally by printers. Smollett was born at Dalquhurn, now part of Renton in present-day West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, he was the fourth son of Archibald Smollett of Bonhill, a judge and landowner who died about 1726, Barbara Cunningham, who died about 1766. He was educated at the University of Glasgow; some biographers assert that he proceeded to the University of Edinburgh, but left without earning a degree. His career in medicine came second to his literary ambitions. Unsuccessful, he obtained a commission as a naval surgeon on HMS Chichester and travelled to Jamaica, where he settled down for several years. In 1742 he served as a surgeon during the disastrous campaign to capture Cartagena. On his return to Britain, Smollett established a practice in Downing Street and married a wealthy Jamaican heiress, Anne "Nancy" Lascelles, in 1747.
She was a daughter of William Lascelles. They had one child, a daughter Elizabeth, who died aged 15 years about 1762, he had a brother, Captain James Smollett, a sister, Jean Smollett, who married Alexander Telfair of Symington, Ayrshire. Jean succeeded to Bonhill after the death of her cousin-german, Mr Commissary Smollett, resumed her maiden name of Smollett in 1780, they lived in St John Street off Canongate and had a son, in the military. Smollett's first published work was a poem about the Battle of Culloden entitled "The Tears of Scotland", but it was The Adventures of Roderick Random which made his name, his poetry was described as "delicate and murmurs as a stream." The Adventures of Roderick Random was modelled on Le Sage's Gil Blas and published in 1748. After that, Smollett had his tragedy The Regicide published, although it was never performed. In 1750, Smollett was granted his MD degree at Aberdeen, he travelled to France, where he obtained material for his second novel, The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, another success.
Having lived for a brief time in Bath, he returned to London and published The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom in 1753. He was now recognised as a major author, his novels were published by the well-known London bookseller Andrew Millar. Smollett became associated with such figures as David Garrick, Laurence Sterne, Oliver Goldsmith, Samuel Johnson, whom he famously nicknamed "that Great Cham of literature". In 1755 he published an English translation of Miguel de Cervantes's novel Don Quixote, which he revised in 1761. In 1756, he became editor of The Critical Review. Smollett began what he regarded as his major work, A Complete History of England. During that period he served a brief prison sentence for libel and produced another novel, The Life and Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves. After suffering the loss of their only daughter, he and his wife went abroad, the result was the publication Travels through France and Italy, he published The History and Adventures of an Atom, which gave his opinion of British politics during the Seven Years' War in the guise of a tale from ancient Japan.
In 1768, the year he moved to Italy, Smollett entrusted Robert Cunninghame Graham of Gartmore with selling off the slaves he still owned in Jamaica. A further visit to Scotland helped to inspire his last novel, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, published in the year of his death, he had for some time been suffering from an intestinal disorder. Having sought a cure at Bath, he retired to Italy, where he was buried in the old English cemetery in Livorno, Italy. A plaque at the head of St John Street, off the Royal Mile marks his Edinburgh home, his wife continued to live there until at least 1785. There is a monument to his memory beside Renton Primary School, Scotland, on which there is a Latin inscription; the area around the monument was improved with an explanatory plaque. After his death in Italy in 1771, his cousin Jane Smollett had the Renton monument built in 1774, it comprises a tall Tuscan column topped by an urn. On the plinth is a Latin inscription written by Professor George Stuart of Edinburgh, John Ramsay of Ochtertyre and Dr Samuel Johnson.
It is a category A listed building. There is a plaque at his temporary residence in Edinburgh, just off the Royal Mile at the head of St John's Street; this states that he resided there in the house of his sister, Mrs. Telfer, for the summer of 1766. A second plaque states that he "stayed here occasionally," implying more than one visit, which may well be true if it was the house of his sister. Smollett is one of the 16 Scottish writers and poets depicted on the lower section of the Scott Monument in Princes Street, Edinburgh, he appears on the far left side of the east face. There is a street in Nice, named after him. Mr Brooke in George Eliot's Middlemarch says to Mr Casaubon: "Or get Dorothea to read you light things, Smollett – Roderick Random, Humphry Clinker, they are a little broad, but she may read anything now she's married, you know. I remember they made me laugh uncommonly – there's a droll bit about a postilion's breeches." In W. M. Thackeray's novel Vanity Fair, Rebecca Sharp and Miss Rose Crawley read Humphry Clinker: "Once, when Mr. Crawley asked what the young people were reading, t
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town founded at the will of King Louis XIV, Versailles was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of royal city, it became the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département in 1790 of Yvelines in 1968, it is a Roman Catholic diocese. Versailles is known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolution, the Treaty of Versailles, after World War I.
