A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Thumbelina (1994 film)
Thumbelina is a 1994 American animated musical fantasy film directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman, based on the book of the same name by Hans Christian Andersen and starring the voices of Jodi Benson, Gary Imhoff and Joe Lynch, with supporting roles from Gino Conforti, Gilbert Gottfried, Carol Channing and John Hurt. The film was released to movie theaters by Warner Bros.. Pictures under their Warner Bros. Family Entertainment label on July 29, 1994 in United Kingdom; as of March 20, 2019, the film rights are now owned by Disney through 20th Century Fox, which had obtained the film rights from Warner Bros. in the early-2000s. A lonely widow, longing for a child of her own, is given a barley seed by a good witch; the planted seed grows into a flower, a tiny girl emerges from inside the blossom, no bigger than the old woman's thumb. The old woman raises her as her own. Although Thumbelina loves her mother, she craves companionship from someone her own size. One night, the fairy prince Cornelius stumbles upon Thumbelina after hearing her beautiful singing.
The two take a ride on Cornelius' fall in love. During this ride, Mrs. Toad and her son Grundel are enchanted by Thumbelina's singing. Cornelius promises to return the next day, but that night, Mrs. Toad kidnaps Thumbelina from her bed and takes her away to her show boat, where she desires Thumbelina to join their troupe and marry Grundel, in love with her. After the toads leave Thumbelina alone on a lily pad to fetch a priest, she is rescued by Jacquimo, a swallow, infatuated with complicated love stories and encourages Thumbelina to return home. Meanwhile, Cornelius learns of Thumbelina's kidnapping and returns to his kingdom, the Vale of the Fairies, to ask his parents to try holding back the winter as long as they can. Back at the pond, Grundel is told by his two younger brothers Mozo and Gringo that Thumbelina had escaped to find Cornelius, he ventures out to find her. While trying to get home, Thumbelina is ambushed by Berkeley Beetle, who becomes enamored with her singing and promises to show her the way home if she sings at his Beetle Ball first.
She reluctantly complies, but her bug disguise falls off during the concert and she is denounced as ugly, Beetle rejects her without helping her. Following Thumbelina's exit from the Ball, Beetle is confronted by Grundel and informs him that he let Thumbelina go; when Beetle is told that Thumbelina loves Cornelius, he suggests that Grundel should kidnap Cornelius and use him as bait to lure Thumbelina to him. Grundel coerces Beetle into partnership by removing his wings to ensure his cooperation. Upon the arrival of winter, Cornelius falls into a pond during his search for Thumbelina and is frozen. Thumbelina is forced to take refuge in an old shoe, where she is discovered by Miss Fieldmouse and granted shelter in her underground lair. After relaying Cornelius' fate to Thumbelina, Miss Fieldmouse introduces her to her neighbor Mr. Mole, infatuated with Thumbelina and desires to marry her. Thumbelina, devastated by the apparent loss of Cornelius, accepts Mr. Mole's proposal after some persuasion from Miss Fieldmouse.
Beetle and Grundel find and abscond with Cornelius' frozen body and subsequently learn of Thumbelina's wedding. When they leave Cornelius behind and embark to Mr. Mole's home, a trio of friendly insects find and thaw Cornelius. At the wedding, Thumbelina finds herself unable to marry Mr. Mole after remembering Cornelius' singing voice and promise to her. Grundel and Beetle appear and a chase ensues. Cornelius appears and engages Grundel in a fight. Thumbelina escapes her pursuers and meets with Jacquimo, who has found the Vale of the Fairies and takes her there. Thumbelina and Cornelius reunite, Thumbelina magically grows her own pair of wings upon Cornelius' proposal. Jodi Benson as Thumbelina - A tiny young woman, not as big as her adoptive mother's thumb, falls in love with the handsome fairy prince Cornelius. Gary Imhoff as Prince Cornelius - the Prince of the Fairies and Thumbelina's love interest. Joe Lynch as Grundel Toad - a toad in love with Thumbelina Gino Conforti as Jacquimo - a wise swallow who speaks with a French accent.
