Hospital of the Holy Ghost, Aalborg
The Hospital of the Holy Ghost, the buildings of which, although now without any religious function, are still known as Aalborg Kloster, is a former establishment of the Order of the Holy Ghost in Aalborg, Denmark. It was the hospital of Aalborg from 1431 to 1953 and is one of Denmark's best preserved medieval establishments; these are the oldest buildings in north Jutland, the former hospital is the oldest social institution in Denmark. The hospital was founded in 1431 by the wealthy Lady Maren Hemmingsdatter with the gift of a large house, adjoining land and an endowment as a "House of the Holy Ghost", common in Denmark at that period, a charitable institution of a religious nature for the care of the sick and poor. In 1434 the house burnt down and the present buildings were built to replace it. On 20 August 1451 it formally became a part of the Order of the Holy Ghost, a hospitaller order which had originated in Montpellier, with the aim of caring for the sick, the old and orphans; the Aalborg hospital specialised in the care of lepers.
It was a double house, with provision for both male and female religious. It gained high status within the order, the prior in Aalborg being the grand master's deputy in Scandinavia; the monastic complex when completed in 1500 consisted of four ranges round a quadrangular garden with the magnificent church on the south side, separate wings for the male and female religious. It was constructed in late Brick Gothic style; the work of the hospital was paid for with income-producing farms and fishing rights scattered throughout northern Jutland. It owned its own brick works; the hospital was authorized to send out "gatherers" who solicited donations of food, money or goods for the benefit of the sick poor. During the Reformation in 1536, the Hospital of the Holy Ghost was dissolved, its important function as a city hospital was still needed and the city just secularized it: most of the religious gave up their religious status and continued doing the same work for the poor. The Order of the Holy Ghost made extensive use of lay people in its hospitals, whose status was unaffected.
The hospital continued to operate here until 1953. The church was another matter. After the Reformation, Aalborg had three large churches without religious organisations to provide for their upkeep, the townspeople did not want the cost of their maintenance, it was therefore decided to demolish the hospital church and the Vor Frue Church, leaving St. Budolfi Church as the city church.. For 300 years the grammar school of Aalborg was located in the buildings. During the Second World War, Denmark's first resistance group, the Churchill Club, was established here. Today the buildings contain a retirement home with independent apartments for the elderly, as well as meeting and exhibition rooms. There is a chapel where services are held by clergy from the Budolfi Church, now the cathedral of Aalborg; the present Aalborg Kloster is directed in its social care functions by a board consisting of the Bishop of Aalborg, a representative of the North Jutland Region, the mayor of Aalborg, the Chief of Police and two other church representatives.
Aalborg Kloster website VisitAalborg.com: tourist presentation
Abbey of Our Lady, Aalborg
The Abbey of Our Lady, Aalborg was an early Benedictine monasteries in Aalborg, Denmark. The former monastic church survived as a parish church, the Vor Frue Kirke, until 1876, when it was demolished, the present church of the name built on the site. With the loss of the abbey's archives around the time of the Reformation in Denmark the exact date of its foundation is unknown. One source suggests that the nuns were in Aalborg in 1116. Another source says that the community was established by Eskil, Bishop of Børglum, in 1125. Aalborg was the area's largest town and the abbey was built on property donated by the diocese. Nor is it clear whether the early nuns were in fact Benedictines. In 1140 Sigurd Slembe, pretender to the Norwegian throne, was buried inside the abbey church, as recorded by the priest Kjeld Kalv, known while serving at the church for his piety. There is a legend that one evening when he was to read the homily, the candle he was holding went out. Kjeld continued to read from the book without error, which amazed the congregation.