Today, the Congress of France – the name given to the body created when both houses of the French Parliament, the National Assembly and the Senate, meet – gathers in the Château de Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution. The argument over the etymology of Versailles tends to privilege the Latin word versare, meaning "to keep turning, turn over and over", an expression used in medieval times for plowed lands, cleared lands; this word formation is similar to Latin seminare. During the Revolution of 1789, city officials had proposed to the Convention to rename Versailles Berceau-de-la-Liberté, but they had to retract their proposal when confronted with the objections of the majority of the population. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, Versailles was the unofficial capital of the kingdom of France. For the next seven years, during the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans, the royal court of the young King Louis XV was the first in Paris, while the Regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.
Versailles was again the unofficial capital of France from June 1722, when Louis XV returned to Versailles, until October 1789, when a Parisian mob forced Louis XVI and the royal family to move to Paris. Versailles again became the unofficial capital of France from March 1871, when Adolphe Thiers' government took refuge in Versailles, fleeing the insurrection of the Paris Commune, until November 1879, when the newly elected government and parliament returned to Paris. During the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790. By the 1960s, with the growth of the Paris suburbs, the Seine-et-Oise had reached more than 2 million inhabitants, was deemed too large and ungovernable, thus it was split into three départements in January 1968. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants. Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese, created in 1790; the diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris. In 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education; the académie de Versailles, the largest of France's thirty académies by its number of pupils and students, is in charge of supervising all the elementary schools and high schools of the western suburbs of Paris. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the military camp of Satory and other institutions. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris. The city sits on an elevated plateau, 130 to 140 metres above sea-level, surrounded by wooded hills: in the north the forests of Marly and Fausses-Reposes, in the south the forests of Satory and Meudon.
The city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a population density of 3,344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20,696/km2. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a symmetrical grid of streets. By the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a modern European city. Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, D. C. by Pierre Charles L'Enfant. The name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the feudal system of medieval France, the lords of Versailles came directly under the king of France, with no intermediary overlords between them and the king. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle and the Saint Julien church, its farming activity and its location on the road from Paris to Dreux and Normandy brought prosperity to the village, culminating in the end of the 13th century, the so-called "century of Saint Louis", famous for the prosperity of northern France and the building of Gothic cathedrals.
The 14th century brought the Black Death and t
Moulins is a commune in central France, capital of the Allier department. It is located on the Allier River. Among its many tourist attractions are the Maison Mantin, the Anne de Beaujeu Museum and The National Center of Costume and Scenography. Moulins is located on the banks of the Allier River. Before the French Revolution, Moulins was the capital of the province of Bourbonnais and the seat of the Dukes of Bourbon, it appears in documented records at least as far back as the year 990. In 1232, Archambaud VIII, Sire de Bourbon granted a franchise to the village's inhabitants; the town achieved greater prominence in 1327, when Charles IV elevated Louis I de Clermont to Duke of Bourbon. Either Louis or the Peter II, Duke of Bourbon and of Auvergne moved the capital of the province from Bourbon-l'Archambault to Moulins. Note: This article in French suggests Pierre II moved the capital, while the local tourism website suggests it was Louis I. In February 1566 it became eponymous to the Edict of Moulins, an important royal ordinance dealing with many aspects of the administration of justice and feudal and ecclesiastical privilege, including limitations on the appanages held by French princes, abrogation of the levy of rights of tallage claimed by seigneurs over their dependants, provisions for a system of concessions on rivers.