He is the partial narrator of the story. Gilbert Gottfried as Berkeley Beetle - a singer beetle who owns his own "beetle band" and a so-called "connoisseur of sweet nectars, a designer of rare threads, a judge of beautiful women." He is forced by Grundel to help him to find Thumbelina. Carol Channing as Ms. Fieldmouse - a rather greedy yet kind field mouse who takes Thumbelina in from the cold and persuades her to marry Mr. Mole. John Hurt as Mr. Mole - a fabulously wealthy but self-involved and cynical mole who falls in love with Thumbelina after hearing her voice. Barbara Cook as Thumbelina's Mother - the widow who mothers Thumbelina since her birth from a flower. Charo as Mrs. Toad - a gorgeous and famous Spanish singer and mother to her three sons Mozo and Grundel. Kenneth Mars as King Colbert, Cornelius' father June Foray as Queen Tabitha, Cornelius' mother Will Ryan as Hero, Reverend Rat Danny Mann as Mozo, Grundel's younger brother Loren Lester as Gringo, Grundel's younger brother Pat Musick as Mrs. Rabbit Neil Ross as Mr. Bear, Mr. Fox Tawny Sunshine Glover as Gnatty, one of the jitterbugs.
Michael Nunes as Li'l Bee, one of the jitterbugs. Kendall Cunningham as Baby Bug, one of the jitterbugs Barry Manilow agreed to compose the songs for three Don Bluth pictures. Thumbelina was the first, followed by The Pebble and the Penguin, the third was canceled; the film's soundtrack has since gone out of print. "Marry the Mole" won a
Patrice Anne Musick is an American voice actress, who has provided numerous voices in many television shows and video games. She and her husband, Jeff Whitman, a personal manager and set construction coordinator, are the parents of actress and singer Mae Whitman. A. T. O. M. – Momma Rossi All Grown Up! – Harold Frumpkin, Harold's Sister, Edith Avatar: The Last Airbender – Haru's Mom Batman: Brave and the Bold – Martha Wayne Batman: The Animated Series - Stella Curious George – Ms. Klopotznick, Mrs. Dewey, Old Woman, Little Girl Darkwing Duck – Female Kid Disney's Adventures of the Gummi Bears – Ursa Gummi Disney's House of Mouse – Fiddler Pig, Flasher Duckman – Fluffy & Uranus DuckTales – Bully Beagle, Umpire Extreme Ghostbusters – Janine Melnitz Johnny Bravo – Additional voices, Older Little Suzy New Kids on the Block – Additional voices OK K. O.! Let's Be Heroes - Elsa Frankenteen The Buzz on Maggie – Dawn's lackeys, Ugly Bug Saber Rider and the Star Sheriffs – April Eagle SpaceCats – Dementia DeFortino Superman: The Animated Series – Mother, Guardian #2 Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries – Marry Ann The Further Adventures of Superted – Prince Rajeesh Rugrats – Harold Frumpkin The Smurfs – Snappy Smurf Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles – Mona Lisa The Twisted Tales of Felix the Cat – Additional voices The Life and Times of Juniper Lee – Eloise The Tick – Meriem Brunch: The Mad Nanny, The Bee Twins, Tuun-La: Not of this Earth ThunderCats – Albo Wake and Roll – Angel, Elsa Where's Waldo – Additional voices It's the Pied Piper, Charlie Brown – An American Tail – Tony An American Tail: The Treasure of Manhattan Island – Tony An American Tail: The Mystery of the Night Monster – Tony Mr. Peabody & Sherman – History Teacher Rockin' with Judy Jetson – Fanclub Member, Zowie Scooby-Doo and the Ghoul School – Elsa Frankenteen Scooby-Doo and the Reluctant Werewolf – Vanna Pire The Pebble and the Penguin – Pola.
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Charles Nelson Reilly
Charles Nelson Reilly II was an American actor, comedian and drama teacher known for his comedic roles on stage and in films, television shows, cartoons. Reilly was born in The Bronx, the son of Charles Joseph Reilly, an Irish Catholic commercial artist, Signe Elvera Nelson, a Swedish Lutheran; when young, he made his own puppet theater to amuse himself, his mother told him to "save it for the stage". At age 13, he survived the 1944 Hartford Circus Fire which killed 169 people in Connecticut, he never sat in an audience again throughout the remainder of his life; because of the event's trauma, he attended theater, stating that the large crowds reminded him of what happened that day. Reilly desired to become an opera singer, he entered the Hartt School of Music as a voice major, but abandoned this pursuit when he realized that he lacked the natural vocal talent to have a major career. However, opera remained a lifelong passion, he was a frequent guest on opera-themed radio programs, including the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts.
