In law, fraud is intentional deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud can violate civil law, a criminal law, or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong; the purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, such as obtaining a passport or travel document, driver's license. Examples include mortgage fraud, where the perpetrator may attempt to qualify for a mortgage by way of false statements. A hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort. While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.
Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. That difficulty is found, for instance, in that each and every one of the elements of fraud must be proven, that the elements include proving the states of mind of the perpetrator and the victim, that some jurisdictions require the victim to prove fraud by clear and convincing evidence; the remedies for fraud may include rescission of a fraudulently obtained agreement or transaction, the recovery of a monetary award to compensate for the harm caused, punitive damages to punish or deter the misconduct, others. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction. In common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct; the elements of fraud as a crime vary.
The requisite elements of the most general form of criminal fraud, theft by false pretense, are the intentional deception of a victim by false representation or pretense with the intent of persuading the victim to part with property and with the victim parting with property in reliance on the representation or pretense and with the perpetrator intending to keep the property from the victim. Section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada: 380; every one who, by deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means, whether or not it is a false pretence within the meaning of this Act, defrauds the public or any person, whether ascertained or not, of any property, money or valuable security or any service, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fourteen years, where the subject-matter of the offence is a testamentary instrument or the value of the subject-matter of the offence exceeds five thousand dollars. In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s. 380.2.
It can make a restitution order under s. 380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two distinct elements: A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. In the absence of deceit or falsehood, the courts will look objectively for a "dishonest act"; the Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a trade secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has been held to fall within the scope of the offence; the proof requirements for criminal fraud charges in the United States are the same as the requirements for other crimes: guilt must be proved beyond a reasonable doubt. Throughout the United States fraud charges can be misdemeanors or felonies depending on the amount of loss involved. High value frauds can include additional penalties. For example, in California losses of $500,000 or more will result in an extra two, three, or five years in prison in addition to the regular penalty for the fraud.
The U. S. government's 2006 fraud review concluded that fraud is a under-reported crime, while various agencies and organizations were attempting to tackle the issue, greater co-operation was needed to achieve a real impact in the public sector. The scale of the problem pointed to the need for a small but high-powered body to bring together the numerous counter-fraud initiatives that existed. Although elements may vary by jurisdiction and the specific allegations made by a plaintiff who files a lawsuit that alleged fraud, typical elements of a fraud case in the United States are that: Somebody misrepresents a material fact in order to obtain action or forbearance by another person.
Mediumship is the practice of purportedly mediating communication between spirits of the dead and living human beings. Practitioners are known as "mediums." There are different types including spirit channeling and ouija. Humans have been fascinated with contacting the dead since the beginning of human existence. Cave paintings by indigenous Australians date back 28,000 years, some depicting skulls, bones and the afterlife. Other cave paintings in Indonesia date back a further 10,000 years. Mediumship gained popularity during the nineteenth century, when ouija boards were used by the upper classes as a source of entertainment. Investigations during this period revealed widespread fraud—with some practitioners employing techniques used by stage magicians—and the practice began to lose credibility. Fraud is still rife in the medium/psychic industry, with cases of deception and trickery being discovered to this day. Scientific researchers have attempted to ascertain the validity of claims of mediumship.
An experiment undertaken by the British Psychological Society led to the conclusion that the test subjects demonstrated no mediumistic ability. Several different variants of mediumship exist. Other forms involve materializations of the spirit or the presence of a voice, telekinetic activity; the practice is associated with several religious-belief systems such as Vodun, Spiritism, Candomblé, Voodoo and some New Age groups. In Spiritism and Spiritualism the medium has the role of an intermediary between the world of the living and the world of spirit. Mediums claim that they can listen to and relay messages from spirits, or that they can allow a spirit to control their body and speak through it directly or by using automatic writing or drawing. Spiritualists classify types of mediumship into two main categories: "mental" and "physical": Mental mediums purportedly "tune in" to the spirit world by listening, sensing, or seeing spirits or symbols. Physical mediums are believed to produce materialization of spirits, apports of objects, other effects such as knocking, bell-ringing, etc. by using "ectoplasm" created from the cells of their bodies and those of séance attendees.