When he had finished reading, the candle lit again on its own. He returned to Viborg Cathedral and went on a pilgrimage to Rome. After his death in 1150 Kjeld became venerated locally as a saint and the patron saint of Viborg Cathedral; the abbey over time developed into a complex consisting of a large church and three ranges forming a rectangular enclosure to separate the nuns from the world. The church was used daily by the residents of Aalborg, though the nuns were separated from the congregation by iron gates around the choir; the tower of the church was one of the three church towers which can still be seen on Aalborg's city logo. The church and abbey buildings underwent a significant expansion in the late 15th century and were reconstructed in late Brick Gothic style. In the mid-1520s, Lutheran ideas swept through northern Jutland and Viborg and Aalborg became centres of Lutheran reaction against Roman Catholic institutions and doctrines; the Franciscans were hounded out of Aalborg, support for the nuns vanished.
The abbey was secularized the same year. In 1534 Aalborg was the site of a massacre at the end of Skipper Clement's rebellion. King Christian III's army laid siege to the city and when the walls were stormed, the city was sacked; the city's churches and monasteries, including the Church of Our Lady, were stripped of anything valuable by the mercenaries who ravaged the city. Two years Denmark became Lutheran and all religious houses and their income properties reverted to the crown. King Christian gave the abbey to the city with the stipulation that the nuns be permitted to remain under the supervision of a local noble; the abbey church became, as the Church of Our Lady, one of the city's parish churches. The last nun left the former abbey in 1560 and the town converted one of the ranges into a residence for the new Lutheran pastor; the other ranges were demolished. Several epitaphs were added to the walls of the nave. Burial chapels were added by noble families beneath the church, of which the Scheel family chapel is still extant beneath the present building.
A new pulpit was donated by Alderman Poul Popp before 1579, still preserved in the present church. In 1876 the Church of Our Lady had become so dilapidated that it was decided to demolish it and build a new church in its place. Two of the bells in the present Vor Frue Kirke have been preserved from the earlier building. One of them is the oldest bell still in use in Denmark; the other from 1518 was recast in 1861 when it cracked, again in 1919 when it cracked a second time. Jørgen Lunge Website of Vor Frue Kirke
Defence and Garrison Museum
The Aalborg Defence and Garrison Museum is a military museum in Aalborg, Denmark that covers all branches of Danish defence organizations. The museum is located in a seaplane hangar, built by German occupation forces during World War II; the German seaplane base Seefliegerhorst Aalborg was established there in 1940. Following the war, the hangar was used as a storage depot for equipment of the Danish Civil Defence Forces. In August 2001, the hangar was provided to the Garrison Historical Society of Aalborg for the creation of a military museum; the building was renovated and the museum opened on 22 June 2002. In 2009 a second exhibition hall was opened creating a total exhibit area of 15,000 square metres; the museum covers most branches of Danish defence organizations -- the Danish Navy was excluded because it was represented in the city's maritime museum. The branches include the Royal Danish Army, the Royal Danish Air Force, the Home Guard, the Police, the Danish Emergency Management Agency with an emphasis on their activities during and after World War II to the present.
There are exhibitions of Denmark during World War II 1940-45, about Aalborg as a garrison city since 1779. In the original command bunker of the seaplane base are exhibitions on the three German airbases in Aalborg during WW II and the camps for German refugees after the end of the war; the museum is a private institution. The museum is exclusively run by volunteers, who have served in the Danish armed forces. Defence authorities provided most of the museum's exhibits the heavy equipment such as vehicles and fighter jets, thus the museum contains a large portion of stockpiled equipment during the Cold War; the museum is open daily from 1 April to 31 October. Because the hangar is unheated, the museum is open only by special arrangement from 1 November to 1 April; however the museum is open in week 7 and 8 (Danish winter vacation period. The museum had more than 18,500 visitors in 2012. Media related to Defence and Garrison Museum at Wikimedia Commons Museum website
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Jens Bang's House
Jens Bang's House is a landmark in Aalborg, Denmark. Situated on Østerågade in Nytorv square, it was built in 1624 by Jens Bang in Dutch Renaissance style. Noted for its gables and sculpted auricular window décor, it is said to be the finest owned Renaissance building in the country, it features gargoyles and a sculpture of Bang's face, tongue sticking out. The five-storey building has housed the city's oldest pharmacy for more than 300 years, it is owned. Jens Bang, remembered as one of Denmark's richest citizens, was born in Horsens; the son of Sidsel Jørgensdatter by her second marriage to Oluf Bang, he was the half-brother of Aalborg's mayor, Jørgen Olufsen, who had built a mansion higher up the Østerå street. After arriving in Aalborg in 1600, Bang joined. Five years he obtained the status of a licensed merchant. Over the next 20 years, he was so fortunate and successful in his business, that he became one of the country's leading traders and the most prosperous merchant in Aalborg. Bang never assumed any responsibilities in the city's administration because he was not keen to do so but more aggressive attitude prevented him from doing so.