He directed opera productions for the Chicago Opera Theater, Dallas Opera, Portland Opera, San Diego Opera, Santa Fe Opera, among others. He was good friends with opera singers Renée Fleming, Rod Gilfry, Roberta Peters, Eileen Farrell. Reilly made his film debut with an uncredited role in A Face in the Crowd, directed by Elia Kazan, although most of his early career was spent on the stage, he was a regular and popular performer in comic roles for several summer seasons in the 1950s at the Starlight Theatre in Kansas City, Missouri. Reilly appeared in many Off Broadway productions, his big break came in 1960 with the enormously successful original Broadway production of Bye Bye Birdie. In the groundbreaking musical, Reilly had a small onstage part and was the standby for Dick Van Dyke in the leading role of Albert Peterson. In 1961, Reilly was in the original cast of another big Broadway hit, the Pulitzer prize-winning musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying. For his memorable origination of the role of Bud Frump, Reilly earned a 1962 Tony Award for featured actor in a musical.
In 1964, Reilly was featured in the original cast of yet another giant Broadway success, Dolly! For originating the role of Cornelius Hackl, Reilly received a second nomination for a Tony Award for performance by an actor in a featured role in a musical. Reilly kept active in Broadway shows but he became better known for his TV work, appearing on television in the 1960s, he appeared as one of the What's My Line? Mystery Guests and as a panelist on that program. In 1965, he made regular appearances on The Steve Lawrence Show. Television commercials that he made throughout the 1960s and 1970s included Excedrin and Bic Banana Ink Crayons. From 1968 to 1970, he appeared as the flustered bumbler Claymore Gregg on the television series The Ghost & Mrs. Muir, he appeared as a regular on The Dean Martin Show and had multiple guest appearances on various television series, including McMillan & Wife, The Patty Duke Show, Here's Lucy, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, The Love Boat, Love, American Style. In 1971, he appeared as the evil magician Hoodoo in Lidsville, a children's program on ABC.
Reilly was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, appearing more than 100 times. He was a lively and reliable talk-show guest and lived within blocks of the Burbank studios where The Tonight Show was taped, so he was asked to be a last-minute replacement for scheduled guests who did not make it to the studio in time. Reilly was a fixture on game shows due to his appearances as a regular panelist on Match Game, he was one of the longest-running guests, engaged in playful banter with fellow regular Brett Somers. He offered sardonic commentary and peppered his answers with homosexuality-themed double entendres which pushed the boundaries of 1970s television standards. During the taping of Match Game'74, Reilly left for a short time to film Hamburgers. From 1975 to 1976, he starred in another live-action children's program called Uncle Croc's Block, with Jonathan Harris, he was a guest celebrity on the 1984 game show Body Language, including one week with Lucille Ball and another week with Audrey Landers.
From 1976 on, Reilly taught acting and directing for television and theater, including directing Julie Harris, portraying Emily Dickinson in her one-woman Broadway play The Belle of Amherst, by William Luce. In 1979, he directed. Despite the previous year's success of Levin's Deathtrap, Break a Leg closed after one performance. Reilly earned a 1997 Tony Award nomination as Best Director of a Play for the revival of The Gin Game, starring Julie Harris. In 1990, he directed episodes of Evening Shade. Reilly made guest appearances in the 1990s on The Drew Carey Show, The Larry Sanders Show, Family Matters, Second Noah, as eccentric writer Jose Chung in the television series The X-Files, as the voice of "The Dirty Bubble" in the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants, before he was replaced by Tom Kenny. Reilly was nominated for Emmy Awards in 1998 and 1999 for his performances in The Drew Carey Show and Millennium, respectively. Reilly was a longtime teacher of acting at HB Studio, the acting studio founded by Herbert Berghof and made famous by Berghof and his wife, the renowned stage actress Uta Hag
A troll is a class of being in Norse mythology and Scandinavian folklore. In Old Norse sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, are helpful to human beings. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized, are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture; the Old Norse nouns troll and tröll and Middle High German troll, trolle "fiend" developed from Proto-Germanic neuter noun *trullan. The origin of the Proto-Germanic word is unknown. Additionally, the Old Norse verb trylla'to enchant, to turn into a troll' and the Middle High German verb trüllen "to flutter" both developed from the Proto-Germanic verb *trulljanan, a derivative of *trullan.