During seances, mediums are said to go into trances, varying from light to deep, that permit spirits to control their minds. Channeling can be seen as the modern form of the old mediumship, where the "channel" purportedly receives messages from "teaching-spirit", an "Ascended master", from God, or from an angelic entity, but through the filter of his own waking consciousness. Attempts to communicate with the dead and other living human beings, aka spirits, have been documented back to early human history; the story of the Witch of Endor tells of one who raised the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel to allow the Hebrew king Saul to question his former mentor about an upcoming battle, as related in the Books of Samuel in the Jewish Tanakh. Mediumship became quite popular in the 19th-century United States and the United Kingdom after the rise of Spiritualism as a religious movement. Modern Spiritualism is said to date from practices and lectures of the Fox sisters in New York State in 1848.
The trance mediums Paschal Beverly Randolph and Emma Hardinge Britten were among the most celebrated lecturers and authors on the subject in the mid-19th century. Allan Kardec coined the term Spiritism around 1860. Kardec claimed that conversations with spirits by selected mediums were the basis of his The Spirits' Book and his five-book collection, Spiritist Codification; some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace. Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino. Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle. After the exposure of the fraudulent use of stage magic tricks by physical mediums such as the Davenport Brothers and the Bangs Sisters, mediumship fell into disrepute. However, the religion and its beliefs continue in spite of this, with physical mediumship and seances falling out of practice and platform mediumship coming to the fore.
In the late 1920s and early 1930s there were around one quarter of a million practising Spiritualists and some two thousand Spiritualist societies in the UK in addition to flourishing microcultures of platform mediumship and'home circles'. Spiritualism continues to be practiced through various denominational spiritualist churches in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, over 340 spiritualist churches and centres open their doors to the public and free demonstrations of mediumship are performed. In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's séances there are many Indians, they are noisy and appear to have great power. The little guides, or doorkeepers, are Indian boys and girls as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you." A spirit who uses a medium to manipulate psychic "energy" or "energy systems." In old-line Spiritualism, a portion of the services toward the end, is given over to demonstrations of mediumship throu
James Bellamy (Upstairs, Downstairs)
Major The Honourable James Rupert Bellamy is a fictional character in the ITV period drama Upstairs, broadcast for five series from 1971 to 1975. He was portrayed by Simon Williams. James Bellamy is one of the main characters in Upstairs, appearing in 37 episodes, from the third episode of the first series "Board Wages" to the penultimate episode of the fifth and final series "All the King's Horses". Handsome, arrogant and selfish, James is his mother's favourite, he never recovers from her death on the Titanic in 1912. After a few unsuccessful relationships, James marries Hazel Forrest, but their happiness is short-lived due to their disparate backgrounds. James serves in the Great War, but is wounded at Passchendaele on the Western Front in 1917, subsequently never finds a purpose in life or a true love, he commits suicide in 1929, after losing his fortune in the Wall Street Crash. James Rupert Bellamy is born in one of the summer months of 1881 or 1882, the first child of Richard, a Conservative MP and Lady Marjorie Bellamy, the daughter of the 12th Earl of Southwold.
He has a sister Elizabeth, born in 1886. James goes to Eton and attends the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and by 1904 he has been commissioned as a Lieutenant in the Life Guards in the British Army. James is his mother's favourite, while he has a difficult relationship with his father, who finds his son weak and irresponsible. James was the fiancé of Cynthia Cartwright in the episode "The Path of Duty", his sister Elizabeth and Cynthia Cartwright have their coming out ball in May 1905 at Londonderry House. Elizabeth was due to be presented to the King and Queen by her Aunt Kate, but she runs away from the Ball. Cynthia, James and Majorie don't know what to do at the ball without Elizabeth. In about 1908, James, by now a Captain, enters an affair with the former house maid Sarah, now a music hall singer and who attends Elizabeth's wedding. Soon, Sarah becomes pregnant by James, in debt of around £1350. Sarah gives him some of her earnings. James's regiment contacts his parents about his debts, he confesses everything to them.