He was an unparalleled facilitator, disliked by his contemporaries to the point of being involved in physical fights. On the more positive side, in 1637, together with his wife, he founded an establishment with accommodation for 26 paupers. In 1623, Bang inherited Københavns gård, a large old Aalborg property, on the corner of Østerå and Adelsgade. After demolishing most of the old buildings, he built an enormous residence, completing it the following year; the house is said to be Denmark's finest independently owned Renaissance mansion, comparable only to Mattias Hansen's House on Amagertorv in Copenhagen. The latter has only three floors and two gables while Jens Bang's House has four main floors and three gables containing floorspace and rooms; the house is decorated with sculptured stonework of the same high quality as Christian IV's own buildings. No doubt as a result of Bang's excellent relationship with the king, he was able to call upon the finest designers and craftsmen of the times employing Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger as his architect.
Jørgen Olufsen's House on the same street hardly bears comparison. The house had five round-arched doorways topped by some of the sculpted figures and gargoyles which now crown the windows; the ground floor was used for warehousing. In addition to the residential rooms on the first floor, there were warehouses in the building. Bang's own rooms on the first floor were lit by a row of enormous windows with sandstone frames, some single, some double without any regularity, their round-arches are decorated with gargoyles in the auricular Baroque style. The protruding bay at the centre of the façade was once the main entrance, located on the first floor with a flight of steps leading up from the street. With its intricately sculpted figures and decorations, the portal is a true masterpiece, it displays the year 1623 but the plaque at the top, where the original owner once had his name, now bears the mirrored monograms of the pharmacist C. L. Rübner and his wife; the crest with the Christian VI's monogram, flanked by swans, must once have displayed that of Christian IV.
On the third floor, which contained living accommodation, the windows are smaller and more decorated. The fourth floor has double, round-arched window frames, topped by a cornice with ornamental strips and spires. In the centre, there is a large hatch added later. Together with the loft, the floor was used as a warehouse; the three tall pointed gables are decorated with the finest Baroque ornaments of the period, reflecting the best examples of Dutch design. The half-timbered bay with its fine shingle spire and its figure of Fortuna dates from around 1700. There were a number of other alterations around 1712: in addition to modifications to the main entrance and adjacent windows, finely plastered Baroque ceilings were added to two of the first-floor rooms at the initiative of Johannes-Friedenreich. For a time, the top of the south gable was replaced by a hip roof but was reconstructed in 1916 during comprehensive restoration work under Harald Lønborg-Jensen. A stairway tower was built at the back of the house in 1897 to replace an inside spiral staircase.