In Norse mythology, like thurs, is a term applied to jötnar and is mentioned throughout the Old Norse corpus. In Old Norse sources, trolls are said to dwell in isolated mountains and caves, sometimes live together, are described as helpful or friendly; the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál describes an encounter between an unnamed troll woman and the 9th-century skald Bragi Boddason. According to the section, Bragi was driving through "a certain forest" late one evening when a troll woman aggressively asked him who he was, in the process describing herself: Bragi responds in turn, describing himself and his abilities as a skillful skald, before the scenario ends. There is much confusion and overlap in the use of Old Norse terms jötunn, troll, þurs, risi, which describe various beings. Lotte Motz theorized that these were four distinct classes of beings: lords of nature, mythical magicians, hostile monsters, heroic and courtly beings, the last class being the youngest addition. On the other hand, Ármann Jakobson is critical of Motz's interpretation and calls this theory "unsupported by any convincing evidence".
Ármann highlights that the term is used to denote various beings, such as a jötunn or mountain-dweller, a witch, an abnormally strong or large or ugly person, an evil spirit, a ghost, a blámaðr, a magical boar, a heathen demi-god, a demon, a brunnmigi, or a berserker. In Scandinavian folklore, trolls become defined as a particular type of being. Numerous tales are recorded about trolls in which they are described as being old strong, but slow and dim-witted, are at times described as man-eaters and as turning to stone upon contact with sunlight. However, trolls are attested as looking much the same as human beings, without any hideous appearance about them, but living far away from human habitation and having "some form of social organization"—unlike the rå and näck, who are attested as "solitary beings". According to John Lindow, what sets them apart is that they are not Christian, those who encounter them do not know them. Therefore, trolls were in the end dangerous, regardless of how well they might get along with Christian society, trolls display a habit of bergtagning and overrunning a farm or estate.
Lindow states that the etymology of the word "troll" remains uncertain, though he defines trolls in Swedish folklore as "nature beings" and as "all-purpose otherworldly being, for example, to fairies in Anglo-Celtic traditions". They "therefore appear in various migratory legends where collective nature-beings are called for". Lindow notes that trolls are sometimes swapped out for cats and "little people" in the folklore record. A Scandinavian folk belief that lightning frightens away trolls and jötnar appears in numerous Scandinavian folktales, may be a late reflection of the god Thor's role in fighting such beings. In connection, the lack of trolls and jötnar in modern Scandinavia is sometimes explained as a result of the "accuracy and efficiency of the lightning strokes". Additionally, the absence of trolls in regions of Scandinavia is described in folklore as being a "consequence of the constant din of the church-bells"; this ring caused the trolls to leave for other lands. Large local stones are sometimes described as the product of a troll's toss.
Additionally, into the 20th century, the origins of particular Scandinavian landmarks, such as particular stones, are ascribed to trolls who may, for example, have turned to stone upon exposure to sunlight. Lindow compares the trolls of the Swedish folk tradition to Grendel, the supernatural mead hall invader in the Old English poem Beowulf, notes that "just as the poem Beowulf emphasizes not the harrying of Grendel but the cleansing of the hall of Beowulf, so the modern tales stress the moment when the trolls are driven off."Smaller trolls are attested as living in burial mounds and in mountains in Scandinavian folk tradition. In Denmark, these creatures are recorded as troldfolk, bjergtrolde, or bjergfolk and in Norway as troldfolk and tusser. Trolls may be described as small, human-like beings or as tall
All Dogs Go to Heaven
All Dogs Go to Heaven is a 1989 animated musical fantasy directed and produced by Don Bluth, released by United Artists and Goldcrest Films. It tells the story of Charlie B. Barkin, a German Shepherd, murdered by his former friend, but withdraws from his place in Heaven to return to Earth, where his best friend, Itchy Itchiford still lives, they team up with a young orphan girl named Anne-Marie, who teaches them an important lesson about kindness and love; the film is an Irish and American venture, produced by Sullivan Bluth Studios Ireland Ltd. and Goldcrest Films. On its cinema release, it competed directly with Walt Disney Feature Animation's The Little Mermaid, released on the same day. While it did not repeat the box-office success of Sullivan Bluth's previous feature films, An American Tail, The Land Before Time, it was successful on home video, becoming one of the biggest-selling VHS releases ever, it inspired a theatrical sequel, a television series, a holiday direct-to-video film. All Dogs Go to Heaven was released on DVD on November 17, 1998, as an MGM Kids edition on March 6, 2001.