The family solicitor, Sir Geoffrey Dillon, arranges for Sarah to be sent to Lady Marjorie's family home and for James to be transferred to India with the Sind Horse Regiment, although Lady Marjorie is furious that James has been sent abroad. While he is gone, in the early months of 1909, Sarah returns to Eaton Place, fed up with life at Southwold; the same night she returns, Sarah gives birth to a boy, who dies immediately. When James returns from India in May 1910, he brings home with him a well-meaning middle-class, Army Veterinarian Major's daughter named Phyllis Kingman, to whom he has become engaged; the engagement does not last, however, as he admits he does not love her, nor believes she would have fitted in. In early March 1912, Richard hires a secretary, Hazel Forrest, James takes an interest in her. While his parents are away one week-end in April, James insists that Hazel lunch with him in the Dining Room, much to butler Hudson's disapproval. After about seven months of courting, James proposes in November.
This causes Arthur Forrest, to visit James. He explains that Hazel was married to a drunk, Patrick O'Connor, who beat her, they divorced and Hazel moved back in with her parents. Mr. Forrest wants his daughter to be happy, while the prickly Mrs. Forrest is sure the Bellamys would never accept Hazel as a divorced woman. James asks Hazel again, after talking and James letting Hazel know his own sister Elizabeth is a divorced and remarried woman, she accepts his second proposal, they marry in late 1912 or early 1913, honeymoon in Paris. The middle-class Hazel has difficulty adapting to James' upper-class world. On a hunting weekend to Somerby, Lord Newbury's country house, the other guests encourage her to surprise James and join the hunt, something she has never done before. However, Diana Newbury, a childhood friend of James, had secretly swapped the horses and gives Hazel a spirited horse that bolts and runs away with Hazel, who escapes uninjured, she and James argue as he feels humiliated. This, in addition to Major Cochrane-Danby claiming that James and Diana are sleeping together, leads Hazel to flee Somerby with Rose.
James follows her back to London when he discovers she has left, they soon make up. In mid-1914, Hazel suffers a miscarriage. By now, James had left the Army and was working for Jardines in London and plans to transfer to India in 1915, until the Great War intervenes. James and Hazel's relationship deteriorates, by August 1914, they are sleeping in separate bedrooms; the often-unfaithful James has grown fond of Georgina, his step-cousin and father's ward, who had arrived to live at Eaton Place right before Christmas in December 1913. As the start of the Great War approaches, James is recalled up to service as he is on the Army's Reserve of Officers, he serves at fights in the Second Battle of Ypres. In April 1915, he returns home on leave, during a dinner at which Sir Geoffrey Dillon is present, makes comments about the incompetent running of the war. Thes
HM Prison Holloway
HM Prison Holloway was a closed category prison for adult women and young offenders in Holloway, England, operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. It was the largest women's prison in western Europe until its closure in 2016. Holloway prison was opened in 1852 as a mixed-sex prison, but due to growing demand for space for female prisoners due to the closure of Newgate, it became female-only in 1903. Holloway was used to imprison suffragettes including Emmeline Pankhurst, Emily Davison, Constance Markievicz, Charlotte Despard, Mary Richardson, Dora Montefiore, Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, Ethel Smyth; until 1991, the Prison was staffed by Home Office appointed, female Prison Officers. However, The first'Male, basic grade' Prison Officer to be posted to HMP Holloway in its history, was Prison Officer Thomas Ainsworth, who joined the establishment direct from HMP College Wakefield in May 1991. After the death from suicide in January 2016 of inmate Sarah Reed, a paranoid schizophrenic being held on remand, the subsequent inquest in July 2017 identified failings in the care system.
Shortly after Reed died, a report concluded. Holloway Prison was rebuilt between 1971 and 1985 on the same site; the redevelopment resulted in the loss of the "grand turreted" gateway to the prison, built in 1851. Holloway Prison held young offenders remanded or sentenced by the local courts. Accommodation at the prison was single cells. Holloway Prison offered both full-time and part-time education to inmates, with courses including skills training workshops, British Industrial Cleaning Science and painting. There was a family-friendly visitors' centre, run by the Prison Advice and Care Trust, an independent charity; the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne, announced in his Autumn Statement on 25 November 2015 that the prison would close and would be sold for housing. It closed in July 2016, with prisoners being moved to HMP Downview and HMP Bronzefield, both in Surrey; as of September 2017 the prison buildings still stand, with draft proposals for the site including housing, a public open green space, women's centre and a small amount of commercial space.