This was the birthplace of the great 19th-century operatic baritone and art collector Jean-Baptiste Faure. In the 20th century, Coco Chanel went to school in Moulins as an orphan, before moving to Paris, where she became a fashion designer and major innovator in women's clothing. Moulins is twinned with: Montepulciano, Italy Bad Vilbel, Germany Moulins-sur-Allier station, in the centre of the town, has direct trains to Paris Paris-Gare de Lyon, which take about 2 hours 25 minutes. Montbeugny Airport is a small airport located near Moulins. Centre National du Costume de Scene Antoine Gilbert Griffet de Labaume and man of letters was born in Moulins Jean Pastelot and caricaturist was born in Moulins Coco Chanel, fashion designer, started as a cabaret singer here Philippe N'Dioro, footballer Jean-Luc Perrot, pipe organ player and composer Stéphane Risacher, basketball player with the French national team, born in Moulins Jean-Baptiste Faure, opera singer, born in Moulins Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Marshal General of France, lived 1653–1734, born in Moulins Gilbert Mercier, author of "The Orwellian Empire" and journalist born in Moulins in 1957 Louis Jacques Brunet, ancient professor of Natural History born in Moulins in 1811 Moulins Cathedral Diocese of Moulins AS Moulins Communes of the Allier department INSEE City council website Local tourism website Picture of Moulins Cathedral
Viktor Borisovich Shklovsky was a Russian and Soviet literary theorist, critic and pamphleteer. He is one of the major figures associated with Russian formalism. Viktor Shklovsky’s Theory of Prose was published in 1925. Shklovsky himself is still praised as "one of the most important literary and cultural theorists of the twentieth century", his father was Jewish and his mother was of German/Russian origin. He attended St. Petersburg University. During the First World War, he volunteered for the Russian Army and became a driving trainer in an armoured car unit in St. Petersburg. There, in 1916, he founded OPOYAZ, one of the two groups that developed the critical theories and techniques of Russian Formalism. Shklovsky participated in the February Revolution of 1917. Subsequently, the Russian Provisional Government sent him as an assistant Commissar to the Southwestern Front where he was wounded and got an award for bravery. After that he was an assistant Commissar of the Russian Expeditionary Corps in Persia.
Shklovsky returned after the October Revolution. He opposed bolshevism and took part in an anti-bolshevik plot organised by members of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. After the conspiracy was discovered by the Cheka, Shklovsky went into hiding, traveling in Russia and the Ukraine, but was pardoned in 1919 due to his connections with Maxim Gorky, decided to abstain from political activity, his two brothers were executed by the Soviet regime and his sister died from hunger in St. Petersburg in 1919. Shklovsky integrated into Soviet society and took part in the Russian Civil War, serving in the Red Army. However, in 1922, he had to go into hiding once again, as he was threatened with arrest and possible execution for his former political activities, he fled via Finland to Germany. In Berlin, in 1923, he published his memoirs about the period 1917–22 under the title Сентиментальное путешествие, воспоминания, alluding to A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy by Laurence Sterne, an author he much admired and whose digressive style had a powerful influence on Shklovsky's writing.
In the same year he was allowed to return to the Soviet Union, not least because of an appeal to Soviet authorities that he included in the last pages of his epistolary novel Zoo, or Letters Not About Love. The Yugoslav scholar Mihajlo Mihajlov visited Shklovsky in 1963 and wrote: "I was much impressed by Shklovsky's liveliness of spirit, his varied interests and his enormous culture; when we said goodbye to Viktor Borisovich and started for Moscow, I felt that I had met one of the most cultured, most intelligent and best-educated men of our century."He died in Moscow in 1984. In addition to literary criticism and biographies about such authors as Laurence Sterne, Maxim Gorky, Leo Tolstoy, Vladimir Mayakovsky, he wrote a number of semi-autobiographical works disguised as fiction, which served as experiments in his developing theories of literature. Shklovsky is best known for developing the concept of ostranenie or defamiliarization in literature, he explained the concept in 1917 in the important essay "Art as Technique" which comprised the first chapter of his seminal Theory of Prose, first published in 1925.
He argued for the need to turn something that has become over-familiar, like a cliché in the literary canon, into something revitalized: And so, in order to return sensation to our limbs, in order to make us feel objects, to make a stone feel stony, man has been given the tool of art. The purpose of art is to lead us to a knowledge of a thing through the organ of sight instead of recognition. By "enstranging" objects and complicating form, the device of art makes perception long and "laborious." The perceptual process in art ought to be extended to the fullest. Art is a means of experiencing the process of creativity; the artifact itself is quite unimportant. Among other things, Shklovsky contributed the plot/story distinction, which separates out the sequence of events the work relates from the sequence in which those events are presented in the work. Shklovsky's work pushes Russian Formalism towards understanding literary activity as integral parts of social practice, an idea that becomes important in the work of Mikhail Bakhtin and Russian and Prague School scholars of semiotics.