Among the property's additional buildings on Adelgade and Cortesgyde, one of the rooms in the south wing has a Late Gothic vaulted ceiling which has survived from Københavns gård. During the Thirty Years' War, the house was occupied by the Germans from 1627 to 1629 while Jens Bang fled to Marstrand awaiting their departure. Bang died in 1644 during the Torstenson War; this time the troops left his house in a sorry state. As Bang had no direct descendants, ownership of the house was divided between a number of inheritors until in 1671, the pharmacist Johannes Friederich bought the buildings and opened his Swaneapotek there; the pharmacy has existed since and the building has been handed down from generation to generation, the Strøybergs inheriting it in 1829. The building is owned by the fund "Apoteker S. C. Strøybergs Fond til Bevarelse af Jens Bangs Stenhus"; the Svaneapotek collection is now housed in one of the upper rooms, as a small pharmacy museum known as Apotekersamlingen. In premises open to visitors, the shelves display fine old receptacles and equipment including a container used to mix 70 ingredients to make theriaken, said to have been effective in stre
Jørgen Olufsen's House
Jørgen Olufsen's House is located in Aalborg, Denmark. Built in 1616 on the Østerå, a wide-mouth stream which became the city's harbour, its current address is Østerågade 25. The three-storey house is Denmark's best preserved merchant's mansion in the Renaissance style. Built of sandstone, it has a half-timbered section. Olufsen, the older half-brother of Jens Bang who built the notable Jens Bang's House, was a successful merchant as well as Aalborg's mayor; the residence features an integrated warehouse. Aalborg grew up around two wide-mouthed streams, Østerå and Versterå, which flowed into the Limfjord, providing access to shipping, they contributed to the city's prosperity in the late 16th and early 17th centuries as a result of increased trade with countries with Scandinavia and England as well as with the Hanseatic ports. The streams were flanked by residences of successful merchants on one side and by warehouses on the other. Østerå continued to serve as a harbour for light ships until the second half of the 19th century.
The last of the houses on Østerå was built by Jørgen Olufsen, a town councillor since 1598 and became mayor of Aalborg in 1618. Olufsen built a large gabled house at the northern end of Østerå with a large cellar; the gabled section was built of stone but remaining bays of the eight-bay building were half-timbered. The gable was in the Renaissance style but had several Gothic features including its original stepping, it can be seen that the two large ground floor window are displaced southwards in order to provide sufficient space for the large room on the north side of the entrance. While the windows in the stone-built gable section are topped with protruding round-arches, the arch above the large north window is flat; the façade is decorated with wrought-iron anchors but the most notable feature is the doorway at the top of a flight of steps between the two entrances to the cellar. The dround-arched doorway, flanked by sculpted figures and topped by the head of a bearded man with the completion of 1616 in a Renaissance cartouche.
There was also an inscription with the initials of the first owner but this can no longer be seen. A little higher up there is a wooden figure of a woman in Renaissance dress with an apple or flower in her hand, it has been suggested that the woman represents the goddess of flowers. The Olufsens' living quarters were on the lower floor with high ceilings; the upper storey and loft were used for storage, thanks to their airy conditions. Olufsen experienced problems with his neighbours whose new houses and additions began to restrict his view of the harbor but he was successful in his ensuing legal action. Hamborggård, the long half-timbered residence to the south of Olufsen's stone house, was erected more or less at the same time as Olufsen's mansion, it was built by Olufsen himself or his son-in-law, Christopher de Hemmer, mayor of Aalborg from 1630 to 1658 and inherited the entire property on Olufsen's death in 1645. At the beginning of the 19th century, the owner was a grocer, his son, Axel Stoustrup, tells us that during his childhood there were five horses there and that during the First World War his family had a cow and hens.
Niels Søndergaard, a licensed merchant, was one of the property's owners. His and his wife's initials can be seen above the main doorway. For many years, the property was known as Ellen Marsvinsgaard but Ellen Marsvin, Christian IV's mother-in-law never had any connections with it, she did however own another house in Aalborg just north of Budolfi Church. Now a listed building, Jørgen Olufsen's House is a major tourist attraction, it was comprehensively renovated in 1938. Today the once stately apartments serve as a wine bar and restaurant
John F. Kennedys Plads
John F. Kennedys Plads is located in central Aalborg, Denmark. Dedicated to the 35th President of the United States, it contains a horse and rider statue of Christian IX of Denmark. Reserved for pedestrians, the site is constructed of concrete tiles. Aalborg Train Station, Aalborg Bus Terminal, Kennedy Arcade, Park Hotel Aalborg are adjacent to the square. Media related to John F. Kennedy Plads at Wikimedia Commons