For decades, British campaigners had argued for votes for women. It was only when a number of suffragists, despairing of change through peaceful means, decided to turn to militant protest that the "suffragette" was born; these women broke the law in pursuit of their aims, many were imprisoned at Holloway, where they were treated as common criminals, not political prisoners. In protest, some went on hunger strike and were force fed so Holloway has a large symbolic role in the history of women's rights in the UK. Suffragettes imprisoned there include Emmeline Pankhurst, Emily Davison, Constance Markievicz, Charlotte Despard, Mary Richardson, Dora Montefiore, Christabel Pankhurst, Hanna Sheehy-Skeffington, Leonora Tyson and Ethel Smyth. In 1912 the anthem of the suffragettes - "The March of the Women", composed by Ethel Smyth with lyrics by Cicely Hamilton - was performed there. Holloway held Diana Mitford under Defence Regulation 18B during World War II, after a personal intervention from Prime Minister Winston Churchill, her husband Sir Oswald Mosley was moved there.
The couple lived together in a cottage in the prison grounds. They were released in 1943. Norah Elam had the distinction of being detained during both World Wars, three times during 1914 as a suffragette prisoner under the name Dacre Fox as a detainee under Regulation 18B in 1940, when she was part of the social circle that gathered around the Mosleys during their early internment period. After her release, Elam had the further distinction of being the only former member of the British Union of Fascists to be granted a visit with Oswald Mosley during his period of detention there. A total of five judicial executions by hanging took place at Holloway Prison between 1903 and 1955: Amelia Sach and Annie Walters - 3 February 1903 Edith Thompson - 9 January 1923 Styllou Christofi - 13 December 1954 Ruth Ellis - 13 July 1955The bodies of all executed prisoners were buried in unmarked graves within the walls of the prison, as was customary. In 1971 the prison underwent an extensive programme of rebuilding, during which the remains of all the executed women were exhumed.
With the exception of Ruth Ellis, the remains of the four other women were subsequently reburied in a single grave at Brookwood Cemetery near Woking, Surrey. Noteworthy inmates that were held at the original 1852-era prison include Oscar Wilde, William Thomas Stead, Isabella Glyn, F. Digby Hardy, Kitty Byron and Lady Ida Sitwell, wife of Sir George Sitwell. More it housed, in 1966, Moors murderess Myra Hindley. Other inmates included Amie Bartholomew, Emma Last, Matthew Etherington, Alison Walder, Jayne Richards, the Tinsel Fight Murderer, Bella Coll, Chantal McCorkle and Emma Humphreys. In October 1999, it was announced that healthcare campaigner and agony aunt Claire Rayner had been called in to advise on an
Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London, famed as a fashionable residential area and as the home of numerous prestigious cultural and educational institutions. It is bounded by Fitzrovia to the west, Covent Garden to the south, Regent's Park and St. Pancras to the north, Clerkenwell to the east. Bloomsbury is home of the British Museum, the largest museum in the United Kingdom, numerous educational institutions, including the University College London, the University of London, the New College of the Humanities, the University of Law, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, many others. Bloomsbury is an intellectual and literary hub for London, as home of world-known Bloomsbury Publishing, publishers of the Harry Potter series, namesake of the Bloomsbury Set, a group of famous British intellectuals, including author Virginia Woolf and economist John Maynard Keynes, among others. Bloomsbury began to be developed in the 1600's under the Earls of Southampton, but it was in the 19th century, under the Duke of Bedford, which the district was planned and built as an affluent Regency era residential area by famed developer James Burton.
The district is known for its numerous garden squares, including Bloomsbury Square, Russell Square, Tavistock Square, among others. The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is in the 1086 Domesday Book, which states that the area had vineyards and "wood for 100 pigs", but it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land. The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi -- the manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called "Lomesbury" which stood where Bloomsbury Square is now, though this etymology is now discredited. At the end of the 14th century, Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area rural. In the 16th century with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what became Bloomsbury Square. The Yorkshire Grey public house on the corner of Gray's Inn Road and Theobald's Road dates from 1676; the area was laid out in the 18th century by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square as its centrepiece. Bloomsbury is associated with the arts and medicine; the area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford. The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848. The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre, a residential and shopping area; the free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries and museums, achieved charitable status at the end of 2012. As of 2013, the Duchess of Bedford is a festival patron and Cathy Mager is the Festival Director. Bloomsbury is home to Senate House and the main library of the University of London, Birkbeck College, Institute of Education, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, School of Pharmacy, School of Oriental and African Studies, the Royal Veterinary College and University College London, a branch of the University of Law, London Contemporary Dance School, the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Goodenough College. Other colleges include the University of London's School of Advanced Study, the Architectural Association School of Architecture in Bedford Square, the London campuses of several American colleges including Arcadia University, the University of California, University of Delaware, Florida State University, Syracuse University, New York University, the Hult International Business School.