Shklovsky's thought influenced western thinkers due to Tzvetan Todorov's translations of the works of Russian formalists in the 1960s and 1970s, including Tzvetan Todorov himself, Gerard Genette and Hans Robert Jauss. Shklovsky was one of the early serious writers on film. A collection of his essays and articles on film was published in 1923, he was a close friend of director Sergei Eisenstein and published an extensive critical assessment of his life and works. Beginning in the 1920s and well into the 1970s Shklovsky worked as a screenwriter on numerous Soviet films, a par
Calais is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the department's prefecture is its third-largest city of Arras; the population of the metropolitan area at the 2010 census was 126,395. Calais overlooks the Strait of Dover, the narrowest point in the English Channel, only 34 km wide here, is the closest French town to England; the White Cliffs of Dover can be seen on a clear day from Calais. Calais is a major port for ferries between France and England, since 1994, the Channel Tunnel has linked nearby Coquelles to Folkestone by rail. Due to its position, Calais since the Middle Ages has been a major port and a important centre for transport and trading with England, it grew into a thriving centre for wool production. The town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Calais was a territorial possession of England until its capture by France in 1558. The town was razed to the ground during World War II, when in May 1940, it was a strategic bombing target of the invading German forces who took the town during the Siege of Calais. During World War II, the Germans built massive bunkers along the coast in preparation for launching missiles on England; the old part of the town, Calais proper, is situated on an artificial island surrounded by canals and harbours. The modern part of the town, St-Pierre, lies to the south-east. In the centre of the old town is the Place d'Armes, in which stands the Tour du Guet, or watch-tower, a structure built in the 13th century, used as a lighthouse until 1848 when a new lighthouse was built by the port. South east of the Place is the church of Notre-Dame, built during the English occupancy of Calais, it is arguably the only church built in the English perpendicular style in all of France. In this church former French President Charles de Gaulle married his wife Yvonne Vendroux.
South of the Place and opposite the Parc St Pierre is the Hôtel-de-ville, the belfry from the 16th and early 17th centuries. Today, Calais is visited by more than 10 million annually. Aside from being a key transport hub, Calais is a notable fishing port and a centre for fish marketing, some 3,000 people are still employed in the lace industry for which the town is famed; the early history of habitation in the area is limited. The Romans called the settlement Caletum. Julius Caesar mustered 800 to 1,000 sailing boats, five legions and some 2,000 horses at Calais, due to its strategic position, to attack Britannia; the English could hold on to it for so many centuries because it remained an island surrounded by marshes, therefore impossible to attack from the land. At some time before the 10th century, it would have been a Flemish-speaking fishing village on a sandy beach backed by pebbles and a creek, with a natural harbour at the west edge of the early medieval estuary of the River Aa; as the pebble and sand ridge extended eastward from Calais, the haven behind it developed into fen, as the estuary progressively filled with silt and peat.
Afterwards, canals were cut between Saint-Omer, the trading centre at the head of the estuary, three places to the west and east on the newly formed coast: Calais and Dunkirk. Calais was improved by the Count of Flanders in 997 and fortified by the Count of Boulogne in 1224; the first document mentioning the existence of this community is the town charter granted by Mathieu d'Alsace, Count of Boulogne, in 1181 to Gerard de Guelders. In 1189, Richard the Lionheart is documented to have landed at Calais on his journey to the Third Crusade. English wool trade interests and King Edward III's claims to be heir to the Kingdom of France led to the Battle of Crécy between England and France in 1346, followed by Edward's siege and capture of Calais in 1347. Angered, the English king demanded reprisals against the town's citizens for holding out for so long and ordered that the town's population be killed en masse, he agreed, however, to spare them, on condition that six of the principal citizens would come to him and barefooted and with ropes around their necks, give themselves up to death.
On their arrival he ordered their execution, but pardoned them when his queen, Philippa of Hainault, begged him to spare their lives. This event is commemorated in The Burghers of Calais, one of the most famous sculptures by Auguste Rodin, erected in the city in 1895. Though sparing the lives of the delegation members, King Edward drove out most of the French inhabitants, settled the town with English; the municipal charter of Calais granted by the Countess of Artois, was reconfirmed by Edward that year. In 1360 the Treaty of Brétigny assigned Guînes and Calais—collectively the "Pale of Calais"—to English rule in perpetuity, but this assignment was informally and only implemented. On 9 February 1363 the town was made a staple port, it had by 1372 become a parliamentary borough sending burgesses to the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. It remained part of the Diocese of Thérouanne from 1379; the town came to be called the "brightest jewel in the English crown" owing to its great importance as the gateway for the tin, lead and wool trades.