It had a DVD double-feature release with its sequel on March 14, 2006, January 18, 2011. The film was released in high definition for the first time on Blu-ray on March 29, 2011, without special features except the original theatrical trailer. In 1939 New Orleans, Charlie B. Barkin and his best friend Itchy Itchiford escape from the dog pound and return to their casino riverboat on the bayou run by Charlie himself and his business partner, Carface Caruthers. Refusing to share the profits with Charlie, Carface had been responsible for Charlie and Itchy getting committed at the pound and persuades Charlie to leave town with 50% of the casino's earnings. Charlie agrees, but is intoxicated and killed by Carface by getting run over by a car, he is sent to Heaven despite never doing any good deeds in his life, where he meets a whippet angel, who tells him that a gold watch representing his life has stopped. He steals the watch and winds it back, returning to Earth, but is told that when the watch stops again, he will not return to Heaven and will end up in Hell instead.
After reuniting with Itchy, they discover that Carface has kidnapped a young orphaned girl named Anne-Marie, who has the ability to talk to animals and gain knowledge of a race's results beforehand, allowing Carface to rig the odds on the rat races in his favor. They rescue her, intending to use her abilities to get revenge on Carface, though Charlie tells her that they plan to give their winnings to the poor and help her find some parents; the next day at the race track, Charlie steals a wallet from a couple as they talk to Anne-Marie and become alarmed by her unwashed appearance. Charlie and Itchy use their winnings to build a successful casino in the junkyard. Anne-Marie, upon discovering that she had been used, threatens to leave. To persuade her to stay, Charlie brings pizza to a family of poor puppies and their mother, Flo, at the old abandoned church. While there, Anne-Marie becomes upset at Charlie for stealing the wallet, she wishes to live with the couple in the future. After a nightmare in which he is sent to Hell for eternity, Charlie wakes up in the room, only to find Anne-Marie gone.
The couple and Harold that she met, welcome Anne-Marie into their home. While they discuss adopting her, Charlie arrives and tricks her into leaving with him. Walking home, Charlie is shot by Carface and Killer, but finds that he is unable to be harmed as long as he is wearing the watch, rendering him immortal until it stops running. Anne-Marie and Charlie hide in an abandoned building, but the ground breaks and they fall into the lair of King Gator, an effeminate oversized alligator, he and Charlie strike a chord as kindred spirits and he lets them go, but Anne-Marie starts falling ill with pneumonia. After beating up Itchy and his thugs destroy Charlie and Itchy's casino. Itchy berates Charlie, who seems to care more about Anne-Marie than him. Charlie angrily declares that he is using her and will "dump her in an orphanage". Anne-Marie overhears the conversation and tearfully runs away before she is kidnapped by Carface, Charlie follows them. Flo, hearing Anne-Marie's scream, sends Itchy to get help from Kate and Harold, he rouses the dogs of the city by his side.
Charlie returns to Carface's casino, where he is ambushed by his thugs. They attack Charlie, inadvertently setting an oil fire. Charlie's pained howls from their attacks summon King Gator, who chases Carface off. Charlie drops his watch into the water, however, he pushes Anne-Marie to safety onto some debris, dives into the water to retrieve it, but it stops before he can get to it. Anne-Marie and a redeemed Killer are discovered by Itchy, Kate and the authorities, as the boat sinks into the water. Sometime Kate and Harold adopt Anne-Marie, who has adopted Itchy. Charlie returns in ghost form to apologize to Anne-Marie; the whippet angel appears and tells him that because he sacrificed his life for Anne-Marie, Charlie has earned his place in Heaven. Anne-Marie awakens, they reconcile. Charlie asks her to take care of Itchy, bids his sleeping friend goodbye; when Anne-Marie goes to sleep again, Charlie reluctantly leaves and returns to Heaven where Carface arrives, having been caught and eaten by King Gator.
A post-credits scene shows Carface ripping off his angel wings and halo while planning to get his reveng