Different kinds of tutoring institutions like Bloomsbury International for English Language, Bloomsbury Law Tutors for law education, Skygate Tutors and Topmark Tutors Centre contributing to grow the private tutoring sector in Bloomsbury. The British Museum, which first opened to the public in 1759 in Montagu House, is at the heart of Bloomsbury. At the centre of the museum the space around the former British Library Reading Room, filled with the concrete storage bunkers of the British Library, is today the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, an indoor square with a glass roof designed by British architect Norman Foster, it houses a cinema, a shop, a cafe and a restaurant. Since 1998, the British Library has been located in a purpose-built building just outside the northern edge of Bloomsbury, in Euston Road. In Bloomsbury is the Foundling Museum, close to Brunswick Square, which tells the story of the Foundling Hospital opened by Thomas Coram for unwanted children in Georgian London; the hospital, now demolished except for the Georgian colonnade, is today a playground and outdoor sports field for children, called Coram's Fields.
It is home to a small number of sheep. The nearby Lamb's Conduit Street i
Home Fires (Upstairs, Downstairs)
Home Fires is the sixth episode of the fourth series of the period drama Upstairs, Downstairs. It first aired on 19 October 1974 on ITV. Home Fires was filmed in the studio on 25 and 26 June 1974; the location footage was shot on 17 June 1974 at Islington. The episode was set in 1916, was the second and final episode featuring Keith Barron as Gregory Wilmot. Gordon Jackson - Hudson Jean Marsh - Rose David Langton - Richard Bellamy Meg Wynn Owen - Hazel Bellamy Joan Benham - Lady Prudence Fairfax Jacqueline Tong - Daisy Keith Barron - Gregory Wilmot Auriol Smith - Mrs Lorimer John Lyons - Charlie Julia Sutton - Dorothy Matthews Robert McBain - Hamish Matthews Audrey Joyce - Mrs Ganton Rose's former fiancée Gregory Wilmot arrives to see Rose, but she is out on the buses, he is now a Sergeant in the ANZACs. While Hudson tells Sgt. Wilmot that Rose is too busy at the moment, Daisy tells him what bus route she is on and he surprises her on the bus, they have tea at the bus depot. When speaking to Hazel, Rose says that she would now be happy to go to Australia with Gregory.
When Gregory is put on 48-hour leave for France, he goes to see Hudson and tells him that his feelings for Rose have changed and he doesn't love her like he used to. Hudson helps him write a letter to Rose telling her this. Shortly after, Hamish Matthews, Gregory's old friend, finds Rose on her bus and brings her to see Gregory at his house. After Gregory admits he doesn't love her, Rose throws her engagement ring, which she'd been given when Gregory proposed on 12 April 1914, across the room and walks out. However, Gregory soon catches up with her at the bus depot and tells Rose how his experiences at Gallipoli have changed how he thinks, they agree to marry once the war is over, soon tell Richard and Hazel, who both like him. Gregory insists that he and Rose leave by the front door. Lady Prudence goes to Eaton Place to suggest Hazel holds a Wounded Officers' Tea Party in the Drawing Room. Hazel says there are too few servants to hold the event, thinks that ordinary soldiers might be a more deserving cause.
But, on her way out Lady Prudence asks Hudson whether it would be too much and he says it wouldn't be, making Hazel annoyed that Lady Prudence used Hudson to get her own way. Mrs Bridges is in Yarmouth at her sister and brother-in-law's house, helping out after it was bombed. Mrs Ganton is her temporary replacement. Richard Marson, "Inside UpDown - The Story of Upstairs, Downstairs", Kaleidoscope Publishing, 2005 Updown.org.uk - Upstairs, Downstairs Fansite