Its customs revenues amounted at times to a
The tandem bicycle or twin is a form of bicycle designed to be ridden by more than one person. The term tandem refers to the seating arrangement, not the number of riders. Patents related to tandem bicycles date from the late 1890s. Tandems can reach higher speeds than the same riders on single bicycles, tandem bicycle racing exists; as with bicycles for single riders, there are many variations that have been developed over the years. The term tandem refers to the seating arrangement, not the number of riders. A bike with two riders side by side is called a sociable. Tandem bicycles are sometimes called "Daisy Bells"; this is in reference to "Daisy Bell", a popular song, written in 1892 by British songwriter Harry Dacre, with the well-known chorus, "Daisy, Daisy / Give me your answer, do. / I'm half crazy / all for the love of you", ending with the words, "a bicycle built for two". On conventional tandems, the front rider steers as well as pedals the bicycle and is known as the captain, pilot, or steersman.
On most tandems the two sets of cranks are mechanically linked by a timing chain and turn at the same rate. As time has moved on so has the use of'captain' and'stoker' as terms for riders of a tandem; as both are seen as riders the use of the words'front rider' and'rear rider' are far more descriptive to modern tandem riders. Patents related to tandem bicycles date from the late 1890s. In 1898, Mikael Pedersen developed a two-rider tandem version of his Pedersen bicycle that weighed 24 pounds, a four-rider, or "quad", that weighed 64 pounds, they were used in the Second Anglo-Boer War. Tandem popularity began to decline after World War II. In the UK The Tandem Club was founded in 1971, new tandems came on to the market from the French companies Lejeune and Gitane, in the USA Bill McCready founded Santana Cycles in 1976. Modern technology has improved component and frame designs, many tandems are as well-built as modern high-end road and off-road bikes. Compared to a conventional bicycle, a tandem has double the pedalling power, without doubling the speed, with only more frictional loss in the drivetrain.
It has about the same wind resistance as a conventional bicycle. High-performance tandems may weigh less than twice as much as a single bike, so the power-to-weight ratio may be better than that of a single bike and rider. On flat terrain and downhill, most of the power produced by cyclists is used to overcome wind resistance, so tandems can reach higher speeds than the same riders on single bicycles, they are not slower on climbs, but are perceived as such, in part due to the need for a high level of coordination between the riders if the physical abilities of the two riders are different, requiring a compromise on cadence. Tandem bicycles are used in competitions such as the Paralympics with blind and visually impaired cyclists riding as stokers with sighted captains. Cycling at the Summer Olympics featured a men's tandem event in 1908 and from 1920 to 1972. Tandems may be used for bicycle touring and may provide a solution to the problem of riders with different abilities that wish to tour together.
Each rider may exert themselves as they wish and all riders travel at the same speed. Tandems can have more than 2 riders — tandem refers to the arrangement of the riders one behind the other rather than the number of riders. Bicycles for three, four, or five riders are referred to as "triples" or "triplets", "quads" or "quadruplets", "quints" or "quintuplets" respectively. One such familiar to UK TV viewers was the "trandem" ridden by The Goodies. A 2-man tandem with an extra "dummy" seat attached, a full 3-man version was built for them by Raleigh. A marching-band in Bruges uses a six-place tandem bicycle fitted to carry certain of their instruments in a way that allows them to play music while underway. In the'80s or'90s, an eight-seat tandem bicycle was demonstrated in Philadelphia; some designs such as the DaVinci can allow independent pedaling through the use of multiple freewheels. In another design, the rear rider steers and propels the rear wheel with pedals, the front rider propels the front wheel with both hands and feet.
Tandems come with both recumbent seating. The Bilenky ViewPoint and the Hase Pino are hybrid upright/recumbent tandems steered by the captain who sits upright in the rear, while the stoker rides in a recumbent position in the front. Both feature independent stoker pedaling; the "Buddy Bike" is designed to allow a child to sit on the front saddle with an adult on the rear saddle and steering with extra long handlebars. Both riders, in the case of just two, may be able to steer; the Star Cycle Company, of Wolverhampton, marketed its "Combination Roadster tandem" in 1896. It had a link from the second set of handlebars to the front fork. Others include the 1897 Geneva, the 1898 Stearns. Tandems are available as tricycles. Recumbent tandem tricycles are gaining popularity throughout the world. There are short wheelbase models, with the rear rider sitting over the rear wheel, either just in front of or behind the rear axle. Several manufacturers offer folding tandems, either with small wheels or not, to facilitate packing and travelling.
It is possible to add couplers either during manufacturing or as a retrofit so that the frame can be disassembled into smaller pieces to facilitate